Guided Notes on Climate Classification Chapter 14, Section 2

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<ul><li><p>Guided Notes on Climate ClassificationChapter 14, Section 2</p></li><li><p>1. The Koeppen Classification system uses the criteria of temperature, precipitation, and distinct vegetation to classify the earths climate zones.</p></li><li><p>2. Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperatures. The combination of heat and rain produces tropical rain forests. These regions are under the influence of maritime tropical air.</p></li><li><p>3. The transition zones that border the rainy tropics north and south of the equator are known as tropical wet and dry zones and have distinct dry winter seasons. Savannas are examples of tropical wet and dry zones.</p></li><li><p>4. Dry climates cover about 30 percent of the Earths land area and make up the largest climatic zone. Most of the worlds deserts are classified as dry climates. Continental tropical air dominates these areas, precipitation is low, and vegetation is scarce. </p></li><li><p>5. The two subtypes of dry climates are deserts and steppes, which are more humid than deserts. They generally separate arid regions from bordering wet climates.</p></li><li><p>6. Humid subtropical climates are influenced by the subtropical high-pressure systems that are normally found over oceans in the summer.</p></li><li><p>7. Marine west coast climates are dominated by the constant inland flow of air off the ocean, which creates mild winters and cool summers, with abundant yearly precipitation.</p></li><li><p>8. Mediterranean climates are found in Italy and Spain, and are influenced by the Mediterranean Sea.</p></li><li><p>9. The three subtypes of continental climates are warm summer climates, cool summer climates, and subarctic climates. These climates are the battlegrounds for clashing tropical and polar air masses.</p></li><li><p>10. Polar climates are characterized by constant cold and low amounts of precipitation because cold air holds less moisture than warm air.</p></li><li><p>11. A microclimate is a localized climate that differs from the main regional climate.</p></li><li><p>12. Heat islands are caused by the presence of many concrete buildings and asphalt, making the climate warmer than surrounding rural areas. This effect occurs because asphalt and concrete radiate far more heat into the air than do grasslands, wooded areas and water. This causes temperatures in large cities to be significantly warmer than in surrounding areas.</p></li></ul>