Franchini Judo Active Recovery EJAP 2009

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  • ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Effects of recovery type after a judo match on blood lactateand performance in specific and non-specific judo tasks

    Emerson Franchini Romulo Cassio de Moraes Bertuzzi Monica Yuri Takito Maria A. P. D. M. Kiss

    Accepted: 9 July 2009! Springer-Verlag 2009

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to verifyif active recovery (AR) applied after a judo match resulted

    in a better performance when compared to passive recovery

    (PR) in three tasks varying in specificity to the judo and inmeasurement of work performed: four upper-body Wingate

    tests (WT); special judo fitness test (SJFT); another match.

    For this purpose, three studies were conducted. Sixteenhighly trained judo athletes took part in study 1, 9 in study

    2, and 12 in study 3. During AR judokas ran (15 min) at the

    velocity corresponding to 70% of 4 mmol l-1 blood lactateintensity (*50% _VO2 peak), while during PR they stayedseated at the competition area. The results indicated that

    the minimal recovery time reported in judo competitions(15 min) is long enough for sufficient recovery of WT

    performance and in a specific high-intensity test (SJFT).

    However, the odds ratio of winning a match increased tentimes when a judoka performed AR and his opponent

    performed PR, but the cause of this phenomenon cannot be

    explained by changes in number of actions performed or bychanges in matchs time structure.

    Keywords Athletes ! Combat sport ! Lactate removal !Performance

    Introduction

    Since 2009 the format of international judo competition has

    been one 5-min period, which can be complemented byextra time until one athlete scores or to the end of a new

    3-min period. However, the incidence of extra time in high

    level competition is lower than 2% of the total number ofmatches (IJF website, http://www.ijf.org). The typical time

    structure is 2030 s of activity with a 510-s interval (Van

    Malderen et al. 2006; Castarlenas and Planas 1997;Sikorski et al. 1987), during which the athletes spend most

    of the time (51 11%) trying to perform a grip (Marcon

    et al. 2007), resulting in a high physiological demand onthe upper body (Franchini et al. 2007; Thomas et al. 1989).

    Thus, this format taxes both the aerobic and the anaerobic

    systems. The anaerobic system provides the short, quick,all-out bursts of maximal power during the match, while

    the aerobic system contributes to the athletes ability to

    sustain effort for the duration of the combat and to recoverduring the brief periods of rest or reduced effort (Franchini

    et al. 2003; Muramatsu et al. 1994). In a high level com-petition judokas perform 57 matches in the same day in

    order to classify among the best five competitors, with a

    minimal interval of 10 min between two consecutivematches, although the typical time interval is around

    15 min (Franchini et al. 2003).

    For recovery periods of 1020 min some studies haveindicated that active recovery (AR) is better than passive

    recovery (PR) for blood lactate removal (Greenwood et al.

    2008; Siegler et al. 2006; McAinch et al. 2004; Gupta et al.1996; Weltman and Regan 1983; Weltman et al. 1979).

    However, the effect of AR on subsequent performance is

    controversial when the interval between the first and thesecond bout is 1020 min (Greenwood et al. 2008;

    Monedero and Donne 2000; Watts et al. 2000; Thiriet et al.

    E. Franchini (&) ! R. C. de Moraes Bertuzzi !M. Y. Takito ! M. A. P. D. M. KissSchool of Physical Education and Sport,University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Mello de Moraes,65, Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazile-mail: emersonfranchini@hotmail.com

    123

    Eur J Appl Physiol

    DOI 10.1007/s00421-009-1134-2

    http://www.ijf.org

  • 1993; Bond et al. 1991; Weltman and Regan 1983; Weltman

    et al. 1977, 1979). Specifically with combat sports, only twostudies were found that manipulated the recovery process

    (Franchini et al. 2003; Hemmings et al. 2000). One studyonly compared massage with PR in a boxing-specific task(Hemmings et al. 2000), and the other (Franchini et al. 2003)did not include a control (C) situation to use as comparison

    to the performance when AR or PR was employed after ajudo match simulation. Additionally, the performance task

    used was not specific to judo.Thus, the objective of the present studywas to verify ifAR

    applied after a judo match resulted in a better performance

    when compared to PR in three tasks varying in specificity tothe judo. The hypothesis is that a performance improvement

    after AR compared to PR is detectable only in the beginning

    of the activity (first 1 min) or in the most specific task.

