India Art Buddhist Prev

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<ul><li><p>8/6/2019 India Art Buddhist Prev</p><p> 1/4</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 India Art Buddhist Prev</p><p> 2/4</p><p> 2008 Approach Guides p. 1 of 23Indian Art &amp; Architecture: Buddhist</p><p>Ancient Buddhist art and architecture -- e.g. Buddhist rock cut caves and Hellenistic-inspiredpainted and sculptural forms -- serves as the foundation for the Indian aesthetic. In thisApproachGuides document, we provide a condensed, yet comprehensive overview of Buddhist artand architecture, designed specifically for the traveler in India. We begin by reviewing thehistorical origins of and characteristic elements of Buddhist architecture; we then offer a similar</p><p>analysis of Buddhist sculptural and painted forms; finally, we provide detailed reviews of the chiefBuddhist architectural and artistic sights in India (specifically, Sanchi, Ajanta, and Ellora).</p><p>Related Approach Guides o The Stupa Form's Transformation over Timeo Ancient Buddhist Caves India &amp; Chinao Religion: Buddhismo East-West Trade Connections</p><p>BUDDHIST ARCHITECTUREEGYPTIANS LIKELY PROVIDE THE FIRST (ALBEIT INDIRECT) INSPIRATION FOR BUDDHIST ROCK-CUT ARCHITECTURE</p><p> Indian (Hindu and Buddhist) architecture began as a rock-cut (carving into rock formations toform structures; this architecture resembles sculpture in many respects) endeavor, rather</p><p>than as conventional stone-built architecture (assembled stone pieces to form a whole).</p><p> It is speculated that Indias rock-cut architectural tradition was drawn indirectly from theEgyptians. The Egyptians were probably the first civilization in the world to build in stone;</p><p>they had been building in stone since the 27th century BCE (Djoser's Step Pyramid) and had</p><p>begun to build tombs cut into the rock since the 16th century BCE (Valley of the Kings). Note</p><p>that the Egyptians began with stone-built, as opposed to rock-cut structures.</p><p>o It is interesting, historically, to note that similar stone-built structures were being builtnot too far away in Mesopotamia (modern day Iran/Iraq). These very similar stepped</p><p>pyramids are called ziggurats; the earliest probably date from the late part of</p><p>Sumeria's Early Dynastic period (2900-2350 BCE), which makes them slightly later</p><p>than their Egyptian counterparts. The ziggurat design, however, was never transformed</p><p>from a stepped pyramid to a smooth-edge pyramid, as was the case in Egypt.</p><p> These Egyptian/Mesopotamian forms were borrowed by the Persians -- in fact, the royaltombs of Darius (521 BCE to 486/485 BCE) and the rest of the Old Persian (Achaemenid)</p><p>Empire were rock-cut. From Persia, these forms made their way in the 2nd century BCE into Indian lands (Bihar,</p><p>Orissa, Ajanta), influencing the India's first stone architects, Buddhists and Jain monks.These "architects" borrowed inspiration from their existing wood-based forms in creating the</p><p>rock-cut cave structures.</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 India Art Buddhist Prev</p><p> 3/4</p><p> 2008 Approach Guides p. 7 of 23Indian Art &amp; Architecture: Buddhist</p><p>o The Gandhara images were probably more influential on early Asian Buddhist art ofthis period, given the area's closer proximity to the trade caravan routes of the Silk</p><p>Road, through which communications were laid with the East.</p><p> Mathura Art (area of Gangetic plain). The style is characterized by the following:o This is clearly the more indigenous "Indian" styleo The form of the body appears to be expanded or bloated by what has been termed</p><p>"sacred breath" (prana), creating a less natural form characterized by rounded limbs.</p><p>This was a particularly defining element, unique to Indian art, which carried on toinfluence all subsequent Indian sculptural depictions. It is also worth pointing out that</p><p>this is most likely an indigenous (rather than Greek-adopted) sculptural style, in that it</p><p>mirrors the earlier yakshi sculptural works the pre-date Greek influence and can still be</p><p>seen at Sanchi on the toranas.</p><p>o The monastic robe (formerly the Greek toga) is more shear and seemingly transparent,with less obvious folds (the robes have a network of ridges that suggest drapery folds,</p><p>rather than actually creating a realistic fabric representation). Further, and mostnoticeable, only the left should be covered by the robe (as opposed to both shoulders</p><p>in Gandhara tradition).</p><p>o Abstract "snail-like twisted curl" hair styleo Characteristically, the Mathuran Buddhas face features longer earlobes, thicker lips,</p><p>wider eyes and a more prominent nose.</p><p>GANDHARA BUDDHA SCULPTURE</p><p>2NDC CE, NATL MUSEUM OF SCOTLAND</p><p>MATHURA BUDDHA SCULPTURE</p><p>2ND C CE, ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM MUTTRA</p></li><li><p>8/6/2019 India Art Buddhist Prev</p><p> 4/4</p><p> 2008 Approach Guides p. 14 of 23Indian Art &amp; Architecture: Buddhist</p><p> Keep in mind that the Satavahana and Vakataka Empires were actually Hindu in religiousorientation, not Buddhist. This leads us to believe that the Ajanta caves were not constructed</p><p>with imperial sponsorship (as was the case with many other Buddhist cave sites), but ratherwith sponsorship by wealthy individuals.</p><p>ARCHITECTURE This area is volcanic in geological profile. Accordingly, these structures are (like Ellora) cut into</p><p>the volcanic granite stone of the hillside.</p><p> These temples are the earliest architecture in stone in India. Their designs served to inspirethe earliest stone-built architecture in India, that of the Chalukyas and Pallavas in the 6th</p><p>century. From this perspective, these caves serve as the progenitor for all stone-built temple</p><p>architecture (both the northern and southern temple styles) in India.</p><p> You can clearly see the evolution of the chaitya (sanctuary) hall in this complex.o Cave 10 (2nd century BCE). This is the earliest stage in chaitya composition. You will</p><p>notice (when compared with those to follow) the following:</p><p> That the stupa is more roundish and lower lying. Actual wood beams had been inserted on the inside of the sanctuary to</p><p>replicate earlier all-wood structures -- these beams have since rotted away,</p><p>leaving only the hollowed out stone flat-surfaced ceiling (although you can still</p><p>see the markings made by the wooden beams when they were in place).</p><p>CAVE 10</p></li></ul>