electrostatics and electricity. electric charge static electricity: electric charge at rest due to...
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Electrostatics and Electricity Slide 2 ELECTRIC CHARGE Static Electricity: electric charge at rest due to electron transfer (usually by friction) + + + + + + + + + negative charge: excess (gain) of electrons positive charge: deficiency (loss) of electrons neutral: electrons equal protons (no net charge ) Slide 3 ELECTRIC CHARGE law of conservation of charge: total charge stays constant (for every + charge produced, there is a charge produced) + + + + + Slide 4 ELECTRIC CHARGE law of conservation of charge: total charge stays constant (for every + charge produced, there is a charge produced) + + + + + Slide 5 ELECTRIC CHARGE law of electrostati cs: like charges repel, unlike charges attract Slide 6 ELECTRIC CHARGE Charge transfer conductor: readily transfers charge (free electrons) insulator: doesnt transfer charge (electrons in bonds) Slide 7 ELECTRIC CHARGE Charging by Conduction direct contact same sign permanent charge divides evenly between objects Slide 8 ELECTRIC CHARGE Charging by Induction no contact opposite sign temporary unless grounded Slide 9 Electric Charge Charge by Friction The heat generated by rubbing two objects together energizes electrons causing them to transfer. Slide 10 ELECTRIC CHARGE Conductor that has induced charge by neighboring positive wall. Free electrons move towards the wall. Insulator that has induced charge by neighboring positive wall. Molecules are polarized. Slide 11 ELECTRIC CHARGE Why does the water bend towards the cup? Slide 12 ELECTRIC FORCE electric force is a fundamental force of nature: holds atoms together, holds molecules together, causes friction & most forces (except gravity) Amount of charge, q or Q: measured in coulombs, C 1.00 C = 6.2510 18 electrons charge of one proton or electron, e = 1.6010 19 C Slide 13 ELECTRIC FORCE Coulombs Law: force between charges depends on amounts of charge and distance between them inverse square law like the force of gravity F e = kq 1 q 2 /r 2 F e : electric forceq: charge r: distance between chargesk: 8.9910 9 Nm 2 /C 2 +F e : repulsion, F e : attraction Slide 14 ELECTRIC CHARGE Grounding: discharging by connecting to a large charge sink (such as earth) Charge Distribution: only on the surface; spreads evenly on spherical conductor; stays put on insulator; concentrates at points Spark Discharge: when charge is large enough, air ionizes and conducts the charge away (lightning) Slide 15 ELECTRIC FORCE Electric field: region around a charge where it exerts electric force on other charges field lines: show direction & amount of force (by how close the lines are) on a + test charge Slide 16 ELECTRIC FORCE electric fields exert force on charged objects electric field strength, E: force exerted on a charge by an electric field E = F/q unit: N/C (Newtons/Coulomb), or V/m (Volts/meter) Slide 17 ELECTRIC FORCE constant electric fields are used to accelerate charged particles field is constant between parallel plates force F = qE change in kinetic energy K-K 0 = Fd d: distance traveled in electric field, K = mv 2 Slide 18 CIRCUIT BOARD INTRO Slide 19 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Basic Circuit: conductor loop for transferring energy load: energy user (bulb, resistor, heater, motor) source: energy provider (battery, generator) Slide 20 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Current, I : rate of flow of electric charge. unit: ampere, A I = Q/t 1 A = 1 C/s Charge, Q, is measured in Coulombs. Think of current as the number of electrons that pass by a point each second! Slide 21 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Voltage, V: work done per charge between two points, unit: volt, V The voltage is the push on the current! Examples: Batteries, Electrical Outlets, Capacitors. Slide 22 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Resistance, R: opposition to charge flow, unit: ohm, resistance limits the flow of current resistance turns electric energy into heat (& light) resistor: fixed resistance, symbol: Slide 23 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Ohms law: current is proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance: V = IR V: voltage, V I: current, A R: resistance, Example: How much current is there if the voltage is 6V and the Resistance is 3 ? Slide 24 ANALYZING CIRCUITS Resistances in Series: I T = I 1 = I 2 = I 3 V T = V 1 +V 2 +V 3 R T = R 1 +R 2 +R 3 adding resistors in series increases R T, decreases I T removing one resistor stops current in the whole circuit Slide 25 ANALYZING CIRCUITS EXAMPLE CIRCUIT 1 - assume 12 V battery R T =____ V T =____ I T =____ P T =____ R 1 = 8 V 1 =____ I 1 =____ P 1 =____ R 2 = 8 V 2 =____ I 2 =____ P 2 =____ Slide 26 ANALYZING CIRCUITS EXAMPLE CIRCUIT 2 - assume 4 V per cell R T =____ V T =____ I T =____ P T =____ R 1 = 8 V 1 =____ I 1 =____ P 1 =____ R 2 = 16 V 2 =____ I 2 =____ P 2 =____ Slide 27 ANALYZING CIRCUITS Resistances in Parallel: I T = I 1 + I 2 + I 3 V T = V 1 = V 2 = V 3 1/R T = 1/R 1 +1/R 2 +1/R 3 adding resistors in parallel decreases R T, increases I removing one resistor stops current only in that branch Slide 28 ANALYZING CIRCUITS EXAMPLE CIRCUIT 3 - assume 12 V R T =____ V T =____ I T =____ R 1 = 8 V 1 =____ I 1 =____ R 2 = 8 V 2 =____ I 2 =____ Slide 29 ANALYZING CIRCUITS EXAMPLE CIRCUIT 4 - assume 12 V R T =____ V T =____ I T =____ R 1 = 1 V 1 =____ I 1 =____ R 2 = 2 V 2 =____ I 2 =____ Slide 30 UNIT 7 FORMULAS F e = kq 1 q 2 /r 2 k = 8.9910 9 Nm 2 /C 2 e = 1.6010 19 C F = qE K-K 0 = Fd I = Q/t V = W/Q R = L/A V = I R P = V I = I 2 R E = Pt R T = R 1 +R 2 +R 3 1/R T = 1/R 1 +1/R 2 +1/R 3 1.00 kWh = 3.6010 6 J