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GRAPHIC DESIGN for NON-GRAPHIC DESIGNERS. Before You Begin to Design. 1. TARGET AUDIENCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



GRAPHIC DESIGN forNON-GRAPHIC DESIGNERS1What is Graphic Design?The process and art of combining text and graphics to communicate an effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication. 1Before You Begin to DesignTARGET AUDIENCEDecide Who Your Audience is. The more you know about your audience, the better equipped you are to attract their attention and communicate your message. Knowing who the audience is will help you determine the best format in which to communicate with them. 2Before You Begin to DesignCONTENTWhat do you want to convey? It helps to know exactly what words you want to use (or have to use) on the page to convey your message, because the amount of words and the message will affect how you design your layout. Be ready to edit or cut text.3Before You Begin to DesignIMAGE AREAConsider the size, shape, and function of your layout.Draw a mock-up showing where artwork, photos, etc should be placed relative to copy.4Before You Begin to DesignCOLORSpot color vs. process Use color for emphasisComputer-screen color is not necessarily printed colorPaper color affects ink colorPMS - Pantone Matching System

5Before You Begin to DesignPRINTINGWhat printing processes to use.Communicate with your printerMake sure materials are availableSpell out everything leave nothing to guesswork.Provide a hard copy.

7Before You Begin to DesignConsider these five things before you begin to design:TARGET AUDIENCECONTENTIMAGE AREA COLOR PRINTINGSay What?bleedtypefaceserifbi-foldpicafontsan seriftri-foldwidowleadingragsaddle stitchorphankerningjustifiedRGBPDFPMSCMYK9Widows. Sentences beginning new paragraphs placed at the bottom of a column or page. When a new paragraph begins, keep at least two--preferably three--lines together.

Orphans. Sentence fragments or portions of hyphenated words isolated at the top of a new column or page.

kerning (less commonly mortising) is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result

Good Graphic Design Utilizes:SimplicityEmphasisWhite SpaceSimplicityKISSHave a good reason for everything you add, and take away anything that you dont needKeep headlines and lead paragraphs shortHave a purpose for everything - when in doubt, leave it outStick to three or fewer fonts in a layoutContrast -Balance -Alignment -Repetition -Flow11ContrastThe principle of contrast states that visual elements on a page should look distinctly different from one another. It is used to add visual variety to layouts and keep everything on the page from looking alike.

BalanceThe principle of balance is concerned with the distribution of visual elements on a page in order to achieve a pleasing and clear layout

Alignment is the visual connection among words, graphics, images, shapes, and lines on a page when their edges or axes line up with each other.

RepetitionThe principle that states repeating lines, shapes, images, colors, textures, and other visual elements within a page helps establish a unified cohesive design.

FlowThe visual and verbal path of movement that a viewers eye follows through a page or sequence of pages. Effective use can control the way the viewers eye scans through the design.

EmphasisThe most important element on the page should be the most prominentEmphasis Techniques:Make it the biggestMake it the boldestPlacing the element in a shape that is different from others on the pageMaking it full intensity when everything else is fadedAdding a border around the elementChanging its color so it is different Surrounding the element with lots of white spaceTilting it at an angle when other elements are horizontal12Readability/TypographyStyle of type, fontSize of type, pointFont enhancements, underline, shadow, word artWhite spaceLine length and justificationColor of the text and color of the text backgroundPage layoutGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200613Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignReadability is a key factor in graphic design. The human eye can only handle so much. There are guidelines which make designs easier to read. There are designs where readability is not the goal. In legal contracts, very small type and very long line lengths are used. This arrangement results in a document that is very hard to read. The intent is that the document has to be provided by law; it is not to have the reader be able to read or understand the material within the document.Style of TypeFonts There are seven different font groupings, each with their own intended purpose.

Old Style used in the body of text where legibility is important.Sans Serif used for display, headlines, and captions.Modern much like old style in purpose but has higher contrast on the lettering strokes.Square Serif used for display, headlines, and short blocks of text.Occasional for special effects, and should be used sparingly.3

Text used for special occasions like wedding invitations.Cursiveused for special effects.

Graphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200614Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignA design has much more unity and is easy to read if only two different fonts are used in the design. Just because the software has hundreds of fonts, the designer does not have to feel the need to use them all in a design. If readability is the goal, simpler is so much better. The following slides show the various parts of a piece of type and examples of the seven groupings of fonts. Each group has its own advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the intended purpose of the message, there is a correct font group to use.Type Nomenclature ThyAscender LineWaist LineBase LineDescender LineAscenderDescenderFilletSerifThickThinFont SizeGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200615Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignFont Size is measured from ascender line to descender line. The capitol letters are approximately 2/3 of the font size. The printers points system has 72 points equal to one inch. A 48 point font will result in a cap size of inch. There are only a few letters that have ascenders and descenders; in most copy, only a few words are capitalized. This results in most of the ink on the page between the waist line and the base line. This ink distribution results in natural white space occurring on the page which leads to the copy being more readable. Additional white space, called LEADING, can be added between the descender of one line and the ascender of the next line. This additional leading also adds to the readability of the body of text. Old Style TypeOld Style typefaces have slight differences between the thick and thin strokes, rounded serifs and fillets. These features allow for an eye pleasing amount of white space thus making the fonts easier to read and good for blocks of text.CenturyGaramondGoudy Old StyleGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200616Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignOld style types are very readable and are often used for paragraph style blocks of type usually 14 points or less on a page designed to be read at arms length. The variation in the width of the thick and thin strokes adds white space to the page. The serifs also prevent the letters from being placed too close together; this also adds white space to the page.

Old style and modern types are considered the fonts to be used where increased readability is the goal. Modern TypeModern Type is very similar to old style. The major difference is there is a much larger contrast between the thick and thin strokes. Modern is light and airy, it is considered a stylish type, and it is very readable in a block of type.BodoniTimes New RomanCentury SchoolbookSan Serif TypesSan Serif Types San means without. San serif types have no serifs. There is little or no difference in the thickness of any of the strokes of the letters. Their primary use has traditionally been for headlines and captions. But these typefaces have gained popularity for their use in blocks of type. The lack of serifs allows the letter to be closer together allowing more words to be on the page. The readability is decreased but the cost is reduced.ArialFranklin GothicLucinda SansGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200618Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignIf getting the most words on a page is the goal, a san serif type is the way to go. Many think the clean uncluttered look is very stylish, and it can be; however, readability goes down when set into a large body of text in a book or in a report. San serif types work great as a contrast to a modern or old style when used as captions or head lines.Square Serif TypesSquare Serif Types have square serifs and even stroke width. The common uses for the seldom used square serif types are for display, head lines, and occasionally for a short block of text. RockwellGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200619Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignThis type and all the rest should only be used occasionally. They can be used to create an effect in a head line or on a poster or a logo. They should never be used to create the body of a message in paragraph form. In that format, they are hard if not nearly impossible to read.Occasional TypesOccasional types are used for special effect and create high contrast but should be used very sparingly. These types should never be used to set a block of text. ChillerAlgerianBroadwayPlaybill StencilGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200620Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignThese are to be used for SPECIAL effect; they can really draw attention (Emphasis) to a part of a design to draw an uninterested audience to read the rest of the message.Text TypesText Type and Old English are very difficult to read and are reserved for formal events such as weddings. Due to the ornate nature of the capitol letters, text type should NEVER BE SET IN ALL CAPS.GothicEGraphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200621Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignThese indicate style, class and formality and should only be used for special formal events like weddings, graduations, diplomas, and events associated with long standing traditions. Cursive TypesCursive Types are also occasional types and should be used for special effect. They have the ability to show style and class when used in advertising. They can be hard to read and should not be set in all capitol letters.Commercial ScriptLine LengthA long line length with small font size allows for a lot of words to be placed on a page which saves money but makes the information very hard to read. It is for that very reason that contracts use this format. It is hard to stay on the correct line because readers have to reposition their eyes several times as they read down the length of the line.

A short line length with a large font size results in exactly the opposite situation.

Graphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200623Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignLine length should be determined by how far the reader is from the message and how large the type size is. The ideal length would not require readers to reposition their eyes more than once horizontally as they read a line. Newspapers are set in a 6 or 7 point type and are read at arms length; the line length is 1.5 to 2.5. A billboard may have letters many feet tall and have a line length of 20 or more feet, but they are to be read from hundreds of feet away.

Consider where the message will be read and how far away the reader will be. This does not matter in reports, posters, and powerpoints, if the goal is readability size so that readers do not have to reposition their eyes more than once as they read a line.White SpaceWhite space can add or detract from the readability of a design depending on how much is used. Too little and the design is cramped.Too much and the design is disjointed and unorganized which makes finding what information goes together difficult.Graphic DesignProject Lead The WayCopyright 200624Introduction to Engineering DesignUnit 4 Lesson 4.1 Marketing and Graphic DesignWhite space (leading-space between lines and kerning-space between letters) is what separates the words on the design. The amount of white will either add or detract from the readability of the message. It will also affect the cost. A book set with an airy modern font with the white space maximized for readability will have many more pages than a book set in a san serif type and the leading and kerning minimized. If we look at a text book and a cheap paperback book we can see the difference. The text is set up for readability and is not as concerned about the cost. The paperback is meant to sell cheap entertainment to people who are willing to work harder to read a novel but not pay a lot of money. White SpaceAllows the eye to restMakes type easier and faster to readResist the urge to fill entire space with words, pictures, charts and graphicsAvoid gray pagesWhite space creates emphasis

25White space makes pages more attractive and easier to read by providing a resting space for the reader's eyes and creating empty/filled contrast with the text on the page.

Gray pagesGray pages are the result of too much type, not enough white space and a lack of typographic contrast between each element of page architecture. Readers should be able to glance at a page and easily identify headlines, subheads, body copy and captions.

Emphasis.The principle of design that states that the most important element on the pages should be the most prominent, the second most important element should be the second most prominent, and so on.

PhotographsResolution - low vs. highppi (display) and dpi (printer)Size - too big or too smallCropping when and howPhoto-editing programs (Paint)Formats jpg, gif, tiffVector images what are they?

26PPI (pixels per inch) is the number of pixels displayed in an image. A digital image is composed of samples that your screen displays in pixels. The PPI is the display resolution not the image resolution.

DPI (dots per inch) is a measure of the resolution of a printer. It properly refers to the dots of ink or toner used by an imagesetter, laser printer, or other printing device to print your text and graphics. In general, the more dots, the better and sharper the image. DPI is printer resolution.

LPI (lines per inch) refers to the way printers reproduce images, simulating continuous tone images by printing lines of halftone spots. The number of lines per inch is the LPI, sometimes also called line frequency. You can think of LPI as the halftone resolution.

how a picture looks on the screen can be quite different than how it prints LogosLess is more Convey the idea as simply as possible. Few words and colors. Create logos in a vector program not Paint, PowerPoint or Publisher.Here are some examples:

Top 12 Graphic Design DontsUse low resolution photos for printUse too many different fonts in one designUse every color in the rainbow just because you canPut a box around everythingCenter everything on the pageForget to check for widows and orphansLO-RES (web) = 72 dpi HI-RES (print) = 300 dpi28Widows and orphans

Widows. Sentences beginning new paragraphs placed at the bottom of a column or page. When a new paragraph begins, keep at least two--preferably three--lines together.

Orphans. Sentence fragments or portions of hyphenated words isolated at the top of a new column or page.Forget white space is your friend avoid gray pagesUse fonts that are too small 5, 6, 7 pointUse double spaces after punctuationUnderline or use all caps instead of italicizingJustify type creates too many hyphens and riversRely on the computer for everything it is only a toolTop 12 Graphic Design Donts29Justified type does not offer enough opportunities for words to be properly spaced. As a result, lines containing a few long words are characterized by huge gaps between words and lines containing several short words exhibit extremely tight word spacing.Narrow columns of justified text are also characterized by excessive hyphenation.Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication.