how to learn academic language of chemistry
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- 1. Chemistry Literacy Through Case Study and ALCA protocols (Academic Language of Chemistry for All) a.tifi @ divini.org XVIII Conferenza Didichim 11 ottobre 2013 - Napoli
2. Whats really worth at school? FACTS (reality)YOU (the students)THEORIES (interpretations)Not just learning facts and theories 3. through theories and theories through facts FACTS (reality)YOU (the students)THEORIES (interpretations) 4. Where is the teacher? FACTS (reality)YOU (the students)THEORIES (interpretations)S/he is not the owner of facts and theories! 5. Where is the teacher? FACTS (reality)YOU (the students)THEORIES (interpretations)S/he is just one more learner, trained to mediate learning/development, if students accept her/his guidance and to imitate her/him. 6. First class, 14th Sept. 2012 7. Atom of Knowledge: not only assimilation 8. Collaboration and dedication are the basic tools to penetrate the knowledge atom 9. T r a d i t i o n a lS c h o o lREALITY, FACTS, PHENOMENA, EVIDENCES PROTECTIVE SHIELDSCHOOLassessment STUDENTS = extraneous bodiesChe tocca fa? (just tell me what falls to me to do!! )ACADEMICAL CONCEPTS, LANGUAGE AND THEORIES 10. Apprenticeship model (concrete) Passive attitude Impaired capacity to generalize and transfer skills and knowledgeStatic conception of knowledge and of ones own intelligencePROCEDURAL TEACHING Artificial separation of academic concepts from concrete realityDenial of learning responsibility Unability to distinguish sensed and conscious steps from automatisms or verbatim thinking processesDesensitization to the information flowLowered demand for understandingSimulated (false) understanding 11. Zombies are made, not born. Just rebel! 12. Cognitive apprenticeship model Flipped evaluation Collaborative Study of Cases (CCBL), integrated with: Generalized Concept Mapping in the ZPD by means of Protocol ALCA basic (bottom up) Protocol ALCA advanced (top - down)The basic idea is that through this prolonged activity and context, a reflective aptitude towards construction of knowledge will be slowly regenerated, after years of intake of knowledge through repetition and mechanical application of rules. 13. World of work claims for Flipped Evaluation "The secondary school experience, which generally consists of prescriptive specifications, has created a culture of learning for the examination rather than developing an understanding of the subject. Problem-based learning ... it is known to stimulate and motivate students, enabling them to develop a deeper understanding as well as encouraging both independent and collaborative learning (http://www.rsc.org) 14. Transformational teaching model, three basic principles To facilitate the acquisition and mastery of key course concepts To enhance strategies and skills for learning and discoveryTo promote positive learning-related attitudes, values, and beliefsSlavic, Zimbardo Educ. Psychol. Rev. 2012 , su: Brian P. Coppola, editorial, J. Chem. Ed. August 2013 15. Transformational teaching flipped evaluation = Capability to acquire, synthesize, analyze, and use knowledge in a way that is meaningful for their livesand to demonstrate greater motivation, more enjoyment out of the class, greater satisfaction with the class and teacher, and greater self-determined motivation, as well as with significant improvements in self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation. (Brian P. Coppola, editorial, J. Chem. Ed. August 16. Transformational teaching flipped evaluation Three scientific dispositions should accompany science education: comfort with ambiguity, the search for uncertainty, and learning from failure. It is easy to think of others, such as skepticism and creativity, as are the outcomes associated with a liberal arts education. (Brian P. Coppola, editorial, J. Chem. Ed. 17. Flipped evaluation All that is simply incompatible with traditional evaluation which is based on assessment and tests 18. Flipped evaluation Through assessing and evaluating only dedication and engagement, we: estimate and encourage the development of the learning potential of single learners, respect the inter-individual differences. Conversely, in test-assessment-based evaluation we can just: evaluate the recent past of ended processes discourage studying for understanding 19. Monthly evaluation of dedication 20. Monthly evaluation of dedication 21. Monthly evaluation of dedication 22. The first case of the year CASE 16-09-2013 baking powder for ammonia cookies, is a white powder with a smell of ammonia . Heating that substance in the oven, it gets completely vaporized without leaving any residual solid.The group task is to find experimental evidences and to convince a beginner student of chemistry that the transformation described above is not a sublimation (a state transition, i.e. a physical transformation), but it is a chemical transformation. 