Episode 23 : PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT

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    SAJJAD KHUDHUR ABBASChemical Engineering , Al-Muthanna University, IraqOil & Gas Safety and Health Professional OSHACADEMYTrainer of Trainers (TOT) - Canadian Center of Human Development Episode 23 : PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT

  • PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT*

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  • Time ManagementActivity Definition identifying the specific activities that must be performed to produce the various project deliverablesActivity Sequencing identifying and documenting interactivity dependenciesActivity Duration Estimating estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activitiesSchedule Development analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project scheduleSchedule Control controlling changes to the project schedule

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  • Activity DefinitionInvolves identifying and documenting the specific activities that must be performed to produce the deliverables and subdeliverables identified in the WBSImplicit in this process is the need to define the activities such that the project objectives will be met

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  • Activity Definition*

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  • Outputs from Activity DefinitionActivity listInclude all activities that will be performedOrganized as an extension to the WBSDoes not include any activities that are not required as part of the scopeShould include descriptions of each activity to ensure that the project team members will understand how the work is to be doneSupporting detailShould be documented and organized as neededInclude documentation of all identified assumptions and constraintsWBS updatesMissing deliverables may be identified, or the deliverable descriptions clarified or correctedUpdates must be reflected in the WBS and related documentationrefinements

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  • Activity SequencingInvolves identifying and documenting interactivity logical relationshipMust be sequenced accurately to support later development of a realistic and achievable scheduleCan be performed with a software or manually

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  • *Activity Sequencing

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  • Inputs to Activity SequencingMandatory dependenciesInherent in the nature of the work being doneOften involve physical limitationsHard logicDiscretionary dependenciesDefined by the PM teambased on knowledge of:Usually defined Best practices within a particular application areaSome unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there are other acceptable sequencePreferred logic, preferential logic or soft logicExternal dependenciesInvolve a relationship between project activities and nonproject activities eg. Environmental hearings before project constructionsMilestonesNeed to be part of the activity sequencing to assure that the requirements for meeting the milestones are met

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  • *Tools and Technique for Activity SequencingPrecedence diagramming method (PDM):Method of constructing a project network diagram that uses boxes or rectangles (nodes) to represent the activities and connects them with arrows that shows the dependencies.Also called activity-on-node (AON) and is the method used by most project management software packages.

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  • PDM includes four types of dependencies or precedence relationships:Finish-to-start the initiation of the work of the successor depends upon the completion of the work of the predecessorFinish-to-finish - the completion of the work of the successor depends upon the completion of the work of the predecessorStart-to-start - the initiation of the work of the successor depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessorStart-to-finish - the completion of the work of the successor depends upon the initiation of the work of the predecessor

    *In PDM, finish-to-start is the most commonly used type of logical relationship. Start-to-finish relationships are rarely used, and then typically only by professional scheduling engineers.

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  • *Arrow diagramming method (ADM):Method of constructing a project network diagram that uses arrows to represent the activities and connects them at nodes to show their dependencies.Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) ADM uses only finish-to-start dependencies and may require the use of dummy activities to define all logical relationships correctlyConditional diagramming methodsGraphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) and System Dynamics models allow for nonsequential activities such as loops or conditional branches

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  • Outputs from Activity SequencingProject network diagramsSchematic displays of the projects activities and the logical relationships (dependencies) among them (Fig 6.2 and 6.3)Often referred to as a PERT chart (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)Activity list updatesActivities may be divided or redefined to diagram the correct logical relationship

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  • Activity Duration EstimatingProcess of taking information on project scope and resources and then developing durations for input to schedulesInputs for the estimates of duration typically originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of a specific activityThe estimate is often progressively elaborated depending on the quality and availability of the input dataThe expert person or group should at least approve the estimate

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  • *Activity Duration Estimating

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  • Inputs to activity duration estimatingResource requirements duration will be significantly influenced by the resources assigned to themResource capabilities significantly influenced by the capabilities of the human and material resources assigned to themHistorical information may be available from these sourcesProject filesCommercial duration estimating databasesProject team knowledgeIdentified risks project team considers the effect of risks is included in the baseline duration estimate for each activity, including risks with high probabilities or impact

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  • Tools and techniques to activity duration estimatingExpert judgment using expert opinion in combination with historical informationAnalogous estimating top down estimating; using the actual duration of a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the duration of a future activityQuantitatively based durations quantities to be performed (number of drawing etc) multiplied by the productivity rateReserve time (contingency) incorporate an additional time frame (reserve, contingency or buffer) as recognition of schedule risk.

