Fruit fly Ahsan

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<p>Integrated Pest Management of Fruit fly (Tephritidae: Diptera) in Punjab, Pakistan.</p> <p>By</p> <p>DR. MUHAMMAD AHSAN KHANAssistant Professor (T.T.S.)Deptt. of Agri. Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.</p> <p>VisionAchieve environmentally sound and sustainable Agricultural production ensuring food security, social equity, self reliance and economic welfare of the producer.</p> <p>GoalLarge scale and sustainable implementation of IPM in Pakistan. Rational pesticide use, maintaining production level and increasing farmers profit.</p> <p> Pest: Pest:</p> <p>PEST CONTROL</p> <p>Any organism which competes with human for food and shelter. shelter. Magnitude of losses by various pests are very high. Almost 1/3 of the high. total harvest is destroyed from the potential harvest. harvest. Pest infestation reduces yield, lowers quality and increases cost of production, hence adequate control measures must be adopted. adopted. Insect control: control: By Insect control we mean the regulation of insect activity for the best of humanity. humanity. Limitations of insect control : 1. High biotic potential. potential. 2. Efficient adaptability to the environment. environment. 3. High cost of control. control. 4. Resistance. Resistance. 5. High in number and small in size. size. 6. Can live in adverse condition. etc condition.</p> <p>BUT UNFORTUNATELYAt present Farmers largely rely on chemical insecticides to control the insects pests of various crops.</p> <p>IMPACT OF PESTICIDE USE </p> <p>Pesticide residues enter in food chain Development of pest resistance Elimination of natural enemies Extinction of wild life Degradation of cropland soil Loss of Pollinators Harm to non-target organisms nonContamination of underground and surface water Air Pollution due to fumigants and other volatile pesticides BioBio-accumulation and biobiomagnification Health concerns, etc</p> <p>Only in Pakistan on an average, 12,000 metric tons of active ingredient of pesticides are being imported annually</p> <p>9%</p> <p>2% 1%</p> <p>Insec t i c i des</p> <p>Her bi c i des</p> <p>14%Fungi c i des</p> <p>A c ar i c i des</p> <p>Fum i gant s</p> <p>74%</p> <p>RESULTANTLY:The</p> <p>chemical control is a two edged sword with both positive and negative impacts. impacts.</p> <p>Despite</p> <p>of the advantage of convenience, simplicity and effectiveness; insecticides have led to effectiveness; unsolvable problems of insect resistance, resurgence, outbreak of secondary pests, adverse effects on non-target organisms and other nonexternalities. externalities. SO Integrated Pest Management is now a global philosophy. philosophy.</p> <p>What is IPM ?(A theme of clean environment, sustainability, resource conservation and organic farming) IPM is intelligent selection and integration of compatible control measures which are ecologically sound, economically viable and socially acceptable. acceptable.</p> <p>IPM is an approach of pest management which considers the whole agro-ecosystem. agro-ecosystem. IPM is specific way of thinking, not a method of insect control.</p> <p>Major Components of IPMBiological Control Cultural control Physical Control</p> <p>Genetic control</p> <p>Healthy cropChemical Control</p> <p>Increased Production</p> <p>FRUIT FLY</p> <p>Arthropoda Animalia</p> <p>Insecta</p> <p>Diptera</p> <p>Tephritidae</p> <p>FACTS ABOUT THE FRUIT FLYThere are more than 120,000 species of fruit flies 120, worldwide but 70 species are economically most important. important. Fruit fly is recorded in India, south-east Asia and many southother countries. countries. There are about 250 host plants on which fruit fly feeds. feeds. Medical doctors use a special species of fruit fly maggots to help patients with flesh wounds, especially burn victims. victims. Maggots eat away the damaged flesh, which helps the wound to heal. heal.</p> <p>LIFE CYCLE OF FRUIT FLY</p> <p>LIFE CYCLE OF THE FRUIT FLYThere are four stages in the life cycle of the fruit fly: egg, maggot, pupa, and adult. At a typical room temperature fruit fly produces new adults in about two weeks; eight days in the egg and maggot stages (3+5 respectively), and six days in the pupal stage. The total life span of a fruit fly may be several weeks depending upon the temperature. Twenty-four hours after the egg is laid, the legless maggots hatches . The maggot has two molting periods, during which the cuticle, mouth parts, hooks, and spiracles are shed. The maggot is called an instar during the periods of growth before and after molting. Thus, the fruit fly has three instars. The puparium develops from the third instar which becomes hard in texture and darker in color. The puparium is where metamorphosis takes place, just before the adult fly emerges from the puparium, the pupa becomes dark. Approximately 24 hours before the adult fruit fly emerges, one can see the folded wings and the pigment of the eyes, if one looks closely through the puparium.