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IIT Bombay IIT Delhi IIT Guwahati IIT Kanpur IIT Kharagpur IIT Madras IIT Roorkee Model Projects Suggested Approach Way Forward? September 22-23, 2011 by International Workshop PPP Models and Technological Solutions for Sewage and Waste Management & Slide 2 Model Projects September 22-23, 2011 International Workshop PPP Models and Technological Solutions for Sewage and Waste Management 1.Cluster of Pulp and Paper Industries in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh 2.Tannery Effluents and Sewage Treatment in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 3.Sewage Treatment in Patna, Bihar 4.Sewage Treatment in Kolkata, West Bengal 5.Distillery Industries in Ganga Basin Slide 3 Ganga Basin Drainage Area of the Ganga River Covering 11 States in India (AIWFS Data) Slide 4 Haryana Rajasthan Madya Pradesh West Bengal Bihar UP Kanpur Yamuna Ganga Ram Ganga Kali Yamuna Gomti Ghagar Gandak Son Ganga Kosi Delhi Banaras Allahabad Uttarkashi Rishikesh Haridwar Garh Mukteshwar Patna Lucknow Mathura Agra Slide 5 State Governm ent Central Governm ent Public ULBs Service Provider / Operator DBFO Model for STPs Slide 6 The service provider/operator builds, and then maintains and operates the facility for the contract period after commissioning. Responsibility for the arrangement of uninterrupted power supply for the facility is with the service provider/operator. The service provider/operator and ULB will have joint rights (as stipulated in the contract) for the commercial exploitation of the products, i.e., treated water, sludge and sludge-derived products generated through sewage treatment. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) may be set up for this purpose by the service provider/operator and ULB using the PPP model. Any treated sewage, sludge, etc. discharged from the sewage treatment facility during the contract period to be disposed of by the service provider/operator in a safe manner and as per provisions of the contract. DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components Slide 7 The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period unless the contract duration is extended. Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after conclusion of the contract period. The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period unless the contract duration is extended. Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after conclusion of the contract period. DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components Slide 8 In this model, the income to the service provider/operator will be from two sources: Payment made to the service provider/operator in the form of annuities. The expected amount of annual payments (for each year of operation after commissioning) will be clearly specified in the contract. However, the actual annual payments shall be linked to the quantity of treated sewage (of specified quality) produced by the service provider/operator in that year. Profit (if any), from commercial exploitation of resources generated through sewage treatment, i.e., sale of treated water, sludge and sludge-derived products, as per provisions specified in the contract. In return, the service provider/operator is expected to invest the entire funds required for initial creation of the sewage pumping and treatment infrastructure as per the approved DPR and also take care of operation and maintenance of the facility through the operation and maintenance contract period. DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components Slide 9 State Pollution Control Board Central Pollution control Board Industry Associati on (Compan y Ltd) Industry Associati on (Compan y Ltd) Industry Service Provider / Operator DBFO Model for Industry Slide 10 Most of the ETPs perform much below the expected level and most of the times effluent discharge norms are violated. Lack of knowledge and expertise to manage the ETPs and lack of resources and man power for enforcing the regulations and taking actions have been cited for poor performance. In several instances causes beyond technical and financial are responsible for unabated pollution of rivers. DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups Slide 11 It is recommended that ETPs are planned on DBFO model with third party involvement as a company floated by the Association of Industries. The ETPs will be in the premises of the industry. Land for the ETP is to be provided by the industry. The company will be responsible for managing the effluent recycling plants through service provider/operator using DBFO model and will receive funds in the beginning of the year from each of the industry towards supply of treated water of industrial grade produced from effluents discharged by the same industry. The service provider/operator will get the payment based on quantity of