geography of africa continent of extreme and diverse environments
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Geography of AfricaContinent of Extreme and Diverse Environments
2nd Largest Continent
Stationary Part of Pangaea Rugged coastline
Not many high mountains like in S. Asia, (Kilimanjaro is highest)
Many plateaus inland 90% of Africa is 500ft. or higher
Victoria FallsOne of the Largest Waterfalls in the World
Sahara DesertNorthern Plateau Sahara Desert covers 30% of continent (size of US)
SahelDry semi-arid scrubland home to nomadic herders
Savanna20-60 inches of rainfall a year where zebras, antelopes, giraffes and elephants etc. live.
Tropical RainforestsFrom West Africa through Democratic Republic of Congo70 in. rain annuallyGorillas, exotic birds and plants all in danger today
Africas Rivers40% of the worlds potential hydroelectric powerNile4,100 miles (longest)Two sources, Blue and White intersectNiger2,600 miles In West Africa, center of ancient kingdoms Congo3,000 milesCentral location
Rich in Mineral Depositsdiamonds, gold, platinum, oil, copper, coal, cobalt, uranium, bauxite and iron-orewhy so poor?
What turned out to be Africas most lucrative trade industry?
AgricultureAfrican societies are primarily based on agriculture
Subsistence farming & cash crops
Cash crops are problematic Why?
Great Rift ValleyAfrica's most diverse region
Habitats include deserts to snowfields, active volcanoes to deep water abyss, lowland rainforest to savanna, and soda lakes
It is growing continuously
Clip on Great Rift ValleyDiscovery Streaming Atlas 4D GRVGeology of the GRVThe Danakil DepressionWhite GoldHow the Great Lakes FormedThe Food Chain in the SerengetiThe Masai The future of the GRV
Environmental Issues of Africa
DesertificationDegradation of:AridSemi-AridSub-humid Lands
Sahel region is very susceptible
Desiccation---irreversible damage to soil after long periods of drought
RamificationsLimited crop productionDamage food supplyDisruption of various cultures
Deforestation 13 million acres of forest lost from 1990-2000
CausesCleared for Agriculture
Flooded b/c of dams built
Pollution and development
RamificationsLoss of environmentCultures disrupted
Traditional African CultureSome important points
Traditional African ReligionANIMISM1. Belief in one remote Supreme Being.3. Ancestor veneration.4. Belief in magic and charms5. Diviner mediator between the tribe and God.2. A world of spirits (good & bad) in all things.
Islam and Christianity also make up a large percentage of the population of Africa
An Africans Search for Identity1. Nuclear Family2. Extended Family3. Age-Set4. Clan5. Lineage (ancestry)TRIBE (communal living)
1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes
Problems of Tribalism Today1. The tribe is more important than the nation.2. Communication problems.3. Inter-tribal warfare civil wars.4. Tribal favorites for government jobs: Nepotism Urbanization:Breaks down tribal traditions.Tribal intermingling on the job.
What were some of the reasons Europeans sought to enslave Africans?
Why did some Africans sell fellow Africans into slavery?
How were enslaved Africans treated by traders and their masters?
Read Letters from Affonso, Olaudahs experience
What were the African Advantages?
Protection middle man Availability of foreign goods Get rid of enemies$$$$What were the African disadvantages?
Slow down other/traditional tradingHurt Africa in the long run took focus off of other business venturesLost intelligent and strong peopleDecrease in populationCultures destroyedSlave experience
What were the European Disadvantages?Resentment from AfricansIncreased contact lead to more diseaseSlaves were cheaper labor force, competition for jobMorality What were the European Advantages?
US and Europe eventually take on some African culture$$$$$$Faster colonization of the New World
Why did Slavery End?After a little over 300 years, why did European countries eventually abolish the slave trade and slavery?
The White Mans Burden Social Darwinism
Effects of ColonialismWhat were the overall effects of colonialism on the development of Africa? (Use Maps, DBQ, and Parable of the Eagle)