History of democratic ideals

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A history of major events leading to the current democratic state of the world

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<ul><li> 1. BELL WORK Take out a piece of paper. Write a few sentences about where you think the idea of Democracy came from</li></ul> <p> 2. The Rise of Democratic Ideas600 B.C.E 1945 C.E 3. Create a Timeline What is a TIMELINE? Why are Timelines useful to social scientists and historic scholars? You will fill in a box with the date and basic information for every major event that contributed to the evolution of Democratic ideas. 4. Roots of the word IDIOT Declining to take part in public life, such as democratic government of the polis (city state), was considered dishonorable. "Idiots" were seen as having bad judgment in public and political matters. Therefore, an idiot is someone who does not involve themselves with knowledge of politics 5. Timeline #1 Add Greeks Invent Democracy 600 BCE in 1st box on timeline. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 6. GREEK INFLUENCE594 B.C.E.508 B.C.E.461 B.C.E.Solon begins reform of Greek laws by allowing all free male to attend the assembly.Cleisthenes begins reorganizing the assembly to limit power to the nobles.The Golden AgePericles begins the introduction of direct democracy in Athenes. 7. SOLON REFORMS Solon is known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece. He created a series of political reforms that increased the participation of the greeks in the government. Even though his intentions were just, his reforms did not please either the wealthy nor the poor. 8. CLEISTHENES He helped the rise of democracy by reorganizing the assembly, wanting to break the power of nobility. Increased power of the assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws and debate for passage. 9. COMPARISONS BETWEEN ATHENES AND SPARTA SAME No political right to women, slaves and foreigners Only male citizens over the age of 18 could voteATHENES-SPARTATreated from young age to be a soldier Not a full democracy: O. Two kings The political system was a democracyO. 5 EphosAthenes was the intellectual center of GreeceO. Council (28 elders)The ecclesia ws the principal assembly of the democracy of Ancient AthenesO. Assembly (all males)GOVERNMENT Military Center Women were regarded as objects 10. SEARCHING THE TRUTH- GREEK PHILOSEPHERS Philospheres mean lovers of wisdom. Based their philosophy on: the universe (land, sky, sea) is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and unchanging laws people can understand the laws of logic and reason I think that the Greeks respect for human reason is one of the key points that helped the ideas of democracy to rise. 11. NATURAL LAWS- Predictable patterns discovered with the use of reason and intelligence=logicDIRECT DEMOCRACYform of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representativ esGREECE CONTRIBUTIONS TO DEMOCRACYReform of law that allows all free adult male citizens to attend the assembly and be part of a democracy 12. Timeline #2 Add Roman Influence 500 BCE in next box to right. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 13. ROMAN INFLUENCE 528 C.E.451 B.C.E. 509 B.C.E. Romans establish the first republic (representative government)The Roman Law is collected and written on the Twelve Tables27 B.C.E. The Roman Republic is replaced by the Roman EmpireEmperor Justinian authorizes a panel to collect all legal codes. It is completed 533 C.E. 14. ROME BECOMES A REPUBLIC In 509 B.C.E. a new governmnet was set up, called a rupublic. A republic is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the righ to elect the leaders that will make up the government. In contrast to the direct democracy in Greece, this was indirect 15. ROMAN LAW The romans tried to create a set of laws that would be applied universally throughout the Roman Empire. The most important were: All citizens have the right to equal treatment under the law A person was considered innocent until proven guilty 16. WHICH CHARACTERISTIC OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE ROMAN REPUBLIC HAD THE GREATES IMPACT ON THE DEMOCRATIC TRADITION? One of the characteristics of the government under the Roman Republic that had a great impact on the democratic tradition is the idea that an individual is a citizen in a state rather than a subject of a ruler and so that he /she has the right to vote and be part of the democratic say. Another great characteristic that helped the rise of democratic ideas and gave the world the idea of a republic is the written legal code and the idea that this code should be applied equally and impartially to all citizerns. 17. Timeline #4 Add Printing Press Invented 1455 CE in 4th square (skip a square!!!) Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words why it is important from the following slides. 18. RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION1300 Renaissance thinkers begin to teach the importance of the individual and the value of worldy pursuits. Called Humanism1521 1455 Johannes Guttenberg invents the priniting press, which helps the spreading of new ideas.Martin Luther starts the Reformation, which challenges authority and emphasizes individual responsibility for making choices. 19. THE PRINTING PRESS The first European printing press with movable type was invented in 1455 by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany. This new invention made it possible to print books quicky and cheaply. This helped the growth of the Renaissance and the Reformation because people could read each others works soon after it was written. 20. DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENTS IN ENGLAND 12151295King John signs the Magna Carta to guarantee certain basic political rights.The Model Parliament, a more representative legislature, begins to meet.16281679King Charles I signs the Petition Of Right, which states that the monarch must obey the law.Parliament passes habeas corpus, a protection against unjust imprisonment.1689 Parliament enacts the Bill of Rights, which further limits royal power. 21. Timeline #3 Add Magna Carta 1215 CE in 3rd square you skipped. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 22. MAGNA CARTA The Magna Carta is a list of demends presented to King John by angry nobles that rebelled in 1215, presenting certain traditional political rights. It is celebrated as the source of traditional English respect for individual rights and liberites and was basically a contract between king and the nobles of England. The Magna carta had 63 clauses. Two clauses established legal rights for individuals. One was Clause 12, declaring that the king could not demand taxes but rather has to ask for popular consent. Clause 39 instead delcelared that a person had the right to a jury trail and to the protection of the law. 23. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO THE AGREEING OF THE MAGNA CARTA ADVANTAGES No civil war/revolt More money for the king on a long term Commoners and nobles will pay taxes The people are happier Makes the king look reasonable DISADVANTAGES Less power to the king Lower money income at the start No persecution of people arbitrarily Makes him look weak King John 24. Timeline #5 Add THE PETITION OF RIGHTS 1628 CE to your timeline in next open box. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 25. THE PETITION OF RIGHTS Parliament tried to limit royal power in 1628 and since King Charles I needed funds from the Parliament, he was forced to accept the Petition of Rights, which went against absolute monarchy. It demanded and end to: taxing without the Parliaments consent improsoning citizens without a resonable reason having a military government during peacetime 26. HABEAS CORPUS Parliament continued to restrict monarchs power. In 1679 the Habeas Corpus Amendment Act was passed, which is a Latin term that refers to the right of a citizen to be seen by a judge as a protection against illegal imprisonment. It is used in the Parliament to prevent authorities from detaining a person unjustly or unfairly. 27. Timeline #6 Add ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS 1689 CE to your timeline in next open box. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 28. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION AND BILL OF RIGHTS King James II became king but the english Parliament withdrew their support from James and offered the throne to his protestant daughter and his husbad, Mary and William. James fled to France and Mary and William became co-rulers. This is now known as the Glorious Revolution and from then on, England became a constitutional monarchy, where the powers of the ruler are restriced by laws and the constitution of the country. That same year, William and Mary accepted the Bills of Rights, a formal summary of the right and liberties considered essential to the people. It limited the power of the monarchs and protected the free speech of the people. 29. IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTMENT FREEDOM OF SPEECH ROUSSEAUSEPARATION OF POWERSSOCIAL CONTACTRIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY BARON DE MONTESQUIEU HOBBES LOCKE 30. TWO TREATISES ON GOVERNMENT- JOHN LOCKE In 1690, an English philosepher called John Locke published Two Treatises on Government. He stated that all human being had, by right of nature, the right to life, libery and property which the Greeks had also based their democracy on, calling them natural rights. He also stated that the power of the government didnt come from the government itself but from its people. Lockes ideas about self-government inspired people and became cornerstones of modern democratic thought. 31. THE SPIRIT OF LAWS- BARON DE MONTESQUIEU Montesquieu, a French philosopher, recognized liberty as a natural right. In his book The Spirit of laws, he pointed out that any group of people in charge will always try to gain more power and so he searched, like the Greek philosephers, for a way to keep the government under control. He arrived to the conclusion that separation of powers was the best way to safeguard liberty, so he divided the government into three seperate branches: legisalture (make laws) executive (to enforce the laws) judicial (courts to interpret the laws) 32. DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTIONS 17871776 The American colonies declare independen-ce from Britain The Declaration of IndependenceThe U.S. Constitution creates a democratic, republican goverment based on the ideas of Locke and Montesquieu is written.1789 The French National Assembly issues the Declaration of the Rights of Man, stating that all persons are equal.1945 After WWII, the United Nations is established. 33. Timeline #7 Add Declaration of Independence 1776 CE to your timeline in next open box. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 34. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION After winning the French and Indian War, the British placed a higher number of soldiers on the newly acquired territories and to pay the soldiers, they increased the colonists taxes. The colonists protested on the fact that they viewed that as a violation of their British citizenship. Because of the protestes, the British Parliament issued the Stamp Act in 1765. The colonists opposed this measure and all the other acts that came afterword by boycotting. To protect their economic and political rights they united and began to arm themselves against what they called British oppression. This opposition became know as the American revolution, while was the fighting of the american colonsits to gain independence. It began with th e battle of Lexington and Concord, the night of April 18 and morning of April 19, 1775. 35. The Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776 during the Second Continental Congress held in Philadelphia, the Comittee of Five decided that Thomas Jefferson had to write the Decleration of Independence, signed that same day. In it, they wrote a series of set rules based on the enlightment ideas, espescially the ones of Locke and Montesquieu. 36. Timeline #8 Add The US Constitution - 1787 CE to your timeline in next open box. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 37. The Constitution In the summer of 1787, a group of American leaders met in Philadelphia and they worked to find out a way to better the government that they had created at the end of the revolution. There was a great debate over a very basic question: Was it possible to establish a governmetn that is strong and stable but not tyrannical? The answer was yes- if they creayed a system in which power and responsability were shared in a balanced way. They decided to set up a representative government in which citizens elected representatives to make laws and polices for them. Then, they created a federal system where the power was divided between the federal government and the states government. They also created, based on Montesquieus ideas, three braches: legislative, executive and judicial. 38. Timeline #9 Add The United Nations 1945 CE to your timeline in next open box. Leave room to write any important notes Write in your words any important points from the following slides. 39. THE UNITED NATIONS Ater the end of WWII in 1945, an international organization denominated the United Nations (UN) was established. The organizations goal was to work for world peace and the betterment of humanity. The General Assembly, one of the UNs branches, is shaped like a democracy. In it, nations describe and discuss their problems with the hope of resolving them peacefully. One of the UNs most important contributions to the worls is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which draws a democratic standard for basic social, political and economic rights. In many places throughout the world now, the documents ideals still have yet to be fully achieved. There is no guarantee that democracy can be achieved in any particular time and place. There is also no guarantee that once achieved, democracy will not be lost if the people are not constently watchful. 40. What Are The Benefits &amp; Drawbacks To A Direct Democracy During A Crisis? 41. DIRECT DEMOCRACY DURING A CRISIS BENEFITSDRAWBACKSIdeas are well though and so actions are pundered and reviwedNot everyone is admited into voting in the councilA large section of citizens have the opportunity to share their knowledge and opinionDecisions take more time becasue of opinions and argumentsA larger number of people are satisfied with the decision takenVoting takes timeYou have more time to make the correct choicePeople in a democracy may revolt if not satisfied with the governments ideals I experiences may lead to bad choices</p>