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  • Outputs to activity duration estimatingActivity duration estimates quantitative assessments of the likely number of work periods that will be required to complete an acitivity. Should include some indication of the range of possible results:2 weeks 2 days indicate the activity will take at least eight days and no more than twelveBasis of estimatesActivity list updates

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  • Schedule DevelopmentDetermining start and finish dates for project ativitiesOften be iterated prior to determination of the project schedule

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  • *Schedule Development

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  • Tools and TechniquesMathematical analysis involves calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities without regard for any resource pool limitations. The resulting dates are not the schedule, but rather indicate the time periods within which the activity could be scheduled given resource limits and other known constraints.Critical path method (CPM) -Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

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  • Duration compression a special case of mathematical analysis that looks for ways to shorten the project schedule without changing the project scope. Techniques include:Crashing in which cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how, if at all, to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost.Fast tracking doing activities in parallel that would normally be done in sequence (eg starting to write code on a software project before the design is complete). Often results in rework and usually increases risk.

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  • Simulation involves calculating multiple project durations with different sets of activity assumptions. Most common technique Monte Carlo Analysis, in which a distribution of probable results is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of probable results for the total projectWhat-if analyses made using the logic network to simulate different scenarios, such as delaying a major component delivery, extending specific engineering durations, or introducing external factors. Outcomes of what-if simulations can be used to assess the feasibility of the schedule under adverse conditions, and in preparing contingency/response plans to overcome or mitigate the impact of unexpected situations.

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  • Resource leveling heuristics mathematical analysis often produces a preliminary early-start schedule that requires more resources during certain time periods than are available, or require changes in resource levels that are not manageableApply heuristics such as Allocate scarce resources to critical path activities firstResource-leveling or resource based methodResource reallocation from noncritical to critical activities is a common way to bring the schedule back, or as close as possible, to its originally intended overall duration.Use of different technologies and/or machineryFast-trackingIn case of finite and critical project resource, critical chain management technique can be used to modify the project schedule to account for limited resources

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  • Project management software modern softwares are available to automate the calculation of the mathematical analysis and resource leveling and thus allow for rapid consideration of many schedule alternativesCoding structure activities hsould have a coding structure that will allow sorting and/or extractions based on different attributes assigned to the activities, such as responsibility, geographic area or building, project phase, schedule level, activity type and WBS classification

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  • Output from Schedule DevelopmentProject Schedule include at least planned start and expected finish dates for each activity. Often presented graphically using:Project network diagrams with date information added (Fig 6-5)Bar charts, also called Gantt charts (Fig 6-6)Milestone charts (Fig 6-7)

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  • Supporting detail include at least documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. The amount of additional detail varies by application area. For example:On a construction project, it will most likely include such items as resource histograms, cash-flow projections and order and delivery schedulesInfo frequently supplied:Resource requirements by time periodAlternative schedules (best case or worst case, resource leveled or not, with or without imposed datesSchedule contingency reserves

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  • Schedule Management plan defines how changes to the schedule will be managed. May be formal or informalHighly detailed or broadly framed, based on the needs of the projectSubsidiary element of the overall project planResource requirement updatesUpdates may have a significant effect on preliminary estimates of resource requirements

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  • Schedule ControlConcerned with:Influencing the factors that create schedule changes to ensure that changes are agreed uponDetermining that the schedule has changedManaging the actual changes when and as they occur Must be thoroughly integrated with the other control processes

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  • *Schedule Control

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  • InputProject scheduleApproved project schedule (schedule baseline) provides the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performancePerformance reportsProvide information on schedule performance; which planned dates have been met and which have notChange requestsMay occur in many forms oral, written, direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally mandated or optionalMay require extending or may allow accelerating itSchedule management plan

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  • Tools and TechniquesSchedule change control systemThe system defines the procedures by which the project schedule may be changedIncludes the paperwork, tracking systems and aproval levels necessary for authorizing changesPerformance measurementAdditional planningProject management softwareSoftwares must have the ability to track planned dates vs actual dates and to forecast the effects of schedule changes, real or potentialVariance analysisComparing target dates with the actual/forecast start and finish dates provides useful info for the detection of deviations and for the implementation of corrective solutions in case of delays

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  • OutputsSchedule updatesModification to the schedule informationMay or may not require adjustments to other aspects of the project planRevision changes to the schedule start and finish dates in the approved project schedule, generally incorporated in response to scope changes or changes to estimateCorrective actionsAnything done to bring expected future schedule performance in line with the project planLessons learnedCauses of variancesReasoning behind the corrective action chosen

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  • *Thanks for Watching Please follow me / SAJJAD KHUDHUR ABBAS

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