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Groundwater Management in Urban Area N.Dörfliger of Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division Changsha, May 2014 ASEM Seminar on Sustainable Management of Water resources in the context of urbanization

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  • Groundwater Management in Urban Area

    N.Drfliger

    of Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Changsha, May 2014

    ASEM Seminar on Sustainable Management of Water resources in the context of urbanization

  • > 2 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    > Outline Urban water cycle framework

    Role of the groundwater and of reclaimed water

    Urbanization and water supply in the world and with a focus in Asia

    Groundwater abstraction for water supply in India and in China

    Groundwater management In terms of quantity with contribution of

    groundwater modeling to face water demand

    In terms of early warning system for flooding In terms of groundwater protection and

    vulnerability

    In terms of reclaimed water Conclusions and Perspectives

    Urban water cycle - facts Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

  • > 3 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Urban water cycle - facts Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Storm water

    Water supply

    Wastewater

    Groundwater River Reservoir/Lake Alternative source (reuse, desalinization)

    Potential resource Reuse of water Reclaimed water

    Sewer capacities Water treatment standards

    Water quality Potential resource Flooding control and mitigation

    Reduce leaking of pipes Protection scheme - vulnerability

  • > 4 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    In 2015, > 50% of all people on earth, about 4 billions of people are expected to live in urban areas

    Asia is strongly concerned for large urban centers

    The increase of urban density More than one habitant of the world/two leaves in town. Acceleration of the trend Population of the 30 largest urban centers In millions More than

    Evolution of worldwide population

    In billions

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

  • > 5 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater abstraction in India i.e. : Today, 89% of groundwater abstraction are for irrigation needs (70% of irrigation needs) and 9% of groundwater abstraction are for water supply, covering 80% of domestic water supplies; 251 km3/year in 2010 , Groundwater abstraction in total Groundwater abstraction in China : 20 % of groundwater = urban water supply ; overexploitation with geological hazards and environmental issues; 112km3/year in 2010 of Groundwater abstraction in total

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Source: Margat, J., and J. van der Gun. 2013. Groundwater around the World, CRC Press/Balkema

  • > 6 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban areas variety of groundwater types

    Local and shallow aquifers Groundwater basins Complex hydrogeological structures (karst, hard rock, )

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

  • > 7 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban areas - In terms of quantity with conjunctive use with surface water and alternative

    water such as reclaimed water - Needs of monitoring Groundwater level through appropriated network, as well as abstraction

    volumes and of modeling various demand scenarios in order to avoid overexploitation and linked problems : subsidence, quality problems.

    Modified from Foster et al 1998

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

  • > 8 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban areas Overexploitation due to increase of water demand => cone of depression in

    groundwater of several decades of m depth Needs to set up various scenarios for remediation, and to carry out modeling

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Here example of Shanghai Illustration with similar situations in 1970s in Bordeaux urban area in South West France

    Y. Zhou et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 4748 (2012) 99113

  • > 9 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban area Bordeaux (SW France)

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Illustration 8 : Carte des volumes prlevs par bassin versant et par usage

    Consequences of an intense development In Eocene: depression of GW level in Bordeaux area In Oligocene: dewater of sectors

    A threatened Gw ressource 65% of GW used for Water supply In quantity: - Eocene: renewal compromise - Oligocene: decrease of spring discharges In quality: - Eocene: possible salt water intrusion - Oligocene: increased vulnerability to

    surface pollutions

  • > 10 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban areas Example of MONA model in Bordeaux area (South West France)

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    - 15 layers from Plio Quaternary to Bajocian - 66953 meshes of calculation (2km x 2Km) - Pseudo 3D model (no explicit scheme for

    impervious layers) - Year time step from 1972 2013 - 3248 capture works - 400 groundwater level time series

  • > 11 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management issues in urban areas

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Simulation of scenarios and also recently concerning Climate changes MONA model = a decision support tool, running every year and update of the model

  • > 12 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Groundwater management mitigation of flooding where groundwater contributes to floods, i.e. in karst aquifers area, through determining the proof of GW contribution, and groundwater level and saturation index of soil and sub-soil within warning systems

