grasp the whole picture of international assignees `s intercultural sensitivity with adjustment

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  • 1. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders
    Grasp the Whole Picture of international assignees `s Intercultural Sensitivity with Adjustment
    Xiaojuan Wang &Prof. Dr. HoraTjitra
    Hangzhou, Nov 30th 2010
  • 2. Agenda
  • 3. Popularity of assignees in MNC
    • Increase in globalization has led to more and more employees been sent on international assignment (Hechanova,2003).
    • 4. The number of expatriates has actually dramatically increased in the past 20 years (Harrison et al.,2004; Harzing,2001).
    • 5. The use of expatriates will continue to expand in 21st century (Dolins,1999).
    MNCs are increasingly using expatriates for traditional control and expertise reasons, facilitate entry into new markets, develop international management competencies , manage development and control subsidiaries (Harzing,2001; Torbiorn, 1994) .
  • 6. Gap between competence and adjustment literature
    Researchers in studying the global leadership competence are only interested in the performance while ignoring the assignee`s adjustment.
    Researchers in adjustment of assignees propose that of the many factors affecting the success of international assignments, cross-cultural adjustment deserves the attention from researchers (Shaffer et al,1999;Shin, Morgeson & Campion ,2007;Bhaskar-Shrinivas, Harrison, Shaffer,& Luk,2005; Hechanova, Beehr,& Christiansen,2003).
    It is necessary to get insight from adjustment literature for the researchers in studying global leadership.
    A successful assignee occupies important role for MNC. Caligiuri (1997) proposed that a successful international assignee should be evaluated in terms of completion of assignment, cross-cultural adjustment and performance.
  • 7. Literature review about the assignee`s competence (1): A share-holder model
    There are two problems with previous study in global competence of international assignees.
    Firstly, the they ignore the role of leaders` own feeling and needs, which in fact have close relationship with outcome variables like performance.
    We need to take a shareholder's perspective (Takuchi, 2010 ) when examine Asian leaders intercultural sensitivity model.
    A new share-holder model linking competence and adjustment research is needed.
  • 8. A share-holder model
    Assignees must satisfy the needs of the three simultaneously to guarantee effectiveness in HCNs
    That is to say, outcome variables we care in Asian leadership competence not only include the factors facilitating leaders` performance in meeting the needs of company at home and subsidiary in host country but also contains factors helping the leaders satisfy their own needs . Specifically, the leaders must feel psychological well-being when interaction with the general foreign environment, when interaction with others and in work-place (Black& Stephen, 1989; Black & Mendenhall, 1991).
  • 9. Literature review about the assignee`s competence (2)
    Secondly, we have no idea of how the intercultural sensitivity develops and the interaction of factors within the model and out of the model when they are proposed out of the real work-place in cross-sectional design.
    Factors in the model are not developed with the same speed or to the same level. It has more practical and theoretical meaning if we know how the factors in competence model develops and related with other variables.
    Therefore, we need to take a process orientation when examine the competence model of assignees to supplement the previous studies with trait orientation.
  • 10. Literature review about the assignee`s competence (2)
    In sum, it is more reasonable to find out the factors not only facilitating fulfilling the needs of the company but that of oneself. Besides, the process-orientation of adjustment research design provides a good chance to give a vivid description of intercultural sensitivity model.
  • 11. Adjustment literature: make the complete picture
    Research in this domain care about the expatriates ` psychological well-being in general environment, during interaction with others and work-place (Searle and Ward,1990; Black,1988;Black and Stephens,1989) and propose that whether the expatriates adjust or not determined their performance.
    • Osman-Gani and Rockstuhl (2008) argue that the expatriate needs to adapt culturally to perform effectively on the job.
    • 12. Other meta-analyse (Bhaskar-Shrinivas,Harrison,Shaffer,& Luk,2005; Hechanova,Beehr,& Christiansen,2003) and empirical studies (Nicholls et al.,2002;Kraimer et al.,2001;Shayand Baack,2006) support it.
  • 13. Adjustment literature: make the complete picture
    Adjustment process of the expatriate managers shed light on how their intercultural sensitivity develop, what it consists of , the interaction of the factors and how it related with outside factors, which has implications for practical issues.
    Since expatriate`s adjustment is necessary for their high performance, we have good reason to argue that factors about intercultural sensitivity influence adjustment, they impact their performance as well.
    In addition, what researchers find out about antecedents of expatriate`s adjustment (Fenner and Selmer,2008; Kraimer and Wayne,2004; Peltokorpi , 2008; Arthur & Bennett,1995) suggest component of ICS for assignees as well.
  • 14. Antecedents of adjustment and intercultural sensitivity
    • Studies that include individual differences variables related with ICS demographic variables such as age or gender(Shaffer and Hrrison,1998) ,previous international experiences (Black and Gregersen,1991) and personal flexibility (Arthur and Bennet,1995), need for closure (Nicholls, Rothstein and Bourne,2002), cultural intelligence and cultural competences (Earley & Ang, 2003; Shaffer et al.,2003), various traits (Shaffer et al., 2006), personalities (Ones and Viswesvaran, 1997; Ward et al., 2004;Shaffer,et al.,2003), attitudes (e.g. Shaffer et al., 2006), competences (e.g. Johnson et al., 2006), and abilities and skills (e.g. Black & Mendenhall, 1990; Thomas, 2006; Thomas & Fitzsimmons, 2008).
    • 15. Factors impact ICS Factors impact adjustment
    • 16. The findings justify that we should take assignees` adjustment and competence together and it is not reasonable to separate them apart.
    need for closure,
    cultural empathy.
    tolerance to ambiguity,
    et al
  • 17. Assignee`s adjustment process
    It is not enough to find the factors influencing assignee`s adjustment and competence. More importantly, we should know the how the factors develop and the interaction of different factors with other contextual variables.
    Oberg (1960) proposed a most discussed U-curve model of adjustment overtime.
    However, Black and Mendenhall (1991) thought the model is confused by many variables mixing together. They use an social learning theory perspective on the adjustment process.
    Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al. (2005) examined the trajectory of adjustment overtime , proposed a S model.
    Recently, Friedman et al. (2009) found that adjustment may not always be a single continuous process but instead may sometimes be a discontinuous process of gains and lossesrepeated cycles of confusion and clarity.
    Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al. (2005)
    Friedman et al.(2009)
  • 18. Mechanism(1): stress-coping approach
    Studies with this approach emphasize the stress and difficulty working and living in new cultural background and examine the cope strategies that the newcomer`s use to overcome the problems in HCNs.
    stress is defined by many variables and processes that are reflected in the person's appraisal of a relationship with the environment as relevant to well-being and taxing or exceeding his or her resources (Lazarus et al.,1985) .
    Coping means individuals manage environmental internal demands, and conflicts among them, which tax or exceed a person`s resources (Folkman, et al., 1986).
    Coping strategies serve to achieve a fit between self and environment with regard to stressors and feelings of stresses (Berry, 1997;Zimnermann, Holman & Sparrow, 2003;Stahl, 2000; Stahl & Caligiuri,2005; Breiden et al., 2006).
    Breiden et al.(2006)
  • 19. Mechanism(1):