Honors Biology ~ Ecology 1314

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<ul><li> 1. Ecology Honors Biology ~ Edgar </li></ul> <p> 2. N-alkanes 3. Quesitons on Article What emergent property is discussed in the red harverster ants? How is this property chemically achieved? What is the role of the control, and the positive control in this experiment? What information is shown in the caption of the graph? Why is this a bar graph rather then a line graph? What is the conclusion of the study in this brief communication? 4. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment These interactions determine distribution and abundance of organisms and their abundance Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere 5. Fig. 52-1 6. Dangers of Migration 7. Eschrichtius robustus What environmental factors determine geographical distribution? How do variations in their food supply affect the size of populations? 8. Fig. 52-2 Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology 9. Fig. 52-4 10. Fig. 52-5 Kangaroos/km2 00.1 0.11 15 510 1020 &gt; 20 Limits of distribution 11. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species 12. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Climate Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log 13. Fig. 52-20 Tropical forestTemperate grasslandDesert Temperate broadleaf forest Northern coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annualmeantemperature(C) Annual mean precipitation (cm) 30 15 0 0 15 100 200 300 400 14. Populations 15. Fig. 53-4a (a) Clumped 16. Fig. 53-4b (b) Uniform 17. Fig. 53-4c (c) Random 18. Fig. 53-3 irths irths and immigration dd individuals to population. mmigration Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population. Deaths Emigration 19. Survivorship Curves 20. Isle Royale 21. Fig. 53-25 Rapid growth Afghanistan Male Female Age AgeMale Female Slow growth United States Male Female No growth Italy 85+ 8084 7579 7074 6064 6569 5559 5054 4549 4044 3539 3034 2529 2024 1519 04 59 1014 85+ 8084 7579 7074 6064 6569 5559 5054 4549 4044 3539 3034 2529 2024 1519 04 59 1014 10 108 866 4 422 0 Percent of population Percent of population Percent of population 66 4 422 08 8 66 4 422 08 8 22. Community Ecology 23. Trophic Structure 24. Coral Reefs 25. Cnidaria 26. Acropora millipora Orange Bushy Coral 27. Parrotfishes Conversion of primary production to fish-based trophic pathways Provision of suitable settlement substrata for new corals Mediation of competition between corals and macroalgae 28. Diadema antillarium 29. Epinephelus striatus 30. Community Interactions Predation &amp; herbivory, Competition Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 31. Intertidal Community 32. Chthalamus more tolerant of dessication than Balanus Balanus a more successful competitor Chthalamus restricted to upper intertidal zone realized niche &lt; fundamental niche Competition and niche differentiation in barnacles (Connell 1961) 33. Testing the competitive exclusion principle Two species of barnacles on intertidal rocks Remove Balanus -- Chthamalus spread Chthamalus distribution limited by Balanus Chthamalus Balanus High tide Chthamalus realized niche Balanus realized niche Low tide Ocean Figure 37.2A 34. Niches: fundamental and realized The realized niche is often smaller than the fundamental niche restricted by factors eg, competition, predation, parasitism. The fundamental niche is the n-dimensional hypervolume describing the full range of conditions that the species can use in the absence of competition defined by an organisms adaptations to persist in a given abiotic environment 35. Modes of Competition Intraspecific: Competition among members of the same species. e.g. density dependent factors Interspecific: Competition among individuals of two or more different species reduces fitness of both. Interspecific competition can occur only if species have similar resource requirements i.e. must have overlapping niches. 36. Predation 37. Fig. 54-6 38. Cuscuta pentagona Dodder predation 39. Batesian Mimicry 40. Mullerian Mimicry 41. Helminthic Therapy 42. Keystone Predator 43. Ecosystem Ecology Primary Productivity Nutrient Cycling 44. NPP=GPP-R 45. phytoplankton Who are the Phytoplankton? Coccolithophore Diatoms Dinoflagellates 46. Gulf of Maine Data: Wilkinson and Jordan Basins Wilk. Basin Jordan Basin 47. Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates CO2 Light Nutrients (N, P, etc) The Redfield Ratio 106106 Carbon : 1616 Nitrogen : 11 Phosphorus Liebigs Law:Liebigs Law: Growth of a plant is determined by availability of the single most limiting resource. Redfield 48. Duck? 49. Nutrient Cycle 50. The Whale Pump 51. Figure 1. A conceptual model of the whale pump. Roman J, McCarthy JJ (2010) The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13255. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013255 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0013255 52. Copepods 53. Figure 2. Shipboard incubation time-course experiments on Humpback whale samples collected on Stellwagen Bank, Gulf of Maine. 54. Figure 3. The flux of nitrogen in the Gulf of Maine (a) at present and (b) before commercial hunting. </p>