Fluid Mechanics SEMESTER II, 2010/2011

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OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Understand the basic concepts of fluid mechanics and recognize the various type of fluid flow problems encountered in practice.

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Fluid Mechanics SEMESTER II, 2010/2011
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
Understand the basic concepts of fluidmechanics and recognize the various type offluid flow problems encountered in practice. What is fluid mechanics?
The science that deals with the behavior offluids at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluiddynamics), and the interaction of fluids withsolids or other fluids at the boundaries. It is divided into several categories: Examples: hydrodynamics, hydraulics, Gasdynamics, aerodynamics etc. Hydrodynamics: The study of the motion of fluids that can be approximated as incompressible (such as liquids, especially water, and gases at low speeds). Hydraulics: A subcategory of hydrodynamics, which deals with liquid flows in pipes and open channels. Gas dynamics: Deals with the flow of fluids that undergo significant density changes, such as the flow of gases through nozzles at high speeds. Aerodynamics: Deals with the flow of gases (especially air) over bodies such as aircraft, rockets, and automobiles at high or low speeds. Meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology: Deal with naturally occurring flows. What is FLUID? A substance in the liquid or gas phase isreferred as FLUID In fluids, stress is proportional to strain rate. Stress=force per unit area. Normal stress, = Fn/dA (in fluid at rest, it is called pressure) Shear stress, = Ft/dA (for fluid at rest=0) Application areas of Fluid mechanics
Examples: Natural flows & weather Aircraft & spacecraft Boats Human body Piping & plumbing systems Wind turbines and many more.. Weather & Climate Tornadoes Thunderstorm Global Climate Hurricanes
57:020 Fluid Mechanics Vehicles Surface ships Aircraft Submarines High-speed rail
57:020 Fluid Mechanics Environment Air pollution River hydraulics 57:020 Fluid Mechanics Physiology and Medicine
Blood pump Ventricular assist device 57:020 Fluid Mechanics Sports & Recreation Water sports Cycling Offshore racing Auto racing
Surfing 57:020 Fluid Mechanics NO-SLIP CONDITION A fluid in motion comes to a complete stop at thesurface and assumes a zero velocity relatives to thesurface. Fluid in direct contact with solid sticks to thesurface due to viscous effect, and there is no slip. THE NO-SLIP CONDITION A fluid flowing over a stationary surface comes to a complete stop at the surface because of the no-slip condition. The development of a velocity profile due to the no-slip condition as a fluid flows over a blunt nose. Boundary layer: The flow region adjacent to the wall in which the viscous effects (and thus the velocity gradients) are significant. Flow separation during flow over a curved surface. Classification Of Fluid Flows
A. Viscous vs inviscid regions of flow Viscosity -a measure of internal stickiness offluid Viscous flow regionsignificant frictional effect Inviscid flow region negligible viscous forces The flow of an originally uniform fluid stream over a flat plate, and the regions of viscous flow (next to the plate on both sides) and inviscid flow (away from the plate). Classification Of Fluid Flows
B.Internal vs external flow C. Compressible vs incompressible Incompressible flow almost constant density throughout - fluid Compressible flow- gas D. Laminar vs turbulent flow Determined by Reynolds number, Re Re < 2000 (laminar); Re > 6000 (turbulent);between laminar and turbulent is transitional E.Natural (or unforced) vs forced flow
F.Steadyvs unsteady flow Steady = no change at a point of time Transient = typically used for developingflows,( e.g. pressure build up inside rocketengine, until it operates steadily) SYSTEM AND CONTROL VOLUME
System: A quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. Surroundings: The mass or region outside the system Boundary: The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings. The boundary of a system can be fixed or movable. Systems may be considered to be closed or open. Closed system (Control mass): A fixed amount of mass, and no mass can cross its boundary. Open system (control volume): A properly selected region in space.
It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor, turbine, or nozzle. Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume. Control surface: The boundaries of a control volume. It can be real or imaginary. An open system (a control volume) with one inlet and one exit. SUMMARY?