end of europe’s medieval period

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End of Europe’s Medieval Period. Battle of Hastings. http:// www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-normans-the-battle-of-hastings/10765.html In 1066, Norman invaders killed the Saxon King, Harold, and established a new Monarchy in England, led by William the Conqueror. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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End of Europes Medieval Period

End of Europes Medieval Period

Battle of Hastingshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-normans-the-battle-of-hastings/10765.htmlIn 1066, Norman invaders killed the Saxon King, Harold, and established a new Monarchy in England, led by William the Conqueror.

England: Magna Carta & ParliamentIn 1215, English barons rebelled against the taxes and forced loans being collected by King John. King John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free mans property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the laws of the land.The Magna Carta, as it was called, guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury, and further forced the king to obtain the consent of a council of nobles for most new taxes.Later English kings summoned nobles & representatives of the towns to grant them new taxesThis led to the origins of ParliamentSt. Thomas Aquinas: Early Progress in ThoughtSt. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) wrote at a time when Muslim & Jewish scholars had just discovered lost works of Aristotle.Some Christian scholars felt such pre-Christian thinkers had no value.Aquinas showed how these works by Aristotle were compatible with Christian teachings.He said God had given man the power of reason to help him explain and interpret the world.Therefore, we should trust reason as well as faith

Thomas Aquinas: Natural LawsAquinas also believed in the existence of natural law universal laws independent of any laws passed by governmentThese natural laws were based on reasonAquinas thought humans could evaluate governments by using their understandings of natural lawsTo him, if a human (govt) law conflicted with a natural law, then people did not need to obey it.Aquinas thought people had the right to remove rulers who continually enacted unjust laws.

Major Causes of the end of Medieval TimesThe CrusadesThe Great FamineThe Black DeathThe Hundred Years WarThe Great Schism

The CrusadesThe Crusades exposed Europe to Eastern ideas & goods (like spices)The desire for these goods sparked trade, which stimulated the economy and gave Europe even more exposure to the East.Increased trade led to the growth of towns and the middle class which pushed Europe out of the feudal system.The Great Famine (1313-1322)Unusually heavy rains led to flooding.Eventually crops spoiled and livestock drowned in waterlogged fields.This led to FamineFarm animals needed for work were slaughtered for food & seed grain was eatenThis shortage of grain increased grain prices by more than six times.Millions of people died from the famineMany questioned the church on why this catastrophe was happening.

The Black Death (Bubonic Plague)(1347-1351) This occurred only 25 years after the Great FamineRats with fleas carrying the disease entered Europe from Asia on trading ships.Between 1347 & 1351, 25 Million people (1/3 of Europes population) diedPeople were buried in mass graves without receiving any blessing from the Churchhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grbSQ6O6kbsSome blamed the JewsOthers claimed the plague was Gods punishment for sinful livingThe Black death created a labor shortage in EuropeLarge numbers of peasants escaped from serfdom when landowners and town, needing laborers, offered freedom in exchange for work.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaspFUkcPjo

The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)This war began when the French king died without an heir and the King of England claimed the French throne.This long period of warfare slowly strengthened the royal power in both countriesBoth England & France developed a greater national feeling & more loyalty to their kingInstead of relying on a feudal army based on the service of his nobles, each king developed a standing army of foot soldiersNew weapons were developed like the English long bow and cannons which use gun powderThese helped make knights much less important in battleBattle of Potiers

Joan of ArcDuring the Hundred Years War, a young French maiden, named Joan of Arc, rallied the French troops around the heir to the throne.She turned the tide when she successfully drove the English out of the city of Orleans & crowned the new French king at Rheims CathedralLater, Joan was captured and burned at the stake by the English as a witch

The Great SchismThe Pope often clashed with Europes secular rulers over powerIn 1305, a Frenchman was elected PopeHe moved the Papacy to Avignon in France, from RomeIn 1378, an Italian was elected Pope who moved the Papacy back to RomeFrench Cardinals claimed the election was unlawful and elected a French Pope to keep the Papacy in Avignon.

Great SchismThis schism (or split) greatly weakened the Churchs authority. A Church Council made matters worse by electing a third Pope in 1409.Finally, a new church Council deposed all three Popes, and elected a single Pope in 1417, but the Churchs prestige was greatly weakened

The RenaissanceAs Europe left the Middle Ages, they would enter into a time known as rebirth of learning and scholarshipThis was a time of great intellectual and artistic creativityThis was known as the RenaissanceThe Renaissance began in Italy because of its strategic location along the Mediterranean SeaThe Renaissance was:An Efflorescence of arts (visual & literary) and ideas in Europe that coincided with the rediscovery of Greek and Roman culture.