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Improving Student Achievement: Instructional Strategies Summarizing and Note Taking Agar-Blunt-Onida February 1, 2008

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  • Slide 1
  • Improving Student Achievement: Instructional Strategies Summarizing and Note Taking Agar-Blunt-Onida February 1, 2008
  • Slide 2
  • Ice Breaker Valentine memory sweet or not.
  • Slide 3
  • Strategy Explanation Summarizing and note taking are identified as two of the most useful academic skills for all students. Summarizing and note taking are grouped together since both require students to distill and then synthesize.
  • Slide 4
  • Research on Summarizing Students must delete, substitute and keep information. Students must analyze information at a deep level of understanding. Students must be aware of the informations structure in order to effectively summarize. Marzano, et al: Classroom Instruction that Works, pages 30-32
  • Slide 5
  • Note Taking Research Verbatim note taking is the least effective way. Notes are a work in progress. Notes should be used as test study guides. The more notes taken, the better. Marzano, et al: Classroom Instruction that Works, pages 43-44
  • Slide 6
  • Essential Questions How can summarizing and note taking strategies be effectively integrated into classroom routines? Why are summarizing and note taking essential strategies for students?
  • Slide 7
  • Students will know: What effective summarizing and note taking looks like. How summarizing and note taking impact student learning. That summarization and note taking are teachable skills.
  • Slide 8
  • Students will be able to Apply summarizing and note taking strategies to their own learning. Explicitly teach the skills of summarizing and note taking.
  • Slide 9
  • Summarizing When we summarize, we take larger selections of text and reduce them to their bare essentials. Bare essentials: the gist, the key, the main points worth remembering.
  • Slide 10
  • Summarizing from Marzano When working with struggling students, we need to understand that summarizing academic learning doesnt come automatically. In fact, we need to provide students with a variety of approaches to use as they attempt to summarize.
  • Slide 11
  • What Students Usually Do Write down everything Write down next to nothing Write way too much Dont write enough Copy word for word
  • Slide 12
  • What Teachers Need to Do Keep in mindits not easy Hard to learn/hard to teach Model repeatedly Give students practice time
  • Slide 13
  • W = Help the students know where the unit is going and What is expected? Where are the students at in their prior knowledge and interests? H = Hook all students and Hold their interest? E = Equip students, help them Experience the key ideas and Explore the issues. R = Provide opportunities to Rethink and Revise their understandings and work? E = Allow students to Evaluate their work and its implications. T Be Tailored (personalized) to the different needs, interests, and abilities of learners. O = Be Organized to maximize initial and sustained engagement as well as effective learning. What learning experiences and instruction will enable students to achieve the desired results? The WHERE TO design!
  • Slide 14
  • SD DOE Strategy This strategy is a great way for finding background knowledge or schema of your students and also of their understanding during and after a lesson.
  • Slide 15
  • Taking Notes The next several slides include a variety of strategies of note taking.
  • Slide 16
  • Summarizing Learning Activities: Rule-Based Strategy Delete trivial material Delete redundant material Substitute broad terms for lists Marzano, et al: Classroom Instruction that Works, pages 32-33
  • Slide 17
  • Summarizing Learning Activities: Reciprocal Teaching Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting Marzano, et al: Classroom Instruction that Works, pages 42-43
  • Slide 18
  • Summarizing Learning Activities: (see packet) Quick Summaries Dont Look Back 1 Sentence Paraphrase One-Word Summaries Refine and Reduce Jones, Lawwill, Wormeli
  • Slide 19
  • Summarizing Learning Activities: Magnet Summaries Magnets attract metal Magnet words attract information Buehl: Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning and WiLearns
  • Slide 20
  • Summarizing Learning Activities Journalists Questions and the GIST Who What When Where Why How 20-Word Summary Gardner, Jones, Gray
  • Slide 21
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Teacher Prepared Notes Straight-forward way to give key information Models good note-taking Beware Dont just give kids another piece of text that needs to be summarized!
  • Slide 22
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Informal Outline Uses indentation to indicate major ideas and related details Quick way to organize Easy to teach kids
  • Slide 23
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Webbing Can visually show relationships Quick and easy Relative size of circles can indicate importance of ideas Provides a lot of white space on the page. Beware This method takes up a lot of space.
  • Slide 24
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Combination Notes Page is divided into three parts 1) informal outline, 2) web, 3) summaries Provides a visual representation of ideas Allow students time to write pause and write create the visual aspect and to write summaries Strategy forces kids to think a second time on information
  • Slide 25
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Highlighting Teach kids how Can be done on reproduced handouts A good way to learn summarizing skills
  • Slide 26
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Skeleton Notes Based on the explicit framework generalization Teacher provides the framework Skeleton provides guidance and layout or structure of ideas
  • Slide 27
  • Note Taking Learning Activities: Two-column notes A line down the middle separates the right and left sides of the page Major headings or concepts on the left Supporting details on the right One side is viewed at a time for studying
  • Slide 28
  • Note taking activity Ear Wax Pets Are Forever What to do with Dirty Rotten Sneakers? Cornell Notes Double Entry Journals (two to pick from) Q Notes Combination Notes
  • Slide 29
  • Summary to note taking: Not worksheetsbut scaffolds sheets to hold their thinking Power in teaching of skimming and scanning to draw quickly to the mind the information needed.
  • Slide 30
  • Note taking lesson Find in the packet, one strategy that you HAVE NOT Share with your group how you can use this strategy in your subject area.