    Methods

    Experimental design

    Three studies were conducted to investigate the effects of

    AR or PR after a judo match on subsequent performance.

    The activity used to measure performance varied in itsability to provide a valid measurement of work performed

    and in its specificity to judo. Figure 1 presents a schematic

    view of each study.Basically, during the four upper body Wingate test,

    power is calculated constantly, but the movement used

    (arm cranking) is not specific to judo actions. In the special

    judo fitness test (SJFT), the number of throws during an

    intermittent judo task is measured, being less precise thanthe Wingate test, but more specific to judo. In the match,

    the effort is not actually measured; but all movements are

    specific.After performing two incremental treadmill tests, ath-

    letes were submitted to a judo match followed by 15 min of

    either AR or PR and a performance task. In the first twostudies, the performance tasks were also conducted in a

    control situation. When the performance task was another5-min judo match, athletes performed four experimental

    sessions. After each of the four matches the judoka per-

    formed AR or PR, as well as his opponent, and then foughtagain. For all studies the experimental sessions were ran-

    domly determined.

    Participants

    All the participants were volunteers and took part in thepresent study after giving their signed consent. All proce-

    dures received local ethics committee approval. To take

    part in the present study the athletes should have the fol-lowing characteristics: (1) take part in official judo com-

    petitions during that year; (2) train at least three times per

    week; (3) be a brown (first kyu) or black belt (first dan); (4)age equal or higher than 18-year-old and less than 35-year-

    old; (5) compete in the under 100-kg categories. Sixteen

    athletes took part in study 1, 9 in study 2, and 12 in study 3.Table 1 presents the main characteristics of the judokas

    who took part in each study, as well as their treadmill

    performance and active recovery intensity.

    Fig. 1 Schematicrepresentation of the studydesign

    Eur J Appl Physiol

    123

  • General procedures

    Participants were required to refrain from exercise 24 h

    prior to each trial and not to ingest any food 3 h prior thetest sessions. They were also instructed to replicate intake

    for all trials. All subjects were familiarized with the pro-cedures adopted and have performed the tests previously at

    least once in other studies. The tests were conducted with a

    minimal time interval of 24 h and a maximum of 2 weeksbetween the first and last test session. All tests were con-

    ducted at the same time of day.

    Treadmill _VO2 peak and 4 mmol l-1 lactate threshold

    intensity measurements

    The _VO2 peak test began with a 7-km h-1 speed, 1%

    grade, with 1.4 km h-1 increment each minute to the

    subjects exhaustion. Throughout the test, oxygen uptake _VO2 was measured breath-by-breath with the telemetricsystem of a portable gas analyzer (K4b2, Cosmed, Rome,

    Italy). In all cases the test stopped by participants inabilityto continue (exhaustion). _VO2 peak was considered thehighest _VO2 measured during a 30-s time interval.

    The protocol proposed by Heck et al. (1985) was used todetermine the 4 mmol l-1 lactate threshold (4LT). Blood

    lactate during this and other tests was measured by using an

    automated device (YSI 1500, Yellow Springs, OH, USA).

    Warm up

    Before each test (control or experimental sessions), par-

    ticipants warmed up at an intensity of 70% 4LT for 5 min,

    followed by a 3-min rest before the test.

    Wingate anaerobic tests

    Judokas completed four bouts of the upper-body Wingate

    test separated by 3-min recovery periods. Load was set at

    4.9 N kg-1 of body weight. Peak power, mean power,fatigue index, time to reach peak power, and total work

    were calculated as previously reported (Artioli et al. 2007;Franchini et al. 2003).

    Special judo fitness test (SJFT)

    This test was developed by Sterkowicz (1995), and was

    previously described by Artioli et al. (2007) and

    Franchini et al. (1998). Briefly, three athletes of similarbody weights are needed to perform the SJFT: 1 partic-

    ipant (tori) is evaluated, and 2 other individuals receivethrows (ukes). The tori begins the test between the 2 ukes3 m from each. On a signal, the tori runs to one of theukes and applies a throwing technique called ippon seoinage. The tori then immediately runs to the other uke andcompletes another throw. The athlete must complete as

    many throws as possible within the test time. The SJFT iscomposed of three periods (15, 30, and 30 s) separated

    by 10-s recovery periods. Performance is determined by

    the total throws completed during each of the threeperiods. Heart rate was measured after and 1 min after

    the test (Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele,

    Finland).