industrial grade water produced from the effluents on monthly basis. Renewing consent to operate the industry may be linked to deposition of funds in the accounts of the company floated by the Association. DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups Slide 12 Slide 13 Pollution of River Ganga: Contribution of Pulp and Paper Industries Through Tributaries - Ram Ganga and Kali Wastewater Discharge in Ram Ganga Uttarakhand: 162 mld; Uttar Pradesh: 74 mld Industrial Waste in Kali 86 mld; 13,000 TPD BOD Load Pulp and Paper Industries Contribution: Through Ram Ganga Uttarakhand: 146 mld (90%); Uttar Pradesh: 39 mld (53%) Through Kali 37 mld (43%) Slide 14 Delhi Mumbai Chennai Kolkata Gangotri Glacier Ganga Sagar Bay of Bengal River Ganga Origin (Gangotri) to Destination (Ganga Sagar) Slide 15 Ganga Ramganga Kali Kannauj u/s (Fatehgarh) On River Kali at Kannauj On River Ganga (Ramganga) at Kannauj Kannauj d/s (after confluence of Ramganga and Kali) Kanpur u/s at Bithoor Kanpur u/s at Shuklaganj Kanpur d/s at Jajmau/Jane Kannauj Kanpur Stretch Slide 16 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Clusters: Kashipur Thakurdwara (15+3+3+3) Muzaffarrnagar (8+7+2+6) Meerut (2+3+3) Moradabad (4) Water Consumption/Wastewater Generation is High; Not Closely Spaced; Conveyance Costs are High; CETPs are not viable options; Particularly if ZLD is to be achieved Slide 17 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Present Status Scale of Operation: 25 250 TPD Mills with 100 TPD Producing Bleached Variety of Paper have CRP Others making Craft Paper from Agro Residues do not have CRP All mills have ETP PC, AT, SC Performance! Slide 18 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Category Existing Water Consumption m 3 / T paper (Average) Achievable Water Consumption m 3 /T paper* (Average) Best Achieved Water Consumption m 3 /T paper (Average) Bench mark for water Consumption m 3 /T paper (Average) A1: Agro Based Writing & printing paper mills 100806050 A2: Agro Based Kraft paper mills 7545 30 B1: RCF Based Writing & printing paper, Duplex board, newsprint 50203020 B2: RCF based Kraft paper mills 35101510 Water Requirements for Four Different Categories * as per discussions with the representatives of the pulp and paper industries Slide 19 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Parameters Raw Water Effluent A1: Agro Based Writing & printing paper mills A2: Agro Based Kraft paper mills B1: RCF Based Writing & printing paper, Duplex board, newsprint mills B2: RCF Based Kraft paper mills pH 7.5 -7.87.0 -7.866.8 -7.36 TDS, mg/l 2901100-68001560800-1720840-3240 TSS, mg/l Nil384-1950466160- 438756-680 COD, mg/l Nil776-50481010262-1715704-2016 BOD, mg/l Nil450-2234543180- 958593-1058 Colour Nil- * -- Turbidity, NTU Nil35-191062 -3522- 299 Hardness, mg/l as CaCO 3 180 -185 * Mills are using RCF only at present Typical Characteristics of Water and Wastewater Slide 20 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Capacity, MLD Treatment Cost up to Tertiary Treatment without RO, ` /m 3 (including capital, O & M, and Reinvestment Cost assuming 15 Years Life of ETP as on 2010) Treatment Cost up to Tertiary Treatment with RO, ` /m 3 (including capital, O & M, and Reinvestment Cost assuming 15 Years Life of ETP as on 2010) 0 515100 5 - 2010100 Estimated Capital and Operation and Maintenance Costs for ETPs Note: Actual cost will be technology and location specific Slide 21 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Grade of Paper Production cost ` / T paper Selling Price ` / T paper A1: Agro Based Writing & printing paper 32000 3400038000 40000 A2: Agro Based Kraft paper ( 100 % agro) 19000 2000023000 24000 B1: RCF Based Writing & printing paper 32000 3300035000 36000 B2: RCF Based Kraft paper 22000 2250023000 24000 Estimated Production Cost and Selling Price for Different Grades of Paper Slide 22 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Category Achievable Water Consumption m 3 /T paper* (Average) Average Productio n Cost ` / T paper Estimated Cost, ` / T paper Percentage Increase in the Average Production Cost Chemical Recovery from Black Liquor Using CRP/CCRP Complete Recycling of Effluent Attaining Zero Discharge Paradigm A1: Agro Based Writing & printing paper mills 8033000163 1,200 (5,875) # 1,363 (6,038) # 4.1 (18.3) # A2: Agro Based Kraft paper mills 4519500163 675 (3,225) $ 838 (3,388) $ 4.3 (17.4) $ # Considering 25 and 55 m 3 /T paper without and with RO treatment respectively; $ Considering 15 and 30 m 3 /T paper without and with RO treatment respectively; Cost of recovery of solids from RO Reject on drying is included in the RO treatment Estimated cost of Water Reuse/ Recycle after Tertiary Treatment in a Typical Mill of Capacity 25 TPD Paper and Pulp Mill Slide 23 Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Category Achievable Water Consumption m 3 /T p