formation of european union: till treaty of rome (1951- 1957)

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Formation of EU (1951-1957)Hemanth TNaveen Nikamanth A BTreaty of Paris (1951)Between France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and LuxemburgFormation of ECSC

Initial resistance

ECSCObjective : organizing free movement of coal and steel and free access to sources of productionWhy ? This choice was not only economic but also political, as these two raw materials were the basis of the industry and power of the two countries. The underlying political objective was to strengthen Franco-German solidarity, banish the spectre of war and open the way to European integrationImpact of ECSCOther Institutions established - a High Authority, an Assembly, a Council of Ministers and a Court of JusticeImpactNeither changed the pattern of production nor the pattern of tradeServed its primary purpose : Assuring that Germany would not again become a dominant force in the continentOnce the threat of German dominance of coal and steel was over there was no impetus for integration of the industries The HA did not set European steel policy and the ECJ did not serve as a force for integration

Failure of EDC

Failure of EDCThe French fear as a consequence of the U.S. decision to rearm Germany was, perhaps, the driving factor for the French Prime MinisterThe primary aim of the U.S. was to create a stable Europe so that the U.S. private sector could operate and make business in the ContinentGermany was a reliable and predictable partner for the U.S. to promote its liberal policies on the Continent, whereas France was resisting the planWestern European Union (1955)the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into the Atlantic Alliance;

the restoration of confidence among Western European countries by assuming responsibilities for arms control;

consultation between the European Community founding Member States and the United KingdomRe-Unification of Saarland After World War II, the Saarland came under French occupationIn 1954, France and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) developed a detailed plan called the Saarstatut to establish an independent Saarland. However the Referendum was rejected.On 27 October 1956 the Saar Treaty declared that Saarland should be allowed to join the Federal Republic of Germany, which it did on 1 January 1957

Council of Europe Flag (1955)

Symbolises the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the people of Europe The number of stars has nothing to do with the number of member countries, though the circle is a symbol of unityTreaties of Rome

Treaties of Rome (contd.)Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West GermanyFounding of European Economic Community and EURATOMInitially, the Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the ECSC to cover other sources of energyThe Benelux states and Germany were also keen on creating a general common market, although it was opposed by France due to its protectionismTwo separate communties proposed by Paul Henri Spaak EEC and EuratomEECObjectivesto transform the conditions of trade and manufacture on the territory of the CommunityEEC as a contribution towards the functional construction of a political Europe and constituted a step towards the closer unification of Europe.ContributionsEstablishment of a common marketEstablishment of a customs unionDevelopment of common policies

EuratomThe original members were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands a nuclear-energy industry on a European rather than a national scalecoordinate research in atomic energy, encourage the construction of nuclear-power installations, establish safety and health regulations, encourage the free flow of information and the free movement of personnel, and establish a common market for trade in nuclear equipment and materialsEuropean Community (1957)

Referenceshttp://www.cvce.eu/obj/cartoon_by_cesar_on_the_consequences_of_the_failure_of_the_edc_22_september_1954-en-077577bc-7a6c-4120-a6ea-31b72613e0b9.htmlhttp://www.cvce.eu/obj/cartoon_by_carrier_on_the_risks_involved_in_the_schuman_plan_5_december_1951-en-b9a2d92d-6f10-44b7-a919-1e071da72e0f.htmlThe theory and the reality of the ECSC, K.J.Alter, D. Steinberghttp://europa.eu/about-eu/eu-history/index_en.htmhttp://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/flag/index_en.htmhttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1546631/How-EU-leaders-signed-a-blank-cheque.html

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