    Example Of catchment Of La fontaine de Nmes Spring (Nmes town South France)

  • > 13 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management mitigation of flooding where groundwater contributes to floods, i.e. in karst aquifers area, through determining the proof of GW contribution, and groundwater level and saturation index of soil and sub-soil within warning systems

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Taking into consideration initial water saturation of soil and of aquifer within a real time warning system Valorisation of groundwater level => Reservoirs modeling Warning chart for

    forecasting

    Rainfall cumul (mm)

    Wat

    er

    leve

    l of

    ind

    ex (

    gw s

    atu

    rati

    on

    )

    m a

    .s.l

    Level 1 vigilance

    Level 2 overflow

    Level 3 historical

  • > 14 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management groundwater protection scheme (protection zones) and vulnerability mapping - Example of Montpellier (South France ) and urban area

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

  • > 15 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management groundwater protection scheme (protection zones) and vulnerability mapping - Example of Montpellier (South France ) and urban area

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Very high vulnerability

    High vulnerability

    Moderate vulnerability

    Low vulnerability

    A support to cross with occupation of soil, activities, in order to define risk sectors and as well protection measures such as protection perimeters of capture work => A decision tool for planning

    Risk index Global vulnerability PaPRIKa method

  • > 16 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management and reclaimed water Management aquifer and soil treatment concept under a variety of environmental conditions (hard rock and granular aquifers, ephemeral streams, )

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Influence of infiltration pond To the recharge of the aquifer Water budget, using isotopic analyses of rainfall and gw Electrical conductivity of Gw

    Gajuel catchment peri urban area of Hyderabad, India

  • > 17 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management and reclaimed water Management aquifer and soil treatment concept under a variety of environmental conditions (hard rock and granular aquifers, ephemeral streams, )

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Importance of maintenance of ponds in order to optimize infiltration

    Survey of quality impact (chemistry, microbiology)

  • > 18 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management and reclaimed water Management aquifer and soil treatment concept under a variety of environmental conditions (hard rock and granular aquifers, ephemeral streams, )

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Optimization of waste water treatments through combined geomaterials and natural soil filter, reactive geobarriers

    Optimizing treatment of wastewater using natural soil system for infiltration ponds Mechanical filtration of organics and heavy metals Oxidative degradation of Dissolved Organic Matter and ammonium

    From pilot column to geo barriers ponds From experimental data to transport reactive modeling (MARTHE brgm + MIN3P (Mayer et al. 2002))

    Monitoring of

    water level

    Fixed hydraulic Head

    Porous cups

    Geochemical monitoring of outlet solution

    Non saturated

    biogeochemical

    transfert reactive

    model

    Secondary effluent of

    Waste water

  • > 19 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    Groundwater management and reclaimed water MAR

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives

    Optimization of waste water treatments through combined geomaterials and natural soil filter, reactive geobarriers

    Consumption of CH2O reproduced at the column outlet after 30 numerical tests

    Adjustment of kinetic redox processes coefficients

    Modelling artifact

    Waste water

    Column outlet

    Ntot Column outlet

    NO3- Column outlet

    NO3- Waste water

    NH

    4+

    mo

    l/L

    N

    O3- m

    ol/

    L

    Slight overestimation of nitrification processes: All NH4

    + transformed in NO3-

    NO3- matches with Ntot

    Production of N2 = denitrification with CH2O degradation and pyrite oxidation Ntot initial=3.15 x10

    -3 mol/L Ntot final=1.44 x10

    -3 mol/L

    Pettenati et al. 2011 WaterReuse Barcelona

  • > 20 Water, Environment & Ecotechnologies division

    - Groundwater = high potential resource for urban area

    - Strong development with potential problems of susbidence, quality problems

    - Importance of adequate managing in terms of quantity and quality, with conjuncture use of surface water and reclaimed water, of integrated management approach

    - MAR important concept through infiltration ponds to improve infiltration, or geomaterials barrier in order to strengthen purification process

    Thank you for your attention !

    Urbanization and Wsupply Groundwater management Conclusions - Perspectives