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  • 8/7/2019 GCSE Energy+ Resources Notes

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    To be learned Textbook reference

    how to describe energy transfers involving thefollowing forms of energy: chemical, heat,electrical, sound, light, magnetic and nuclear,kinetic, potential (gravitational and strain).

    P 1 2Q2 & 4, p 7

    Energy Forms

    The table below lists some forms of energy; complete the missinginformation on the resources that can supply the particular type ofenergy:

    Energy Form DefinitionExamples ofResources

    ChemicalEnergy stored within a

    substance that is released onburning.

    GravitationalPotential

    Energy possessed as aresult of position in a

    gravitational field, e.g. heightabove ground.

    KineticEnergy possessed due to

    movement.

    NuclearEnergy stored in the nucleus

    of an atom.

    Energy changes can be shown on an energy flow diagram. Completethe flow charts to describe the energy transfer involved in each of the processes picturedbelow:

    Stored CHEMICAL

    energy in the head

    of the match.

    Radiant HEAT energy.

    CHEMICAL

    energy in the

    battery.

    CHEMICAL

    energy in the

    muscles of the

    archer.

    Visible LIGHT energy.

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    Energy Resources

    To be learned Textbook reference

    that there is a variety of energy

    resources, to include, oil, gas,coal, nuclear, biomass, wind,wave, solar, geothermal, tidal andhydroelectric

    how to distinguish betweenrenewable and non-renewableenergy resources

    P 3 4Q 1,3,5 &6, p 7

    how energy resources such aswind and fossil fuels are ultimatelydependent on the Suns energy

    P 8

    Energy resources can be divided into twocategories:

    Renewable energy resources are those thatcan be replenished on a time scaleappropriate to human use, e.g. within a humanlife span.

    Non-renewable are finite sources of energy. Once they havebeen used they cannot be replaced on a time scale appropriate tohuman use.

    Presently most renewable energy sources are uneconomiccompared to fossil fuels.

    Renewable Non-renewableWind OilSolar CoalTidal GasWave Nuclear, e.g. uranium

    Hydroelectric GeothermalBiomass

    Take each of the energy resources given below and complete thetable to provide a brief summary of the nature of the resource andits origin some sections have been completed for you:

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    EnergyResource

    Nature Origin of Energy

    COAL Fossil fuel: plant remainscompressed under highpressure and temperatureover millions of years.

    Sun via photosynthesis in plantleaves.

    OIL

    GAS

    URANIUM Nuclear fuel: naturally

    occurring element

    Atomic nucleus.

    WIND

    SOLAR

    TIDAL Rising and falling mass ofwater due to tidal variationduring day.

    Gravitational force of Moon doingwork on mass of water on Earthssurface.

    WAVE Convection currents inEarths atmosphere.

    HYDROELECTRIC Water falling throughsignificant height turning

    turbines.

    Heat from Sun evaporates waterthat falls as rain into rivers feeding

    waterfalls or manmade dams.

    BIOMASS Chemical energy fromcrops such as sugar, maizeand a variety of other cropsand trees.

    GEOTHERMAL

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    To be learned Textbook referencethe environmental implications of theuse of energy resources, limited togeneration of electricity by fossil fuels,nuclear fuels, hydroelectric power,

    wind farms, waves and tides.the effect on the environment of theuse of these energy resources,limited to the contribution of burningfossil fuels to greenhouse effect (briefoutline only), land/sea use andnuclear waste.

    P 5 6, P22 23 (greenhouse effect)Q 7 15, p7 & 8

    Using energy resources to generate electricity; some possibledisadvantages:

    Coal/oil/gas

    Emits SO2 (sulphur dioxide) and so can cause acidrain.

    Emits CO2 (carbon dioxide) and so increases thegreenhouse effect.

    Limited fuel available.

    Nuclear

    Nuclear waste has to be disposed of safely; wastecan remain radioactive for hundreds of years or evenlonger.

    Limited fuel available. Risk of big accidents.

    Wind Needs many large turbines, over a large area.

    Needs sites with high wind speeds, the wind doesnot blow every day; so unreliable.

    Sites may affect animal habitat.

    Hydroelectric Impossible in flat regions.

    Can affect animal habitat; affects the environment ofthe area.

    Tidal High tide required so only possible at some sites.

    Solar Needs many large panels, over a large area.

    Needs sites with good sunlight exposure, sunlightsometimes blocked by cloud cover, so an unreliablesource.

    Wave Harsh environment means equipment needs a lot of

    maintenance

    Unreliable as waves are generated by wind thatdoesnt blow consistently every day

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Certain gases in the Earths atmosphere, such as water vapour(H2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), act like a blanket

    keeping the Earths heat in.

    Short-wavelengthinfra-red radiation from the sun passeseasily through the atmosphere and heats the Earths surface.

    The warmed Earth gives off heat in the form of long-wavelength infrared radiation.

    Some of the long wavelength radiation escapes into space;most of it is absorbed and re-emitted by the greenhouse gasmolecules in the atmosphere, causing the Earths surface

    and lower atmosphere to heat up.

    The greenhouse effect is essential to maintain a high enoughtemperature to sustain life on Earth (cf Mars); however if the effect

    becomes too pronounced, then the average temperature acrossthe planet could rise (global warming) to an extent that couldcause problems:

    Melting ice caps damaging artic habitats; leading to risingwater levels worldwide

    Rising water levels could flood land presently inhabited byhumans and animals

    Rising temperatures could alter the crops that can be grown

    in certain areas; some environments may become morefertile others less so.

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    GCSE Physics ENERGY RESOURCES

    To be learned Textbook referencethe advantages and disadvantages ofusing various energy resources togenerate electricity in terms of:

    reliability, how quickly the different

    types of power station canrespond to changes in demand

    the costs of building, operatingand de-commissioning powerstations

    any additional information,including quantitative informatione.g. regarding efficiency or cost,that is provided.

    P 5 - 6

    Use the information available from earlier in this section of your notes and other sources, e.g.

    your textbook or internet sites such aswww.darvill.clara.net/altenergto complete the table:

    Type of powerstation

    Reliability, e.g. ability torespond to changes in

    demand

    Costs of building, operatingand de-commissioning

    power stations

    Coal/oil/gas

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Hydroelectric

    Tidal

    Solar

    Wave

    Coal/oil/gas

    Nuclear

    Q 1 3 on page 29

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