Grammatical portfolio ENJOY!!

Download Grammatical portfolio ENJOY!!

Post on 11-Nov-2014

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a brief summary of the main grammar topics..

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<ul><li> 1. by Loany Meza and Karla </li> <li> 2. Is a fact we unconsciously use grammar all the time when we uselanguage for speaking, listening, reading and writing, and if we wantto improve our English language abilities, there is no escape fromaddressing grammar issues. Grammar is a very wide topic, but notso difficult to learn if you really like it. So, what its grammar? Atits core, the term grammar refers to either the inherent structureof words and sentences (morphology and syntax respectively) in alanguage; or to the study and description of this structure (what welearn from the books). Other approaches include more topics likeorthography (spelling, punctuation and capitalization), semantics(word meanings), phonetics andphonology (sounds) and pragmatics (languageuse in context). In this portfolio we are going to give you aconcrete review of the most important grammar topics,and we are going to keep it simple, direct and tothe point.. We hope you like it, and we hope thiscould be useful and valuable for you.. </li> <li> 3. Ends with Add -es boss -&gt; bossess, x, ch tax -&gt; taxesor sh bush -&gt; bushesEnds with Change y to Baby -&gt; babiesconsonant + y i then add es Candy -&gt; candies Curry -&gt; curriesmost others Add s cat -&gt; cats face -&gt; faces </li> <li> 4. Ends with -fe Change f to v knife -&gt; knives then life -&gt; lives Add s wife -&gt; wivesEnds with -f Change f to v half -&gt; halves then wolf -&gt; wolves Add es loaf -&gt; loavesEnds with -o Add es potato -&gt; potatoes tomato -&gt; tomatoes volcano -&gt; volcanoesends with -us Change -us to i cactus -&gt; cacti </li> <li> 5. Proper Nouns Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas. Examples: Karla, Loany, Rosa, George, R obert.Common Nouns Since these nouns are namingCommon nouns are the specific things, they alwaysopposite of proper nouns. begin with a capital letter.They are generic nouns. Theyname people, places, things Sometimes, they contain two oror ideas that are not more important words.specific. Examples:Examples: Britney Spears, Central Parkwoman, city, dog, shoe Zoo, Pacific Ocean.Since these nouns are not If this is the case, bothnaming anything important words arespecific, they do not need to capitalized, and the whole thingstart with a capital letter is still considered to be oneunless they begin a sentence. </li> <li> 6. One class of nouns is concrete. You can experience this group ofNouns name nouns with your five senses: youpeople, places, and things. see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, and feelCollective nouns, a special them.class, name groups [things] Examples:composed of members Student, fire[usually people]. fighter, dog, pencil, computer, i ce cream etc.Examples:army, audience, board, cab Not all nouns are concrete. Ainet, class, committee, com second class of nouns ispany, corporation, council, abstract. You cannot experience abstract nouns with your senses.department, faculty, family Examples:, firm, group, jury, majorit Intelligence, bravery, loyalty, el </li> <li> 7. The possessive form of a noun is used to show ownership. A noun is possessive if a phrase can be changed to say that an item or idea belongs to someone or something.Example:The new car belongs to Peter. -&gt; Peters car is new.The possessive noun always comes before what it owns or has.How can we form the possessive of singular nouns?The possessive of singular nouns (a name, place, thing or idea) isformed by adding an apostrophe plus an s.Examples:Monicas house -&gt; The house belongs to Monica.Flowers petals -&gt; The flower has petals. </li> <li> 8. Count nouns use singular and Non-count nouns use onlyplural verbs and pronouns: singular verbs and pronouns:There is an apple. (singular) There is some fruit. (singularThere are some apples. verb)(plural)I like that chair. ("that" is I like that furniture.singular). I like those furniture. (no!)She likes those chairs.("those" is plural)A car is an expensive thing to Traffic was heavy today.own. (singular verb)Cars are an expensive form oftransportation. </li> <li> 9. How to count non-counts nouns.. Common Measurement Nouns used with it words Although non-count nouns are Bar Chocolate Soapsupposed to be uncountable, we Cube Sugarsometimes need to count them. IceAt least, we sometimes need to Game Tennis explain the quantity of Soccer something which is non-count. Cards We can do this by using a Glass Wine measurement word, or Beer Water counter, like this: Juice -a bar of chocolate Piece Advice Information -two loaves of bread Baggage Clothing Furniture -three slices of meat Homework Machinery </li> <li> 10. When we group adjectives together there is a general rulefor the position of each type adjective, these are: Position 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Opinion Size Age Shape Color Material Origin Purpose Nice Small Old Square Black Plastic