High Blood Pressure

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<ul><li><p>HYPERTENSION GUIDELINES</p></li><li><p>REVIEWOrgans and tissues in your body need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is bound to your blood and is delivered (after an exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen in your lungs) to your body by blood vessels.When your heart beats, it creates pressure that pushes blood through your arteries and veins. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against your blood vessel walls.Your blood pressure must be within a normal range to properly deliver this oxygen rich blood to your organs and tissues in order to survive. </p></li><li><p>REVIEWWhen someone has HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, this increased force makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body.The increased force puts a strain on both the heart and vessels.If the force of the blood flow is high for some time, eventually the tissue that makes up the walls of the arteries gets stretched beyond its healthy limit.Overstretching of blood vessels makes them more prone to rupture.Damages to the vessels results in the development of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).</p><p>Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including HEART ATTACK AND STROKE. </p></li><li><p>BLOOD PRESSUREexpressed as two numbers, these represent the pressure against the walls of your blood vessels as the blood moves through themexample: 120/80 mmHgread as: 120 over 80 millimeters Mercurythe top number (or first number) represents the SYSTOLIC PRESSURE, which occurs when the heart contracts. the bottom number (or second number) represents the DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, which occurs when the heart relaxes.</p></li><li><p>HYPERTENSIONHigh Blood Pressure</p><p>medicalconditionin which constricted arterial blood vessels increase the resistance to blood flow, causing an increase in blood pressure against vessel walls</p><p>the most common disease in primary care, with estimated about 1 billion people affected worldwide</p><p>Medical Education &amp; Information for all Media, all Disciplines, from all over the WorldPowered by2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertensionThe Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) - J Hypertension 2013;31:1281-1357</p><p>Denitions and classication of office BP levels (mmHg)* * The blood pressure (BP) category is defined by the highest level of BP, whether systolic or diastolic. Isolated systolic hypertension should be graded 1, 2, or 3 according to systolic BP values in the ranges indicated.Hypertension:SBP &gt;140 mmHg DBP &gt;90 mmHg</p><p>CategorySystolicDiastolicOptimal</p></li><li><p>TYPES OF HYPERTENSIONPRIMARYalso called essential hypertensionmost cases the causes of this type is not knownmajority of people with this type feel no different from those who have normal blood pressure.</p><p>SECONDARYthis is when high blood pressure is as a result of other medical problems (like kidney or liver problem) or medication</p></li><li>CAUSES AND RISK FACTORSAge- Blood pressure rises with increasing age.Gender- Hypertension is more common in young adulthood men and middle aged men (</li><li><p>CAUSES AND RISK FACTORSObesity- Weight gain is highly associated with increased frequency of hypertension, especially with central abdominal obesity.Diabetes Mellitus- Hypertension is more common in diabetic patientsElevated Cholesterol and Triglycerides- High levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are primary risk factors for atherosclerosis (plaque build up in your blood vessels).Too much salt in your diet- High sodium intake contributes to high blood pressure and causes water retention.</p></li><li><p>CAUSES AND RISK FACTORSAlcohol- Excessive alcohol intake is associated with hypertensionCigarette smoking- Smoking increases your risk for cardiovascular disease. If you have hypertension and smokes, you have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease and blood clots.Sedentary lifestyle- Inactivity and weight gain are associated with high blood pressure and increases the risk for heart disease.Stress- People exposed to repeated stress may develop hypertension more frequently than others.