</p> <p>On completion of metamorphosis, the adult forces its way through the operculum (anterior end of the puparium). Initially the fruit fly appears light in color with a long abdomen and unexpanded wings. In just a few hours the fruit fly gets darker in color, rounder in the abdomen and extends its wings. Approximately 48 hours after emerging from the puparium, it is possible for females to start laying eggs. However, there are only 12 hours that a female can be considered virgin after emerging as an adult. After reaching this maturity, the flies are fertile for life. A female fruit fly can store sperm after a single insemination and use it for many reproductions. The fruit fly over winters in the adult stage and is able to withstand temperatures as low as 20F. Food, water, and shelter are more important factors for over wintering than temperature. Over wintering fruit flies feed on honeydew and require an abundant water supply.</p> <p>In this picture, you can identify male and female fruit fly by looking carefully at their tail end. You can easily see that one fruit fly is all black at the end of the abdomen which is male and the other has very narrow black bands at the base of the abdomen which is female.</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONAmong various species of pest insects attacking the fruits, fruit flies (Tephritidae; Diptera) have great economic importance due to their heavy Tephritidae; Diptera) losses to fruits &amp; vegetables in Pakistan. The incidence of fruit flies reduces Pakistan. both yield and quality of fruits when females puncture and lay eggs in the fruit under the skin. The maggots after hatching, tunnel into the fruits for skin. feeding on the pulp and render them unfit for human consumption. In certain consumption. fruits, rotting starts at the puncture points. The losses caused to fruits by fruit points. flies varied according to species and the host fruit plant species. In the species. scientific literature the most serious pest species reported is the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsali.s), which caused 5-100 percent loss to various fruits dorsali. (Syed et of., I970b). Highest loss of 80 percent in guava fruit was reported of. 970b). by Kali (1986). 1986) The peach fruit fly is an other insect pest species, found most abundantly in all climatic regions of Pakistan and cause 3-100 percent loss in different fruits (Sycd et al., 1970a). The ber fruit fly (Carpomya vesuviana) al. 1970a). vesuviana) can cause 90-100 percent damage to ber fruit. 90fruit.</p> <p>Many conventional and modem techniques of pest control have been tested to avoid the losses caused by fruit flies in the world. world. These pest control techniques included orchards sanitation, physical, chemical, biological control and sterile male technique. But technique. in Pakistan, sole reliance has been made on pesticides for the control of fruit flies which has created environmental contamination, residues problem, killing of non-target organisms, development of nonresistance against pesticides in insects etc. etc. However in some instances, the use of male lures and protein baits are being used for the control of fruit flies but these control measures are not practiced in integrated manners. Therefore there manners. is a dire need to develop a long lasting pest control strategy. Thus strategy. for promoting a combination of these control strategies, the present studies were designed with an overall objective to develop low cost technology for fruit flies control and to avoid indiscriminate use of the insecticides. insecticides. Keeping in view the above facts the present project was under taken on different fruits viz., apple, mango, guava and ber at their viz. respective ecological zones viz., Murree, Multan, Sheikhupura and viz. Murree, Faisalabad respectively. respectively.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES1.</p> <p>To study population dynamics and infestation percentage of fruit flies on various selected fruits apple, ber, mango and guava of ber, their respective ecological areas. areas. To identify the species found damaging apple, ber, mango and ber, guava fruits in their respective areas. areas. To determine the impact of abiotic factors on the population fluctuation and infestation percentage through simple correlation and by developing regression models. models. To integrate various control measures viz., cultural, trapping, viz. baiting and use of selective insecticide for management and suppression of fruit flies on one of the most affected fruit. fruit.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>3.</p> <p>4.</p> <p>IDENTIFICATIONAdults were collected from each pheromone trap during fruiting season from each respective locality. locality. These specimens were killed in cyanide killing bottle and set on setting boards by entomological pins No.16, labeled and stored them No.16, in classified collection boxes. Naphthalene balls boxes. and Coopex powder was used in these collection boxes for protection of specimens from the attack of beetles, ants, etc. These specimens were etc. identified up to species level with the help of revolving stage and wild M3B binocular microscope having three magnifications i.e., 10 X 5.4 X, 10 X 16 X and 10 X 40 X.