impression formation

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Post on 12-Oct-2015




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Based from De Vito's book on Human Communication


IMPRESSION FORMATIONImpression formation refers to the process you go through in firming an impression of another person.

WHAT IS IMPRESSION FORMATION?How you perceive another person and ultimately come to some kind of evaluation or interpretation of him or her is influenced by a variety of processes. And those are called impression formation processes.

WHAT IS IMPRESSION FORMATION?Some significant process are: (1) Self fulfilling prophecy, (2) Personality theory, (3) Primacy-Recency, (4) Consistency, and (5) Attribution.

WHAT IS IMPRESSION FORMATION?SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY(1) A prediction that comes true because you act on it as if it were true. (2) Occurs when you act on your schema as if it were true and in doing so make it true. (3) Self fulfilling prophecies occur in such widely different situations such as parent-child relationships, educational settings, and business.

WHAT IS THE SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY?1. You make a prediction or formulate a belief about a person or a situation.2. You act toward that person or situation as if that prediction or belief were true.3. Because you act as if the belief were true, it becomes true.4. You observe your effect on the person or the resulting situation, and what you see strengthens your beliefs.

WHAT IS THE SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY?Im bound to fail. Everybody tells me Im hopeless.They were right. I am hopeless.Lack of adequate study and revision.Ive failed.I predict my plan to smile today will be a miserable failure.

PERSONALITY THEORYThe theory of personality determines which characteristics of an individual go with other characteristics. Everyone has this.

WHAT IS THE PERSONALITY THEORY?IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORYThe implicit personality theory describes the specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person. This is the general expectations that we build about a person after we know something of their central traits. e.g. When we believe that a happy person is also friendly.

WHAT IS THE IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORY?HALO AND HORN EFFECTThe halo and horn effect is a cognitive bias in which an observer's overall impression of a person influences the observer's feelings and thoughts about that person's character. It is a tendency to allow one's judgement of another personto be unduly influenced by an unfavourable (horns) or favourable (halo) first impression based on appearances.

WHAT IS THE HALO AND HORN EFFECT?PRIMACY-RECENCYA person may be influenced by what comes first (primacy effect) and what comes last (recency effect). Not only are initial perceptions influential, they are also very resistant to change. WHAT IS PRIMACY-RECENCY?CONSISTENCYConsistency is expecting certain things to go together and other things not to go together. It also maintains balance and among our perceptions or attitudes. WHAT IS CONSISTENCY?ATTRIBUTION OF CONTROLAttribution of control is a process by which you focus on explaining why someone behaved as he or she did on the basis of whether the person had control over his or her behavior.e.g. You invited your friend to go to the mall at 10 am but then he arrives at 2 pm.

WHAT IS ATTRIBUTION OF CONTROL?I lost track of time while playing video games.I was on my way when my mom called me for an emergency.I got in an accident and I was brought to the hospital.

HOW WOULD YOU RESPOND TO..?Self serving bias is when you take credit for the positive and deny responsibility for the negative. POTENTIAL ERROR #1: SELF SERVING BIASOverattribution is the tendency to single out one or two obvious characteristics of a person and attribute everything that person does to this one or these two characteristicsdistorts perception.

POTENTIAL ERROR #2: OVERATTRIBUTIONThe fundamental attribution error occurs when you overvalue the contribution of internal factors (e.g. a persons personality) and undervalue the influence of external factors (e.g. the context or situation the person is in).