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  • i

    EVALUATING FUEL BRIQUETTE TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR

    IMPLICATIONS ON GREENHOUSE GASES AND LIVELIHOODS IN KENYA

    MARY MBURA NJENGA

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE

    DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE

    UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, KENYA

    2013

  • ii

    DECLARATION

    This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in

    anyotheruniversity

    Signed………………………………………………… Date ……………………………...

    Mary Mbura Njenga

    This thesis has been submitted for examination with our approval as the supervisors

    Signed………………………………………………………………………………………

    Prof. Nancy K. Karanja Date……….. ……………….

    Signed………………………………………………………………………………………

    Dr. Jacob Kithinji Date……….. ………………………

    Signed………………………………………………………………………………………

    Dr. Ramni Jamnadass Date……….. ……………………….

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................. ix

    LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................... xi

    ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................................... xii

    DEDICATION...................................................................................................................... xiv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................... xv

    ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................... xvi

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 1

    1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ....................................................................... 1

    1.2 OBJECTIVES ......................................................................................................... 4

    1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES ................................................................................. 4

    1.4 STUDY AREA ....................................................................................................... 5

    1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ............................................................................ 6

    CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWAND JUSTIFICATION .................................... 8

    2.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 9

    2.2 LIVELIHOOD AND GENDER ASPECTS OF CHARCOAL ............................ 11

    2.3 CURRENT DEMAND FOR CHARCOAL AS A FUEL SOURCE – AND

    FUTURE TREND ................................................................................................ 12

    2.4 SOURCES OF CHARCOAL ............................................................................... 14

    2.5 IMPACTS OF CUTTING TREES TO PRODUCE CHARCOAL ...................... 16

    2.6 METHODS OF CHARCOAL PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL

    IMPLICATIONS .................................................................................................. 17

  • iv

    2.7 EFFICIENCY IN USE OF CHARCOAL AND ITS EFFECTS ON CLIMATE

    CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH .................................................................... 18

    2.8 POLICY ISSUES AND STAKEHOLDERS IN THE WOOD CHARCOAL

    INDUSTRY .......................................................................................................... 19

    2.9 INTERVENTIONS THAT COULD TURN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    INTO A SUSTAINABLE SECTOR .................................................................... 22

    2.9.1 Efficient production and utilization processes .......................................... 22

    2.9.2 Agroforestry systems for sustainable charcoal production ....................... 24

    2.9.3 Recovery of charcoal dust/fines for energy fuel briquette production ...... 27

    2.9.4 Formalization of charcoal industry ........................................................... 28

    2.10 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH................................................................ 29

    2.11 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 29

    2.12 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................. 31

    2.13 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 31

    CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS ................................................................ 34

    3.1 SURVEYS ON PRODUCTION METHODS AND USE OF BRIQUETTES

    BY LOCAL COMMUNITIES ............................................................................. 34

    3.2 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ................................................................................ 34

    3.3 DETERMINATION OF COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTES .... 35

    3.4 DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS IN BRIQUETTES ............. 36

    3.5 MEASURING CONCENTRATIONS OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO),

    FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM2.5) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)

    FROM BURNING BRIQUETTES ...................................................................... 37

  • v

    3.6 COOKING EFFICIENCY TESTS ....................................................................... 38

    3.7 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) .................................................................. 38

    3.8 DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS ....................................................... 40

    CHAPTER 4: IMPLICATIONS OF CHARCOAL BRIQUETTE PRODUCED BY

    LOCAL COMMUNITIES ON LIVELIHOODS AND ENVIRONMENT IN

    NAIROBI, KENYA ............................................................................................... 41

    4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 42

    4.2 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 46

    4.2.1 Study site ................................................................................................... 46

    4.2.2 Surveys on production methods and use of briquettes by local

    communities .............................................................................................. 47

    4.2.3 Characterization of calorific value of charcoal briquettes ........................ 47

    4.2.4 Cooking tests ............................................................................................. 48

    4.2.5 Data management and analysis ................................................................ 49

    4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ......................................................................... 49

    4.3.1 Community groups and briquette production methods ............................. 49

    4.3.2 Socio-economic aspects and adequacy of briquettes as fuel ..................... 54

    4.3.3 Charcoal briquette quality ........................................................................ 60

    4.3.4 Policy relevance of charcoal briquette ...................................................... 62

    4.4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 68

    4.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................... 68

    4.6 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 69

  • vi

    CHAPTER 5: QUALITY OF COOKING FUEL BRIQUETTES PRODUCED

    LOCALLY FROM CHARCOAL DUST AND SAWDUST IN KENYA ......... 74

    5.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 75

    5.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS .......................................................................... 78

    5.2.1 Study area .................................................................................................. 78

    5.2.2 Briquette production .................................................................................. 78

    5.2.3 Raw material preparation and processing ................................................. 80

    5.2.4 Determination of combustion properties of briquettes .............................. 81

    5.2.5 Determination of chemical elements in briquettes .................................... 82

    5.2.6. Measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter

    and carbon dioxide from burning briquettes ............................................. 82

    5.2.7 Data management and analysis ................................................................. 83

    5.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................... 84

    5.3.1 Combustion properties of briquettes ......................................................... 84

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