  • Slide 31
  • Web Resources Estes, Thomas H., Univ. Virginia. http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/readquest/edis771/column_notes. html http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/readquest/edis771/column_notes. html IRA/NCTE/MarcoPolos Read, Write, Think: http://www.readwritethink.org Oxford Primary Connection. http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/primary/primlit/connections/skeleton/ http://www.oup.co.uk/oxed/primary/primlit/connections/skeleton/ Raymond Jones ReadingQuest.org: Making Sense in Socials Studies: http://readingquest.org http://readingquest.org Study Guides and Strategies. http://www.studygs.net/guidednotes.htmhttp://www.studygs.net/guidednotes.htm Traci Gardners Tracis Lists of Ten: http://tengrrl.com/tens/016.shtmlhttp://tengrrl.com/tens/016.shtml University of Kansas KU Writing Center: http://www.writing.ku.eduhttp://www.writing.ku.edu Wisconsin Literacy Education and Reading Network Sources WiLearns: http://wilearns.state.wi.us/apps/http://wilearns.state.wi.us/apps/
  • Slide 32
  • Print Resources: Buehl, D. (2001) Classroom strategies for interactive learning (2 nd ed.). Newark, DE: IRA. Frey, N., Fisher, D., & Hernandez, T. (2003) Whats the GIST? Summary writing for struggling adolescent writiers. Voices from the Middle, 11(2), 43-49. Lawwill, K.S. Using writing-to-learn strategies: Promoting peer collaboration among high school science teachers (doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1999). Marzano, R.J., et al. (2001) A handbook for classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J., Pickering, D.J., & Pollock, J.E. (2001) Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Preszler, J., & Rowenhorst, R. (Eds.). (2006) On target: Bringing writing into content area classrooms. Rapid City, SD: BHSSC. Sejnost, R., & Thiese, S. (2006) Reading and writing across content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Urquhart, V., & McIver, M. Teaching Writing in the Content Areas. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Wormeli, R. (2005) Summarization in any subject: 50 techniques to improve student learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  • Slide 33
  • BREAK!
  • Slide 34
  • Improving Student Achievement Instructional Strategies Cooperative Learning
  • Slide 35
  • Research Results: seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness teachers than any other single factor
  • Slide 36
  • Established Goals: Teachers will understand the research that supports cooperative learning as a tool for increasing student achievement. Teachers will understand best practices for using cooperative learning to increase student achievement.
  • Slide 37
  • Strategy Explanation Cooperative learning occurs when two or more individuals work interdependently, engaging in interaction and/or group processing, studying together and teaching one another as a team for the primary purposes of maximizing each members own academic achievement and of other on the team.
  • Slide 38
  • Cooperative Learning is NOT: Counting off by numbers, BUT rather it is mixture of high and low students Filling out worksheets for busy work
  • Slide 39
  • Research When cooperative learning is compared with individual competition and individual student tasks, the effect size is.78.
  • Slide 40
  • More research. Organizing students in cooperative learning groups has a powerful effect on learning regardless of whether groups compete with one another or not.
  • Slide 41
  • There may be no other instructional strategy that simultaneously achieves such diverse outcomes as cooperative learning, The research validates the use of cooperative learning to achieve diverse outcomes, included: Achievement Time on task Motivation Transfer of learning And other benefits
  • Slide 42
  • Organizing students in heterogeneous cooperative learning groups at least once a week has a significant effect learning. (teacher need to plan for time to get feed back on learner)
  • Slide 43
  • Research supports: Enhances student satisfaction with their learning Develops students social skills Helps students develop oral communication skills Promotes students self esteem Promotes inclusion of special needs students
  • Slide 44
  • Research says.. 3- 4 in a a group is ideal!
  • Slide 45
  • Group discussion at table: Problem to discuss and solve: According to Map Quest it is 18.38 miles from the Onida School building to the Blunt School building. How far is it according to the way the crow flies?
  • Slide 46
  • Activity # 2 ( Handout #1-1) The Original Jigsaw Article An Overview of Cooperative Learning Do steps 1-8 Step 1 select leader (leader is responsible for steps and evaluation)
  • Slide 47
  • Cooperative Handouts # 3 & 4 Each individual will fill out handout # 3 Leader is responsible to filling out handout # 4 with group input
  • Slide 48
  • Activity # 3 Handout 6-1 Brief Overview of 12 Social Roles Divide and conquer..give a one sentence description about your role. (One Sentence summary strategy) Write on index card
  • Slide 49
  • What Research Says about Designing Groups Number in a group Groups of 3-4 produce the largest percentile gain at 9. Pairs indicates the next largest percentile gain at 6. Groups of 5-7 indicate a negative results with -1. (in other words..dont do what we did today)
  • Slide 50
  • More Research that says about forming Cooperative Learning Groups Informal Groups A few minutes or a class period Pair-share Turn-to-your-neighbor Formal Groups Several days or even weeks The tasks will be designed to include the basic cooperative learning components. Base Groups Long Term (semester or year) Designed to provide support
  • Slide 51
  • Grouping Research Heterogeneous groups perform better than homogeneous groups. Low ability homogeneous groups displayed a percentile loss of 23. High ability homogeneous groups displayed a percentile gain of 3. Medium ability homogenous groups displayed a percentile gain of 19.
  • Slide 52
  • Best Classroom Management Practices When Incorporating Cooperative Learning KEY 1 PLANNING KEY 2 TEAM BUILDING (refer to handouts#8-1) Team Identity Mutual support Valuing differences Developing synergy Sharing KEY 3 TEACHERS ROLE Facilitator Assessment Self-reflection
  • Slide 53
  • If you have knowledge, let others light their candles at it. Margaret Fuller
  • Slide 54
  • Evaluation on-line www.sdesa6.org At the conclusion of today's event. Please complete this online evaluation. Your feedback will help me better meet your needs in the future. To complete the evaluation click on the link below. Once you reach the website please enter today's date in this format 02/01/08 and use the pull-down menu to choose me, Coly Blake, as your presenter.