    Match simulation

    Each match had 5-min duration in order to analyze the

    hardest condition a judoka could have. Each athletes

    opponent was the same in all conditions. Both opponentswere of the same weight category and technical level. All

    matches were filmed and the following variables were

    determined: (1) time structure (s)time spent on standingor groundwork positions and interval time; (2) technical

    actionsnumber of attacks, number and type of different

    techniques applied. All matches were conducted by anofficial judo judge.

    Recovery

    During PR the judoka stayed seated at the tatame for

    15 min with the heart rate monitor (Polar Vantage NV,

    Table 1 Judokas main characteristics, treadmill performance, and active recovery intensity (mean SD)

    Variables Study 1 (n = 16) Study 2 (n = 9) Study 3 (n = 12)

    Age (years) 21.9 4.1 22.1 1.8 21.3 2.3

    Body weight (kg) 77.1 5.2 74.1 11.8 82.5 15.8

    Height (cm) 176.6 9.7 177.0 10.3 179.2 10.1

    Time of judo (years) 11.8 4.3 10.3 5.0 13.2 3.5

    _VO2 peak (ml kg-1 min-1) 62.6 7.4 58.8 7.8 59.5 6.3

    Anaerobic threshold velocity (km h-1) 11.2 1.4 11.4 1.1 10.8 1.9

    Active recovery velocity (km h-1) 7.8 1.0 8.0 0.8 7.6 1.3

    Active recovery velocity (% of peak velocity) 48.2 4.9 53.8 4.8 50.7 5.0

    Eur J Appl Physiol

    123

  • Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). Blood samples were

    taken according to Fig. 1. During the AR the judoka ran(15 min) at the velocity corresponding to 70% of 4LT

    (*50% _VO2 peak). The athlete stopped the AR only at themoments of blood lactate measurements as reported onFig. 1. HR was also monitored using the same procedure

    conducted during PR.

    Statistical analysis

    All analyses were performed using the SPSS software

    (version 13.0, Chicago, USA). Data are reported as means

    and standard deviation (SD). The distribution of the datawas analyzed by the ShapiroWilk test, and the results

    showed a normal Gaussian distribution. A Mauclys test of

    sphericity was used to test this assumption, and a Greens-house-Geisser was used when necessary. For studies 1 and

    2, a two-way (time of measurement and recovery proce-

    dure) analysis of variance with repeated measures wasapplied. For study 3, a three-way analysis of variance (time

    of measurement, athlete recovery and opponent recovery)

    with repeated measures was used. One-way analysis ofvariance was also used to compare single measurements

    across procedures. Bonferronis multiple comparisons test

    was used to check where the differences previouslydetected by the analysis of variance were. A paired student

    t test was used to compare heart rate during AR and PR andvariables in match 1 and 2. A Chi-square analysis wasconducted to compare the frequency of wins on match 1 for

    each condition. Multiple logistic regression was used to test

    the number of wins on second matches in the differentconditions adjusted to the number of wins on the theoret-

    ically less favorable condition (PR 9 AR; baseline). An

    a priori power analysis of performance and lactate vari-ables revealed a sample size of 1015 participants, suffi-

    cient to achieve a power of 0.8. Statistical significance was

    set at P\ 0.05.

    Results

    Blood lactate and heart rate during recovery

    In all studies blood lactate concentration before and peak

    blood lactate after match one did not differ among exper-

    imental conditions (P[ 0.05).In study 1, there was an interaction effect between

    type of recovery and time of measurement (F = 7.69;P\ 0.001) for blood lactate. Differences between recoverytypes occurred at 9th (AR: 7.27 2.67 mmol l-1; PR:

    8.79 2.74 mmol l-1; P\ 0.001), 12th (AR: 5.42 2.53 mmol l-1; PR: 7.39 2.23 mmol l-1; P\ 0.001)and 15th min (AR: 4.46 2.27 mmol l-1; PR: 6.59

    2.44 mmol l-1; P\ 0.001). Furthermore, blood lactatemeasured at the 12th min during AR was lower (P\ 0.01)than that measured at the 15th min of PR. Heart rate during

    AR (150 13 bpm) was higher (t = 11.35; P\ 0.001)compared to PR (108 14 bpm).