British Racing Ugly Big New Circular Blue Cotton American Running </li> <li> 11. A compound adjective is formed when two or moreadjectives work together to modify the same noun.These terms should be hyphenated to avoidconfusion or ambiguity. Example: The black-and-blue mark suggested that he had been involved inan altercation.Adjectives of Quantity answer the questionHow much?Examples : Some, Little, Any, Enough </li> <li> 12. A derived adjective is an adjective derivedfrom a noun or verb. Example: dreamyfrom dream, sterilized from sterilizeThis form of adjective is used in a sentencebefore a noun to indicate possession. Forinstance, in the sentence, Do not touch mydiary. It is personal., the word myinserted just in front of the noun diary isthe adjective. Few other examples ofpossessive adjectives are your, his,her, our, their, etc.A superlative adjective expresses the extreme orhighest degree of a quality. We use a superlativeadjective to describe the extreme quality of onething in a group of things. Examples: large -&gt;largest; big -&gt; biggest; fat -&gt; fattest.Comparative adjectives are used to compare thedifference between 2 nouns, or a collective noun .Examples: large -&gt; larger; big -&gt; bigger; fat-&gt;fatter </li> <li> 13. This form of adjective is used to demonstrateor indicate certain things. For instance, in thesentence, Parents of only those students, whohave not managed to pass in all subjects, willhave to come for tomorrows parents-teachersmeeting. The word those indicates aparticular lot of students who have failed intheir test. Placed before the noun students,this is a form of demonstrative adjective.Other such adjectives are that, these,this, etc.Interrogative Adjectives are used to askquestions about a noun.Examples : What, Which, WhoseWhile demonstrative adjectives point out specificthings, indefinite adjectives do not indicateanything specific. Indefinite adjectives areformed from indefinite pronouns and the mostcommon ones among them areany, many, few, several, etc. In thesentence, Several soldiers died in the PacificWar., the word several placed just before thenoun soldiers is an adjective, which does not </li> <li> 14. ADVERBS OF PLACE ADVERBS OF TIME These answer the These answer the question where? question when? This adverb usually This adverb usually comes after thecomes either at the very object, otherwise after beginning of the the verb: sentence or at the end. Examples: Examples: -We saw you there.-Afterwards we decided -We were sitting here. to go by car. -We looked everywhere.-Ive done that journey -Have you seen my before. glasses anywhere? -We havent started -Im sure I left them yet. somewhere. -She is still a student. </li> <li> 15. ADVERBS OF MANNER These answer the question how? This adverb usually comes after the direct object or if there is no ADVERBS OF DEGREEdirect object, after the These answer the question verb: to what extent? Examples: This adverb can modify an adverb or an adjective and -She speaks Italian comes before the word it beautifully. modifies: -He works well. Examples:-You must drive your car -The bottle is almost carefully. full, nearly empty. -Eat quietly. -They should be able to pass their exams quite easily. The following adverbs of degree can also modify verbs: almost, nearly, quite, hardly , scarcely, barely, just. </li> <li> 16. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY These answer the question how many times?This adverb comes after the verb to be: Examples: -She is always honest.Comes before simple tenses AFFIRMATIVE of all other verbs: ADVERBS-They sometimes spend the (yes) and Adverb of whole of Saturday fishing. negation (No) Comes after the first Examples: auxiliary in a tense yes, surely, certainly, inconsisting of more than one deed, by all verb: means, no, not at-I have often wondered how all, by no means. they did that. -I hope my parent just I can sometimes go without for once will say yes to food for days. my latest idea. -You must have heard about the haunted house surely? </li> <li> 17. INTERROGATIVE ADVERB (Question): When? Where? How? Why? How much/often? Examples:-When was the last time you saw the accused? RELATIVE ADVERB-Where have you been all when, where, how, why the while? These words are the -How could you have same in form as overlooked all these Interrogative Adverbs; mistakes? but they are not -Why do you have to do questions. such a stupid thing? Examples: -The time when he arrived is still unknown. -The scene where the accident occurred is close to the hospital. </li> <li> 18. Perfect SIMPLE FORMS FORMS PerfectPROGRESSIVE progressive FORMS FORMS </li> <li> 19. Present Tense Past Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, Past tense expresses an action or situation repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that was started and finished in the past.that exists only now. It can also represent a Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The widespread truth. irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized. Example Meaning Example MeaningThe mountains are Unchanging actiontall and white....</li></ul>