23. The first case of the year 24. Concepts elicited from the first four cases studied in the year Substance Characteristic macroscopic properties Evidences Chemical or physical transformation Reversible or irreversible transformation Structure Structure change 25. Concepts elicited from the first four cases studied in the year EVIDENZE DELLE EVIDENCES OF TRASFORMAZIONI CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS CHIMICHE 26. Collaborative Environment for Case Study 27. Collaborative Environment for Case Study 28. Collaborative Environment for Case Study 29. Collaborative Environment for Case Study 30. Argumentation training example Why do chemical reactions develop faster at higher temperature? Because particle speed increase and, consequently, the frequency of collisions increases as well.Your assertion is correct. However, is every collision accompanied by a transformation of the molecules involved?It depends: if the molecules are formed by the same elements, there would be no change in the substance. If the molecules are formed by different elements, thanks to the collision there would be untying of old bonds and new ones would be formed, with new and diverse molecules.It is worth to specify that they untie only if the energy is sufficient to break old bonds and form the new ones. 31. Argumentation training example (cont.) Yes, certainly. This is the reason why reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperature, because the particles move faster and the collisions among them are much more and it is easier to untie bonds.Samu, do you mean identical molecules, i.e. of the same substance, by saying that they are formed by the same elements?Yes !Okay. Then you should explain why a collision could cause the untying of bond if the hitting molecules are different but they cannot do the same if are equal.Untying of bonds happens in the same way either with equal or different elements. The difference consists in the possibility of creating new bonds if the atoms are different, whereas if the elements are the same the new bonds will result equal to the old ones.Martina is right because if you, as an example, make two (diatomic) oxygen molecules hitting, even if there is an exchange of atoms, they are atoms of the same element anyway; so there will be formed molecules identical to the previous ones; whereas if different molecules would come to crash, youll get new bonds yielding substances that would be different from the starting substances.And now? What to say them? 32. Generalized Concept MappingAny form of focused writing which demands & enhances awareness of concepts meanings, i.e. of their context, generalities or specificities, differences, commonalities, interrelations, and entails reflection and focusing of concepts grasp on real Tifi, A. Integrating Collaborative Concept Mapping in Case Based instances. Learning, Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, JETT, 4(1) 2013 p. 154-163This can be achieved through a combination of strategies among which there is the model based on Novaks concept maps 33. Reflecting upon concepts 1. classifying Factual/Theoretical Case 02 September 28th 2013It should be established whether a certain white substance undergoes simple physical transformations (sublimation, deposition) or a reversible chemical reactions when heated and cooled.All evidences of three related experiments are collected in the Youtube video http://youtu.be/iGZl-kp_h68Your group will debate the case at issue, attaining to establish the truth with a final motivated verdict. 34. Reflecting upon concepts 1. classifying Factual/Theoretical Case 02 ELICITED CONCEPTSGroup AGroup BGroup CThree experimentsFWhite solid substanceFFFHeatedFFFPhase change (sublimation, deposition)FTF (F, F)Reversible chemical transformationTTChemical transformationTReversibleF 35. Reflecting upon concepts 1. Classifying Factual/Theoretical (Case 01) ELICITED CONCEPTSABCChanged through debateChemical transformationTTTVaporizesFFFAmmonia smellFFFsmell added to eliminate doubtsAmmonium bicarbonateTTTIt was F. Changed after examplesSubstanceTTIt was F. Changed after examplesHeatedFFHeated substanceFFSolid residualFFPhysical transformationTT(somebody changed from F)SublimationTT(somebody changed from F)Seen in contrast with substance 36. Reflecting upon concepts: 2. Concept experience vs logics (Ita) 37. Reflecting upon concepts: 2. Concept experience vs logics (Eng) All said: A) ALL PHYSICAL T. ARE REVERSIBLETRUE All said: FALSEB) ALL REVERSIBLE T. ARE PHYSICALC) NO CHEMICAL T. CAN EVER BE REVERSIBLEFALSED) SOME CHEMICAL T. CAN BE REVERSIBLETRUEIMPLYIMPLY 38. No academic concept is given without system and voluntary control First of developing the phychic functions of voluntary memory and attention, and until these functions will generate the capacity of disembedding abstract relations and generalizing conceptually, the concepts wont be firmly owned and deliberately discriminated. They would remain some fuzzy, unaware and fickle words (pseudoconcepts) that will regenerate with different and multiform meanings, different from the academic ones, even if they will be rehearsed in the same context. 39. Reflecting upon concepts: 3. Synthesizing a discussion. Example Then, what is a reversible transf. ?S2. that T. that can go back to the starting pointGENERALIZATIONDISTINCTION POSSIBLE / ACTUALS1. When products go back to reactantsS3. A transformation that, through the restoration of the conditions that man changes, i.e. pressure and temperature, goes back to the previous conditions. S4 when it is possible to go back to the starting substance restoring normal conditions (pressure, temperature) DISTINGUISHING EXTERNAL CONTROL BY SYSTEM DEPENDING EVENTS 40. Reflecting upon concepts 4. Fensham maps Cardellini: L. Advocating Science for All: An Interview with Peter J. Fensham J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (6), pp 735740 Reflection is an important aspect in improving teaching and learning. What instruments or practices can you suggest? There are many ways to reflect on what we are learning. One is to try to teach it to someone else. Another is to compare the same topic in several authors textbooks. Another is to draw a concept map that has key words at corners and you try to write short sentences about how two corners are related to each other on the connecting lines. Another is to create subheadings for every few lines in a textbook long paragraph. Dont cover too much ground before trying these reflective practices. 41. Reflect upon concepts 4: Fensham maps, example 1SUBSTANCEAmmonium bicarbonate is a white substance with a stron smell of ammonia OP&MMAMMONIUM BICARBONATEAmmonium bicarbonate vaporizes with a chemical transformation (MD&MT)Ammonia is a substance for preparing coockies OP&MMAMMONIATo get a chemical transf. are needed elements that react among themselves forming a substance ET, SM & MFCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION 42. Reflect upon concepts 4: Fensham maps, example 2 EVIDENCE(S) of Chemical TransformationsREVERSIBILITYSTRUCTURAL CHANGECharacteristic MACRO PROPERTIES of substancesPHASE TRANSITIONS 43. ALCA basic Protocol Derived from ALA protocol (Academic Literacy for All) by prof. Holbrook Mahn (University of New Mexico) The ALA unit is designed to help English Language Learners, and all students, increase their conceptual thinking and understanding of content while improving their speaking, reading, and writing in English. Difficulties in learning a second language and a new subject language are for many aspects similar and related. = Academic Language of Chemistry for (ALCA All) ALA : ALCA = English language : Chemical Language 44. ALCA basic protocol 1.2.3. 4.5.Individually: write 3-5 short sentences, embodying different couples of concepts in the Fensham scheme used as prompt. 8 min. Pairs: read and compare the sentences individually written e rewrite them in a new card after discussion and reaching consensus. 12 min. Join the pairs in quartets and repeat the second step. 10 min. Place a card with a single sentence from all groups on the blackboard. Compare and discuss. 15 min Critical comparison of class best sentences with formal and authoritative definitions. 15-30 min 45. Follow-up ALCA basic Picklock questions, gathering answers, sharing and critical discussion Re-exam of concepts to highlight how these are implied-used in current cases and, if possible, in real contexts. Construction of simple Cmaps with those concepts used in the protocol and emergeing from the cases (see also advanced ALCA protocol). 46. ALCA advanced protocol 220.127.116.11.5.Individual text answer to a comprehensive and fundamental focus question, and selection of 8 most relevant concepts from the answer-text (1 week) Formation of pairs of students, revision and elaboration of a new negotiated answer and selection of a maximum of 10 different concepts (1 week) Joining the pairs in teams of fours and elaboration of a new shared answer, parking a maximum number of 12 most relevant concepts (1 week) Shared elaboration of a Cmap that is equivalent to the team answer, employing up to15 concepts, including the 12 selected. (2 weeks) Oral presentation of Cmaps by each team, with critical questioning by other teams (2 3 hours) 47. ALCA advanced: examples of Focus Questions link Index to Cmaps & Videos of groups presentations1. Magic of chemistry: how it is possible to make substance disappearing and to obtain new ones? 2. What does occur to a chemical system that undergoes a chemical reaction, considering the energetic and structural point of view of reactants and products only? 3. How does occur the transformation of the species of the closed chemical system during the conversion from reagents to products? (including the state of dynamic chemical equilibrium) 4. Illustrate to a second grade student how do the chemical reactions occur. 48. Final Reflection and The modifying environment that I am trying to create serves to gradually build an approach to knowledge that could be useful in real life, out of school, where is required: Individual responsibility and dedication Objectivity and fairness in observing, describing, interpreting and questioning Awareness that there is no limit to the possibility of understanding better Capacity to collaborate and stand critical comparison with others Capacity to reflect and construct arguments and questions Capacity of self observation and to express ones own conceptual changes Autonomy of study and independence of thought This process of development through inquiry is by necessity very gradual and demanding of lots of mediation; therefore it is deeply different from other strategies that place the student from the very beginning to measure with problems of socio-cultural relevance (societal education through science) without adequate disciplinary languages, conceptual thinking, experience e capacity of judgment.questions?