    In study 2, there was an interaction effect between type

    of recovery and time of measurement (F = 3.05; P\ 0.05)for blood lactate. Blood lactate at 10th and 15th min duringAR (6.38 2.19 and 4.1 1.26 mmol l-1, respectively)

    was lower (P\ 0.001 for both comparisons) than themeasurements at the same time during PR (9.05 3.59

    and 7.48 2.99 mmol l-1, respectively). Heart rate was

    higher (t = 21.03; P\ 0.001) during AR (144 8 bpm)compared to PR (106 8 bpm).

    In study 3, there was an interaction effect between type of

    recovery and time of measurement (F = 4.18; P\ 0.001)for blood lactate. As expected, no effect of opponents type

    of recovery was observed. Indeed, as no difference existed

    between the two days of AR (P[ 0.05) and between the twodays of PR (P[ 0.05), a new ANOVA was conductedconsidering only type of recovery (two days of each type of

    recovery grouped) and time of measurement. Again, it wasobserved an interaction effect (F = 9.21;P\ 0.001). Bloodlactate at the 10th min of AR (8.09 3.94 mmol l-1)

    was lower (P\ 0.01) than that measured during the PR(9.92 4.77 mmol l-1). This difference was still evident

    at the 15th min (PR: 7.26 3.47 mmol l-1; AR: 5.23

    2.92 mmol l-1; P\ 0.001).Peak blood lactate was lower (t = -2.77; P\ 0.01)

    after matches 1 grouped (12.68 5.02 mmol l-1) com-

    pared to matches 2 grouped (11.62 4.79 mmol l-1).Heart rate differed across conditions (F = 52.67;

    P\ 0.001). It was higher (P\ 0.001 for all comparisons)during ARAR (144 14 bpm) and ARPR (139 16 bpm) compared to PRAR (107 11 bpm) and PRPR

    (108 12 bpm).

    Performance variables and blood lactate

    in the performance task

    For peak power, mean power, fatigue index, and time to

    reach peak power, there was no effect of experimental

    condition (P[ 0.05). Relative total work performed duringcontrol (509.6 59.2 J kg-1), AR (521.4 79.9 J kg-1)

    and PR (505.0 73.0 J kg-1) conditions did not differ

    (F = 0.79; P[ 0.05).For blood lactate concentration during the Wingate

    tests, there was an effect of interaction between condi-

    tions and time of measurement (F = 5.54; P\ 0.001).The main results from the post-hoc test were a lower

    (P\ 0.001, for both comparisons) blood lactate beforethe Wingate tests in control (1.41 0.57 mmol l-1)compared to AR (4.46 2.27 mmol l-1) and PR

    Eur J Appl Physiol

    123

  • conditions (6.59 2.44 mmol l-1), as well as a lower

    blood lactate concentration in the AR (P\ 0.01) com-pared to the PR condition. After Wingate test 1, blood

    lactate was higher during PR (10.02 2.43 mmol l-1)

    compared to both control (6.61 1.63 mmol l-1,P\ 0.001) and AR (7.87 2.01 mmol l-1, P\ 0.01).After Wingate test 2, PR (12.84 3.17 mmol l-1)

    resulted in a higher (P\ 0.05) blood lactate concentra-tion compared to control (10.53 1.64 mmol l-1). After

    Wingate tests 3 and 4, no differences were found amongconditions (P[ 0.05). Delta of blood lactate acrossWingate tests was affected by recovery type (F = 9.46;P\ 0.001). It was higher during control compared toboth AR (P\ 0.05) and PR (P\ 0.001).

    During the SJFT there were no differences (P[ 0.05)among conditions concerning the number of throws duringthe three series, resulting in no difference (P[ 0.05) in thetotal number of throws among control (26 1 throws), AR

    (27 2 throws), and PR (26 3 throws) conditions.Although the analysis of variance detected a significant

    difference (F = 4.95; P\ 0.05) among the experimentalconditions, the Bonferroni test presented only a trend(P = 0.077) to a higher HR after the SJFT after the ARcompared to the C condition. Heart rate 1 min after the

    SJFT did not differ among situations (P[ 0.05).In study 2, there was an interaction between condition

    and time of measurement (F = 24.44; P\ 0.001) forblood lactate. Before the SJFT it was lower in the C(1.45 0.53) mmol l-1) compared to both AR (4.1

