higher functions of brain.learning memory

Download Higher functions of brain.learning memory

Post on 15-Jul-2015

211 views

Category:

Health & Medicine

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • DR NILESH KATE MBBS,MDASSOCIATE PROFESIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GULBARGA. DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGYHIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • LEARNING & MEMORYLearning Neural mechanism by which individual changes behaviour on the basis of past experience.Memory Acquisition , storage & retrieval of sensory information*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • LEARNING .Reflex learning.

    Associated with immediate behaviour change.Incidental learning.

    Behaviour change not immediateBut person gets information from sensory inputs & develop potential to behave differently.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • REFLEX LEARNING.Non- associative .

    Person learns about properties of single stimulus when repeatedly exposed to same stimulus.Associative.

    Person learns about relationship between two stimuli or a stimulus & behaviour.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • NON- ASSOCIATIVE .Habituation

    Decrease in response to benign stimulus when stimulus presented repeatedly.Sensitization.

    Increase in response to benign stimulus when stimulus presented repeatedly.

    **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • First time it evokes a novel response (orientation response or what is it response)Evokes less & less response when repeatedSubject becomes habituated to the stimulus & ignores itHabituationIf a stimulus is repeated many times

  • HabituationExample

    New clock in the room.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Cellular basis of Habituation.

    Given by KANDEL & his collegue.Repeated stimulus.

    Inactivation of Ca influx at axon endings.

    neurotransmitter release at synapses.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Cellular basis of Sensitization.

    Given by KANDEL & his collegue.Repeated stimulus.

    neurotransmitter release at synapses.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Due to Presynaptic facilitation by third interneuron --- facilitatory neuron. which releases SEROTONIN.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*Sensitization

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Pathway in increased release of Neurotransmitter.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING.Classical conditioning.Learning relationship between two stimuli.Type I, Type S, respondant conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning.

    Operant conditioning.Learning relationship between special behaviour with a reinforcement event.Type II, type R, Instrumental or trial & error condioning.

    **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.Characteristic features.Conditioned reflex is reflex response.Acquired by repeatedly pairing given stimulus with another stimulus which normally produces the response.Thus temporal association made between neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) & unconditioned stimulus. (US)It depends upon formation of new functional connections in CNS.Reinforcement -- CS SHOULD FOLLOWED BY US

    **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Pre-requisites for development of conditioned reflex.Alertness & good health.Timing of CS & US CS US.Duration of CS Should overlap US.Reinforcement. CS US.No external inhibition.Type of US Sensory / motorPleasant, unpleasant / Neutral.

    **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Physiological basis of conditioned reflexes.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.Formation of new connections in the nervous system

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Cellular mechanism of conditioned reflex.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • OPERANT CONDITIONING.Reward conditioning.

    Naturally occurring response is strengthened by positive reinforcement ( reward)Adversive conditioning.

    Naturally occurring response is weakened by negative reinforcement ( punishment)

    **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Experiment to demonstrate Operant conditioning.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Experiment to demonstrate Operant conditioning.Positive reinforcement pressing a lever is associated with positive reinforcement, reward i.e. food.

    Negative reinforcement pressing a lever is associated with Negative reinforcement, punishment i.e. electric shock.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • MEMORY.Memory Acquisition , storage & retrieval of sensory information

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • TYPES OF MEMORY.Physiologically on the basis of how information is stored & recalled.Implicit memory.Explicit memory.Depending upon permanency of storage.Short term.Intermediate long term.Long term.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • TYPES OF MEMORY.Implicit memory.Non-declarative / reflexive memory.How to perform something.Not associated with awareness not involve processing in hippocampus.Explicit memory.Declarative / reconition memoryFactual knowledge of people, places & things.Associated with awareness ,Involve processing in hippocampus.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • IMPLICIT MEMORY.How to perform something.Does not depend on conscious process.Includes motor skills, habits, behavioural reflexes & learning procedure & rules.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Implicit memory reflexive learning.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • EXPLICIT MEMORY.Declarative / reconition memoryFactual knowledge of people, places & things.Associated with awareness ,Involve processing in hippocampus.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • EXPLICIT MEMORY.Semantic memory.

    About knowledge of objects, facts and concepts.Words & their meanings.Episodic memory.

    Memory of events & personal experience.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • MECHANISM OF MEMORY.Explicit memory.Short term memory.Neural substrate for encoding of memory.Intermediate long term.Long term.Consolidation of memory.Storage of memory.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Principles of Memory.Encoding.Elaboration. (Item specific)Organization (Inter-item)Storage.Time-dependency (Interference)Retrieval.Cue-dependency.Encoding specificity.Schematic processing.Reconstruction.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Neural substrate for encoding of memory.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • RETRIEVAL OF MEMORY.Working memory.Components.Attentional control system.Rehearsal system.Articulatory loop.Visuospatial sketch pad.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Working memory.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • LEARNING & MEMORYInterhemispheric transfer of learning & memory.Experiment to demonstrate importance of corpus callosum for interhemispheric transfer of information.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • APPLIED ASPECT.Drugs facilitating learning & memory.Common CNS stimulant.Amnesia.Antegrade Retrograde.Alzheimers disease.PathophysiologyCharacteristic features. Senile dementia.

    *HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Alzheimers disease.Senile dementiaPrototypical neurodegenerative disease.*HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.*

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • Higher intellectual functions of prefrontal association cortex.Thought process.Working memory & intellectual functions.Episodic memory.**HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

  • **HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.Thank You

    HIGHER FUNCTIONS OF BRAIN.

    **