</p> <p>METHODOLOGYStudies were carried out on integrated pest management of fruit flies. Four fruits viz., Apple, Ber', Guava and Mango at four flies. viz. localities i.e Murree, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan respectively were selected. The data on population dynamics, by selected. installing methyl euginol and cue lure traps and infestation percentage by ring method were recorded for two consecutive years in each selected fruit of its respective locality. Fruit flies collected locality. from each fruit plant were identified. identified. The pest was managed through integrated approach including hoeing, baiting, trapping and using insecticide individually and in their all possible combinations by selecting one showing maximum infestation. infestation. Impact of abiotic factor on population fluctuation per trap and infestation percentage were determined by processing the data into simple correlation, multiple regression models and principal component of analysis (PCA). (PCA).</p> <p>Map of Pakistan Showing localities (district) of conducting experiments</p> <p>1. 2. 3. 4.</p> <p>Faisalabad Murree Multan Sheikhupura</p> <p>POPULATION DYNAMICSEight gardens comprising not less than 30 trees of each fruit viz., viz. Apple, Ber, Guava and Mango in their respective areas i.e., Murree Ber, Hills, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan were selected. Sex selected. attractant pheromones methyl euginol and cue Iure were used in traps for population monitoring. Each trap has cotton wicks soaked with 5-6 monitoring. ml sex attractants. Four gardens meant for methyl euginol and four for attractants. cue lure in each locality. Traps were installed at fortnight interval and locality. remained there for 24 hours . The trap to trap distance was kept as 30 + 5 m. Six traps per hectare were used in each garden at each locality. locality. One garden considered as one replication and thus there were four replications for each trap at their respective localities. The data on localities. adult fruit flies were recorded from each pheromone trap 24 hours after each installation. The duration of recording population data was installation. two consecutive fruiting season of each fruit. fruit. The observations were started at fruit formation and continued up to the maturity of the fruit when the trapped population reached to zero or negligible level. level.</p> <p>INFESTATIONThe data regarding infestation caused by fruit flies to each fruit were recorded at fortnight interval by selecting four trees at random from each garden. One garden denoted one replication and there were four garden at each locality. The infestation was recorded with the help of one square meter iron ring. The ring was placed at four sides of each selected fruit tree. Total number of fruits and number of infested fruits in the ring were counted. The percent infestation was calculated by the following formula. No. of infested fruits Fruit infestation (%) = -------------------------------- x 100 Total number of fruits The data were subjected to statistical analysis</p> <p>ROLE OF WEATHER FACTORS EFFECTING FRUIT FLIES POPULATIONMeteorological observations relevant to temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were taken from the adjoining metrological department of each locality. The data were used to assess the effect locality. of weather on the fruit flies population attacking different fruit plants at their respective localities. localities. The impact of weather factors on the population fluctuation and infestation of fruit flies for each fruit was calculated by processing the data into simple correlation. The correlation between infestation and correlation. population fluctuation of fruit flies was also calculated for both fruiting seasons separately and on cumulative basis. The data were also basis. processed for multivariate regression models among abiotic factors, population fluctuation and infestation with the objective to see the actual role of weather factor on the population fluctuation and infestation of fruit flies. Principle Component of Analysis (PCA) was flies. also performed to determine the influence of weather factors on infestation and population of fruit flies. flies.</p> <p>INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES ON GUAVAStudy was conducted in Guava orchards of District Sheikhupura (showing maximum infestation of fruits caused by fruit flies). flies). Four control practices viz., hoeing, baiting, sex attractants viz. pheromone (methyl euginol) and selective insecticides (Dipterex 80 euginol) SP) were applied singly and in all their possible combination. There combination. were 16 treatments including control and each treatment was repeated three times. Three fruit gardens not less than 30 trees times. were selected for each treatment. So there were 48 gardens in total. treatment. total. The distance between one garden to another was not less than one kilometer. kilometer. The specific detail of each treatment was as follows. follows.</p> <p>VARIOUS TREATMENTS AND THEIR ALL POSSIBLE COMBINATIONSSr. # Treatments T1 T2...</p>


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