</p></li><li><p>SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSHypertension is often called the Silent killer because it is frequently asymptomatic- meaning without symptoms until it has become severe and damage to organs have occurred.A person with severe hypertension may have symptoms caused by the effects on the blood vessels which my be:FatigueReduced activity toleranceDizzinessBlurred visionsNape painPalpitationsAngina (chest pain)Difficulty breathing</p></li><li><p>SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSAccording to the American Heart Association, there is a common misconception that people with high blood pressure will experience symptoms such as nervousness, sweating, difficulty sleeping, or facial flushing. The truth is that HBP (high blood pressure) is largely a symptomless condition. If you ignore your blood pressure because you think symptoms will alert you to the problem, you are taking a dangerous chance with your life. Everybody needs to know their blood pressure numbers, and everyone needs to prevent high blood pressure from developing.</p></li><li><p>TREATMENTStep 1: lifestyle modifications Diet and exerciseLimit alcohol and tobacco useReduce stress factorsStep 2: seek medical adviseIf lifestyle changes are not enough, drug therapy will be introducedStep 3:If previous steps did not work, drug dose or type will be changed or another drug is addedStep 4:More medications are added until blood pressure is controlled</p></li><li><p>COMPLICATIONSCardiovascular Disease Atherosclerosis Hardening of the arteries Coronary Artery Disease- damage to the heart and coronary arteriesCerebrovascular DiseasePeripheral Vascular DiseaseStroke or Heart AttackAngina- Chest pain Kidney damageVision loss</p><p>HEART FAILURE- Over time as the heart works harder to push the blood throughout the body, the heart (which is a muscle) enlarges. </p><p>Medical Education &amp; Information for all Media, all Disciplines, from all over the WorldPowered by2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertensionThe Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) - J Hypertension 2013;31:1281-1357</p><p>LIFESTYLE CHANGES FOR HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS* Unless contraindicated. BMI, body mass index.</p><p>RECOMMENDATIONS TO REDUCE BP AND/OR CV RISK FACTORSSalt intakeRestrict 5-6 g/dayModerate alcohol intakeLimit to 20-30 g/day men, 10-20 g/day womenIncrease vegetable, fruit, low-fat dairy intakeBMI goal25 kg/m2Waist circumference goalMen: </p></li><li><p>PREVENTIONMAINTAIN A HEALTHY WEIGHTa weight loss of even 10 pounds can decrease your systolic by 5-20mmHg INCREASE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITYMONITOR BLOOD PRESSURE know if it is high, low, normal, or borderlineREGULAR CHECK UPS WITH YOUR PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN.</p></li><li><p>Frequently Asked QuestionsHow dangerous is hypertension? It is called the silent killer for good reasoncontributes to more than 200,000 deaths each yea, afflicts more than 1 billion worldwide is on the rise, increasing 35 percent in just ten years from the late 1980s to the late 1990scosts more than $37 billion per year in health careWhat is the DASH diet? The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is an eating plan designed to prevent and treat hypertension.Does potassium help lower blood pressure? Yes, potassium has a favorable effect on blood pressure. Potassium is richly present in the DASH diet, which is recommended for persons with hypertension</p></li><li><p>BP MonitoringYour blood pressure should be taken during your regular health check ups.Your doctor may recommend checking your blood pressure at home if you have risk factors of hypertension or if you have been diagnosed with pre-hypertension (systolic: between 120 and 139mmHg OR diastolic: between 80 and 89mmHg).A record of readings taken over time can provide you and your healthcare provider a clearer picture of your blood pressure.</p><p>AHA Recommendation:The American Heart Association recommends an automatic, cuff-style, bicep (upper-arm) monitor. Wrist and finger monitors are not recommended because they yield less reliable readings.</p></li><li><p>BP MonitoringUse a bicep (upper-arm) monitor for more accurate readings as recommended by the AHA.Electronic or automatic versions at work or in your local pharmacy/shopping center may be used but can give inaccurate readings.A manual blood pressure cuff can also be used if you have someone that knows how to accurately use it. Make sure the cuff fitsBe still Sit correctly with your back straight and supported (using a dining chair instead of a sofa is recommended), feet flat (do not cross your legs), and upper arm supported at heart level.Make sure the middle of the cuff is directly over the brachial artery.</p></li><li>BP MonitoringRecord all your readings and understand the readings (optimal BP is </li><li><p>THANK YOU!</p><p>*</p></li></ul>