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Gail Chapman, UCLA. February 14, 2012. Agenda. Research and Philosophy of ECS ECS as a Model for CS Reform ECS Curriculum and Professional Development ECS Sample Activity Scope and Impact of ECS Student and Teacher Responses. Research and Philosophy of ECS. Research Leading to ECS. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gail Chapman, UCLA

February 14, 201211Agenda2Research and Philosophy of ECSECS as a Model for CS ReformECS Curriculum and Professional DevelopmentECS Sample ActivityScope and Impact of ECSStudent and Teacher Responses

Research and Philosophy of ECS3Research Leading to ECSWhat is computer science, anyway?Course offerings vary between schoolsComputing courses have no academic home Culture of low expectations around computing knowledgeLittle curricular connections with students experiencesCounselors need information Teachers need supportStudents have interest!

44FindingsComplex interaction between school structural issues and belief systems which lead to disparities of access along gender, racial, and socioeconomic lines.Schools with high numbers of students of color tend to have low-level courses, such as keyboarding. (At the time only 11 out of 57 high schools in LAUSD offered AP CS.).Counselors dont steer girls and students of color to cs. The privilege of having access at home is seen as an indicator of ability while those without such access get kept out.

Broadening Participation in Computing for Underrepresented Students

66Democratizing CS EducationRather than focus our attention on the traditional pipeline issues, we have chosen to approach this as an equity issue. As a community we argue that the ability to think computationally is an essential 21st century skillso we need to prepare all students to have this fundamental knowledge to be able to fully participate in society.If more students are given these opportunities a side effect should be a natural enrichment of the pipeline.How do we make this happen?Availability of courses for all students in all schoolsBuild courses at all schools, so that any student who desires to access this knowledge can do so, whether or not the students are college bound.Curriculum and assessment Tailored towards students in meaningful waysDeveloped to highlight the multiple ways of knowing and learning that students bring to classrooms.TeachersMust be supported in developing an inclusive inquiry based pedagogy that is effective for engaging girls and students of color.

ECS as a Model for CS Reform9Model of CS Education Reform10ECS Equitable Learning Model11Inquiry-Based Philosophy of ECSStudents are actively engaged in developing their own understandings of conceptsStudents think creatively within limits of activityStudents work in pairs/groups on activitiesStudents explain concepts and definitions in their own wordsStudents have flexibility in topic selection in some casesStudent understanding captured with multiple forms of formative and summative assessments

Teachers are facilitators of student inquiryTeachers elicit responses that uncover student knowledge about topic or conceptTeachers create interest Teachers ask probing questions to redirect students investigations when necessaryTeachers allow for multiple solutions to given problemsTeachers draw from multiple sources to check for understandingTeachers are comfortable with noisy, energetic, classroom

STUDENTSTEACHERS125 Es of Inquiry BehaviorModel (Adapted from the 5 E Model, R. Bybee) 13ECS Curriculum and PD14The ECS CurriculumCreative nature of computingTechnology as a tool for solving problemsRelevance of computer science and its impact on society

1515ECS Instructional UnitsHuman Computer InteractionProblem SolvingWeb DesignIntroduction to Programming Computing and Data AnalysisRobotics

16ECS Computational PracticesAnalyze effects of development in computingDesign and implement creative solutions and artifactsApply abstractions and modelsAnalyze ones own computational work and the work of othersConnect computing with other disciplinesCommunicate thought processes and results in multiple formatsWork effectively in teams17ECS Computer Science ConceptsUnit 1: Human Computer InteractionHardware componentsTasks suitable for computersReliability of Internet searchesCommunication as data exchangeSocietal impacts of computing (throughout)Unit 2: Problem SolvingCreation of algorithms that meet specified objectivesBehaviors of algorithmsTradeoffs of different algorithms for same problemBinary numbers and computersExpression of solutions using design toolsCharacteristics of problems that cannot be solved by an algorithmUnit 3: Web DesignWeb pages that address specific objectivesSelection of appropriate techniques to create web pagesSeparation of style from content in web page design

Unit 4: Introduction to ProgrammingAppropriate algorithms to solve a problemAbstraction to design solutions to problemsDesign, code, test, and execute a program that corresponds to a set of specificationsSelection of appropriate programming structures (data types, loops, sequencing)Debugging of programsExplanations of how programs functionUnit 5: Computing & Data AnalysisVarious forms of dataAppropriate data collection methodsAnalysis and interpretation of dataRepresentation of data and identification of patternsUsing data to make a case or describe a phenomenon

