etymology terms

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Etymology terms. Euphemism. A word or phrase that is considered less offensive or less vulgar than the one it replaces “she passed away today”. Colloquial language. Everyday language; usually applies to the spoken word. Cognates. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Etymology terms

Etymology terms1EuphemismA word or phrase that is considered less offensive or less vulgar than the one it replacesshe passed away todayColloquial languageEveryday language; usually applies to the spoken wordCognatesWords formed by combining the roots of 2 different languagesBlend wordsWords that blend two already defined words: for example, smog (smoke+fog) or jazzercise (jazz music + exercise)HybridsA word which etymologically has one part derived from one language, and another part from another languageEx: bioluminescenceGreek bios meaning living + Latin lumen meaning light

linguisticsStudy of the origins and structure of human languageSub-disciplines include evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguisticssemanticsStudy in the historical change in the meaning of words how language conveys meaningFor example, the sentence Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. is well-formed in word order, but makes no sense! Or A student met every professor. A different student, or the same student? Word componentPart of a word, such as the rootAbstract wordA word not perceived by the five sensesEx: love, success, freedom, good, moral , democracy, and any ism (chauvinism, Communism, feminism, racism, etc.)Clipped wordsNew words that are shortened forms of existing words (for example, cab which was clipped from cabriolet, which was a one-horse carriage with 2 seats and a folding top)analogyThe process of connecting information from one subject to another particular subjectExample: Milk : Cow :: Egg : ChickenAnalogies have been discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists, and lawyers!inflectionAlteration of a word to indicate different grammatical and syntactical relationsjargonSpecialized expressions native to a particular field, subculture, or regionaffixWord element attached to a root wordCan be a prefix, suffix, combined form, or infix (infix is a word inserted within the base form)acronymWord formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a phrase or series of wordsExamples: MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)Apheresis and aphesisRemoval of a letter, syllable, or unaccented vowel from the beginning of a word, such as coon for racoon or till for untilRomance languagesComprise all the languages derived from Latin, the language of ancient Rome6 most common: Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan (the official language of Andorra, a small country in southwestern Europe)infusionProcess by which words are introduced into another languagedoubletWords in different languages derived from the same rootEx: shirt and skirt both Germanic, the first Old English, the second Old NorseEx: chief and chef both from French (at different times)Loan wordsA word borrowed from one language and incorporated into anotherEx: hors doeuvre or dtenteAbbreviations notesdim. = diminutive, a word used to convey a slight degree of the word meaning, smallness of the object, intimacy, or endearment (such as behaving like or talking to children)Abbreviations notes contdeccl. = ecclesiasticalMeaning a word associated with the churchvar. = variant, meaning it differs from another word in form only, being of the same essence/substanceAbbreviations notes contdvulgar = Vulgar Latin, meaning dialects of Latin spoken after the fall of the Roman Empire (in other words, nonstandard) as opposed to classical Latin (standard)