    1.26 mmol l-1; P\ 0.05) and PR (7.48 2.99 mmol l-1;P\ 0.001), while AR was lower than PR (P\ 0.001).After the SJFT, blood lactate was lower in AR (2 min:

    10.78 2.13 mmol l-1; 3 min: 11.36 2.13 mmol l-1;

    5 min: 11.51 2.42 mmol l-1) compared to C (2 min:14.63 4.29 mmol l-1; 3 min: 15.19 3.73 mmol l-1;

    5 min: 15.39 3.67 mmol l-1; P\ 0.001 for all threecomparisons) and PR (3 min: 13.66 2.94 mmol l-1;5 min: 14.01 2.70 mmol l-1; P\ 0.05 for both 3-and 5-min comparisons). The delta of blood lactate also

    differed among experimental conditions (F = 33.22;P\ 0.001), with a higher value in C compared to both AR(P\ 0.001) and PR (P\ 0.01).

    No differences (P[ 0.05) were found when all matches1 were compared concerning number of attacks, techniques

    used, time spent on standing position, time spent on

    groundwork, interval time or total time. The experimentalprocedures adopted after match 1 did not influence

    (P[ 0.05) number of attacks, techniques used, time spenton standing position, time spent on groundwork, intervaltime or total time on match 2. When all matches 1 were

    compared to all matches 2, the only variables which dif-

    fered were the interval time, with higher (t = 3.54;P\ 0.001) values on match 2 (76 53 s) compared to

    match 1 (48 18 s), and as consequence, the total time

    (t = 3.63; P\ 0.001), which was higher on match 2(374 53 s) compared to match 1 (345 18 s).

    Table 2 presents the number of wins on match 1 and 2

    for each experimental condition and the odds ratio for eachof them on match 2 adjusted by the number of wins on

    match 1.

    Considering that the probability of win was 50% in atotal of 12 matches for each condition, no association was

    found between number of wins on match 1 and experi-mental conditions to be applied during the recovery after

    these matches (Chi-square = 1.33; df = 3; P[ 0.05).However, when results on match 2 were analyzed a sig-nificant odds ratio was found for the condition where the

    judoka performed AR and his opponent performed PR after

    match 1.

    Discussion

    The main findings of the present study were that lactate

    disappearance was facilitated during AR compared to PRin all three studies. However, subsequent performance was

    not changed in studies 1 (four upper-body Wingate tests)

    and 2 (special judo fitness test). On the other hand,although the time structure and the number of actions

    performed during match 2 did not differ across experi-

    mental conditions, the odds ratio of winning was increasedten times when the athlete performed AR and his opponent

    performed PR after match compared to the opposite con-

    dition (athlete performed PR and the opponent performedAR after match 1). Thus, the performance difference across

    procedures varied accordingly to the specificity of the task

    employed (i.e., no difference in less specific tasks and asignificant improvement in the most specific task).

    The lower blood lactate after matches 2 compared to

    matches 1 in study three is different from those reported instudies which more than one match was evaluated (Thomas

    et al. 1990; Tumilty et al. 1986; Sikorski et al. 1987;

    Table 2 Number of wins on match 1 and 2, odds ratio and itsrespective 95% confidence interval and significance level for eachexperimental condition

    Condition Wins onmatch 1

    Wins onmatch 2

    OR [CI95%] P

    PR 9 AR 8 3 1

    PR 9 PR 6 6 3.24 [0.56;18.77] 0.189

    AR 9 PR 4 9 10.50 [1.52;72.37] 0.017

    AR 9 AR 6 6 3.24 [0.56;18.77] 0.189

    AR active recovery; PR passive recovery; OR odds ratio; CI95%confidence interval at 95% level

    Eur J Appl Physiol

    123

  • Majean and Gaillat 1986). In fact, only Sikorski et al.