Unit 6: RoboticsCharacteristic that define a robot How different hardware designs affect the function of a machineCorrespondence between actions of the robot and parts of the programWays that robots can be used in a variety of settings

18Unit 1: Human Computer InteractionUnit 2: Problem SolvingTopicsComputers and the internetData collection and representationModels of intelligent behaviorSocietal impacts of computing

ActivitiesBuying computer simulationTaking apart a computerExplore search engines, resources, and Web 2.0 tools. Evaluate websites.Examining appropriate forms of communication technology Peanut butter & Jelly sandwich instructionsFollowing directions quizRon Eglashs culturally situated design tools virtual bead loom, Pacific Northwest basket weaver, Navajo rug weaverTuring testTopicsAlgorithms and abstractionsConnections between mathematics and computer science

ActivitiesExamining differences in data collection for making a case (advocacy) or discovery (research)Apply problem solving process to variety of problems Ron Eglash culturally situated design tools cornrow braidingCounting in binary, CS UnpluggedLinear and binary search algorithmsDescribe and compare various sorting algorithmsMinimal spanning trees and graphs Muddy City, CS UnpluggedCarpool route final project19Unit 3: Web DesignUnit 4: Introduction to ProgrammingTopicsWeb page design and developmentComputers and the InternetAlgorithms and abstraction

ActivitiesExplore issues of social responsibility on Web and society issues of web on society, personal lives, and educationUse basic html Explore image editing softwareExplore concept of separating style from structure and keeping separate html and css filesIntroduce variety of page layout stylesExplore website enhancements such as combining Javascript, html, css, and Photoshop, accordion menus, lightbox, and sliding imagesFinal project develop website on assigned topic/themeTopicsProgrammingAlgorithms and abstractionConnections between mathematics and computer science

ActivitiesIntroduce Scratch and terminologyCreate dialogue between two spritesPractice event-driven programming through alphabet gameIntroduce concept of broadcasting via role play.Introduce concepts of variables, conditions, And/Or/randomnessBuild rock/scissors/paper programCreate timing game programFinal project develop either a game project or a story about My Community20Unit 5: Computing and Data AnalysisUnit 6: RoboticsTopicsData and informationAlgorithms and abstractionConnections between mathematics and computer scienceProgramming

ActivitiesDiscuss photo ethics and data collection safety considerationsCreate maps using latitude and longitude of location, then from fileDiscuss categorical and continuous data and representations, looking at trendsRepresent data with bar plot, mosaic plots, and histogramsFilter and query text data to create subsets. Final project develop website or Scratch to present data analysis campaign on community issueTopicsRoboticsAlgorithms and abstractionConnections between mathematics and computer scienceProgrammingSocietal impacts of computing

ActivitiesIdentify criteria that makes an item a robotEvaluate robot body designsCreate algorithms to control robot behaviorBuild LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotWrite instructions for tic-tac-toeBuild, program, present dancing robotBuild, program, present a rescue robotFinal project build, program, present robot that solves a stated problem2121The ECS Professional DevelopmentHighlight the ECS conceptual structure and dynamic relationship between curriculum, computer science concepts, pedagogy, and diverse student learners in the classroomModel and make explicit characteristics of an engaging inquiry-based pedagogy Consider multiple methods and purposes for formative and summative evaluations of student learning Deepen discussions around equity issues in CS classroomsDevelop reflective practitioner skills and strategiesBuild professional ECS teacher community to provide support, guidance, mentoring

22ECS Summer Institute PD June 2011

23Ongoing Support for ECS Teachers24ECS Sample Activity25Respond Individually on PaperWhat was your first reaction?What are 3 questions you would like to ask about this chart?26CountryRatio of PayCEO: Avg WorkerJapan11:1Germany12:1France15:1Italy20:1Canada20:1South Africa21:1Britain22:1Mexico47:1Venezuela50:1United States475:1Scope and Impact of ECS27ECS Student Enrollment2008-2009 (pilot) = 306 students2009-2010 = 922 students2010-2011 = 1,377 students2011-2012 = 2,136 students28ECS 2011-2012 ENROLLMENT16 schoolsRace/EthnicityFemaleMaleTotalLatino7349151,649Asian4681127African American92108200White255782Pacific Islander101Native American459Filipino214768TOTAL9231,2132,136The ECS Policy