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  • 0.72m NS&NNS Machined Demonstrator Schedule

    *TTI HIP Vessel is currently broken.

    Future Net Shape Manufacture Technology For Subsea Applications

    Charley Carpenter Net Shape Technology Manager

    Manufacturing Technology Centre

  • 0.72m NS&NNS Machined Demonstrator Schedule

    *TTI HIP Vessel is currently broken.

    HVM Catapult

  • 0.72m NS&NNS Machined Demonstrator Schedule

    *TTI HIP Vessel is currently broken.

    Taking Research into Production

  • Spun Demonstrators .completely changing the way that something is done, thought about or

    made. Hot Isostatic Pressing An alternative to large castings and forgings.

    Game Changing Technologies

  • Traditional Manufacturing Methods Main methods of manufacturing components:





    Inter-stage Heat treatments and post-processing

    Potential for defect development or non-uniformity

    Extra time/cost




  • Subsequent defect development

    Main defects produced by these methods:


    Internal shrinkages

    Interdendritic cracks

    Heat Affected Zone segregates


    Hydrogen embrittlement in SS

    Distortion due to residual stresses

    Anisotropic mechanical behaviour

    Chemical segregation

    Microstructural variation

  • Porosity


  • Grain structure


  • Stress Corrosion Cracking

    [1] [2] [1]

  • Repair Technologies & High Integrity Manufacture Methods

    Tolerate if Repair If Alternative Manufacture Method If

    Defects do not significantly impact component function or life

    Defects are well understood (NDE)

    Defects remain stable over component life

    Cost of repair is low vs replacement

    High lead time for replacement Repair does not reduce part


    Component performance can be increased

    Cost can be reduced (at manufacture or in life)

    Greater or new functionality can be attained

    All manufacture methods may cause defects to a greater or lesser extent

  • Hot Isostatic Pressing

  • Properties produced via HIP Isotropic grains structure

    Refined grain size

    No chemical composition variation

    100% densification


  • HIP component properties Isotropic mechanical behaviour Greater corrosion resistance/life High Ultrasonic inspectability Welds can be eliminated Near Net/Net shape less machining

    HIP produced near net-shape part

    Milling + heat treatment

    End component


    Metso Materials Technology

  • Component Life Aging equipment is one of the biggest challenges facing the industry. The UK Health and Safety Executive's plant-aging initiative is centred on

    an inspection programme HSE's plant-aging guide (RR509) states: Aging is not about how old the equipment is. It's about what is known about its

    condition, and how that's changing over time. 7

  • Products produced via HIP

    Manifolds First PHIP manifold in North Seas Jade Field


    Water injection manifold installed in Heidrun field, decreasing the number of welds by 85%, manufactured in just 4 HIPed parts8

    Manifolds X-trees Well-heads Swivels Barrel Casings and hubs Wye Pieces


  • Products produced via HIP

    Manifolds X-trees Well-heads Swivels Barrel Casings and hubs Wye Pieces

    Swivels (5-16 tons) Multi-phase swivel containing complex

    internal flow channels, used for Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO)

    Claimed 10 week lead time & UT inspectable

    Just under 240 tons of HIP material for swivels can be found around the world8


    As forged piece As HIPed piece


  • Products produced via HIP

    Manifolds X-trees Well-heads Swivels Barrel Casings and hubs Wye Pieces

    Wye Pieces Produced for the East Spar

    Project (Australia)

    Due to a design stress of 25 MPa, conventional methods of production would require a part of 3.5 tonnes, HIP only 2 tonnes9


  • Timeline of HIP product manufacture 1987 Powdermet process introduced in 1987- solid and hollow bars, ring and preforms with the size required by the market10

    Mid 1990s Production of Swivels by HIP processes starts10 1998 >4000 ton of HIPed pieces for offshore industry were produced by Sandvik Powdermet

    2001 Six seabed manifold sections for BPs Norges Valhall Field installed11

    2003 70 tons of HIPed pieces sent to Shah Deniz Field in Azerbaijan13

  • Timeline of HIP product manufacture 2004 China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC) ordered two barrel casings for Sulzer pumps from Metso Powdermet12

    2006 Framo Engineering provide a swivel in duplex stainless steel for BHP Billitons Stybarrow FPSO13

    2007 Aker Kvaerner Subsea for subsea hubs for the Dalia, Gimboa, Tyrihans, Visund, Hild, and Kristin projects5

    2015 Impregnated drill bit series from Varel international includes cylindrical HIPed segments, 14

  • The Future of Powder HIP Advances in HIP compaction modelling:

    More complex components possible

    Improved material efficiency

    Greater design functionality

    [20] Bodycote

  • New Materials & Multi Materials Advanced PM alloys and metal matrix composite materials Multi Material components

    Kennametal Sandvik Powdermet [20]

  • Powder HIP Development in The UK

  • References 1: Kemplon Engineering (2014) Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC): A Capriciously Insidious Material Killer, Available at: http://kemplon.com/stress-corrosion-cracking-scc-a-capriciously-insidious-material-killer/ (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    2: Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (2007) Stress Corrosion Crack: Recommended Practices, 2nd Edition, Available at: http://kemplon.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Cracking.jpg (Accessed: 12th November 2015)

    3: TWI Global (2015) Defects/imperfections in welds - porosity, Available at: ( http://www.twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/job-knowledge/defects-imperfections-in-welds-porosity-042/ (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    4: Sandvik (2015) Advantages of HIP products, Available at: http://smt.sandvik.com/ja-jp/products/hot-isostatic-pressed-hip-products/product-advantages/ (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    5: Altak-MHD (2014) Fan structure of wrought alloys ingots, Available at: http://www.altek-mhd.com/en/articles/fanstructure (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    6: Powder Metallurgy Review (12th June 2012) Recent trends in Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) technology: Part 2 - Powder based HIP products, Available at: http://www.ipmd.net/articles/001756.html (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    7: Bridging the Energy Gap. Source: MWP. May 2014, Vol. 158 Issue 4, p50-55

    8: Hjorth, C.G (03/01/1997) Hot isostatic pressing proves value on complex subsea components, Available at: http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-57/issue-3/news/general-interest/powder-metallurgy-design-hot-isostatic-pressing-proves-value-on-complex-subsea-components.html (Accessed: 6th October 2015).

  • References 7: Fomas Group (2015) Oil and Gas, Available at: http://www.fomasgroup.com/portals/0/pdf/Oil_Gas_eng.pdf (Accessed: 12th November 2015).

    8: Crestana, L. H., and Camargo, F. C. (2010) Experience and reference of Powder Metallurgy parts produced by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), Available at: http://www.nucleoinox.org.br/inox-2010/downloads/trabalhos/M7-HIP(Sandvik).pdf (Accessed: 9th October 2015).

    9: Terdre, N. (2007) 'Sandvik Powdermet to pursue further avenues for Hot Isostatic Processing', Offshore, March, p. 105.

    10: Boyer, C.B (1992) 'Historical Review of HIP Equipment', in Koizsumi, M (ed.) Hot Isostatic Pressing - Theory and Applications. Netherlands: Springer Netherlands, pp. 465-510.

    11: Bjrman, G (03/01/2002) Hot isostatic pressing proves value on complex subsea components, Available at: http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-62/issue-3/news/sweden-hip-manufacture-extending-from-subsea-to-downhole-applications.html (Accessed: 6th October 2015).

    12: Bjrman, G (07/01/2005) Demand up for HIP components, Available at: http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-65/issue-7/sweden/demand-up-for-hip-components.html (Accessed: 6th October 2015).

    13: Hjorth, C.G (03/01/2007) Sandvik Powdermet to pursue further avenues for hot isostatic processing, Available at: http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-67/issue-3/sweden/sandvik-powdermet-to-pursue-further-avenues-for-hot-isostatic-processing.html (Accessed: 6th October 2015).

  • References 14: Ghiselin, D (05/06/2015) Advances in drill bits improve efficiency, performance, Available at: http://www.offshore-mag.com/articles/print/volume-75/issue-5/drilling-and-completion/advances-in-drill-bits-improve-efficiency-performance.html (Accessed: 6th October 2015).

    15: Hjorth, C-G. (2007) HIPing of large Near Net shape components for industrial applications, Available at: http://ventilsystemer.no/pdf/artikkel_1.pdf (Accessed: 9th October 2015).

    16: Uehara, K; Ishii, T; Inoue, Y; Fujikawa, T (1993) 'Recent Advances in HIP Equipment Technology', in Tas, H; Delaey, L (ed.) Hot Isostatic Pressing '93. Belgium: Elsevier Science, pp. 481.

    17: Anderton, J; 'Hot Isostatic Pressing Expands 3D Printing Into Hot Section Jet Parts'. Engineering 2015. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.

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