    (1987) found an increase in peak blood lactate concentra-tion across international level judo matches, while other

    studies (Thomas et al. 1990; Tumilty et al. 1986; Majean

    and Gaillat 1986) reported no significant differencebetween the matches. Thus, if we consider blood lactate

    concentration as an indicative of the anaerobic lactic

    energy system activation (di Prampero and Ferretti 1999),these athletes presented a lower demand on it during the

    second match. Although this result differs from the reportsabout blood lactate after judo matches, it agrees with a

    lower anaerobic contribution and a higher aerobic contri-

    bution in the last bouts of high-intensity intermittentexercise (Bogdanis et al. 1996; Trump et al. 1996; Gaitanos

    et al. 1993; Spriet et al. 1989). Another explanation could

    be the higher interval time between efforts in the secondmatch compared to the first one, which could result in more

    time for CPr resynthesis, resulting in a lower anaerobic

    lactic energy system activation.The results of the present study are also in line with

    those of the previous ones which reported that AR was

    better than PR for lactate removal from the blood(Greenwood et al. 2008; Siegler et al. 2006; McAinch et al.

    2004; Gupta et al. 1996; Weltman and Regan 1983;

    Weltman et al. 1979). The moment when the differencesstarted (910 min after the match) is similar to that

    reported in studies using other tasks (Hudson et al. 1999;

    Gupta et al. 1996) and with a previous study with a judomatch simulation (Franchini et al. 2003). The higher blood

    lactate removal during AR can be a consequence of the

    intensity employed during this procedure (70% 4LT or4854% of the peak velocity achieved during a progressive

    treadmill test), which was near the optimal intensity

    reported in several studies (Greenwood et al. 2008; Baldariet al. 2004; Dodd et al. 1984; McLellan and Skinner 1982;

    Stamford et al. 1981; Bonen and Belcastro 1976; Belcastro

    and Bonen 1975; Hermansen and Stensvold 1972).Although the physiological variables measured did not

    return to rest values, the results obtained in studies 1 and 2

    indicated that the time allowed for recovery after the matchwas high enough for a full performance recovery, as no

    difference was observed when the control condition was

    compared to performance after both AR and PR. This resultis similar to previously reported in judokas (Franchini et al.2003) using the same task employed in the present study,

    but lacking a control condition. Similar results (i.e., noimprovement in performance after AR compared to PR)

    were also found in several articles using different perfor-

    mance tasks (Watts et al. 2000; Bond et al. 1991; Weltmanand Regan 1983; Weltman et al. 1979).

    In the more complex condition (study 3), although no

    difference was found in the action performed by thejudokas or in the match time structure, the probability of

    winning was increased when AR was used by the athlete

    and PR was conducted by his opponent. This result con-firms the hypothesis of high sensibility of a more specific

    condition to detect the difference between the recovery

    processes. As judo performance is influenced by manyfactors (Sterkowicz et al. 2007) it is difficult to determine

    which mechanisms were responsible for the positive

    influence of AR on second match performance. However,one possible explanation could be a faster choice reaction

    time, movement initiation and movement times after ARcompared to PR. In fact, some studies presented faster

    choice reaction time (Chmura et al. 1994, 1998; Kashihara

    and Nakahara 2005) and both faster movement initiationand movement times (McMorris et al. 2005) after exercises

    in intensities slightly above the anaerobic threshold.

    Although the judokas performed a lower intensity exerciseduring passive recovery in the present study, it is important

    to consider that they had performed one judo match before

    and that the physiological variables (lactate and heart rate)measured during AR were similar to that reported in these

    studies.

    In conclusion, the minimal time between matches typi-cally reported in judo competitions (15 min) is long

    enough for a full performance recovery of highly trained

    judokas when considering the anaerobic performance in anon-specific and a specific high-intensity test. However, the

    odds ratio of winning a match increases ten times when a

    judoka performs AR and his opponent performs PR,although the cause of this phenomenon cannot be explained

    by changes in number of actions performed or by changes

    in matchs time structure. Further studies should try tomeasure the quality of movements performed during the

    judo match or choice reaction time and movement time

    after each procedure in order to establish a possible cause.

    Acknowledgments We would like to thank all subjects and theircoaches for their committed participation. This study was supportedby a grant from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de SaoPaulo (99/06408-2).

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    Effects of recovery type after a judo match on blood lactate and performance in specific and non-specific judo tasksAbstractIntroductionMethodsExperimental designParticipantsGeneral proceduresTreadmill \dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2} peak and 4 mmol l1 lactate threshold intensity measurementsWarm upWingate anaerobic testsSpecial judo fitness test (SJFT)Match simulationRecoveryStatistical analysis

    ResultsBlood lactate and heart rate during recoveryPerformance variables and blood lactate in the performance task

    DiscussionAcknowledgmentsReferences