Effect of Fractionation and Pyrolysis on Fuel Properties of Poultry Litter

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67699 Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300C, which captured 68.71% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300C had 42mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79% at 500C.


<ul><li> 1. Kaushlendra SinghKaushlendra.Singh@mail.wvu.eduApril 03, 2013Division of Forestry and Natural ResourcesWest Virginia UniversityEffect of Fractionation and Pyrolysison Fuel Properties of Poultry Litter</li></ul> <p> 2. Authors- Singh, K., M. Risse, J. Worley, K. C. Das,S. Thompson.Year- 2010.Title- Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuelproperties of poultry litter.Journal- Journal of Air and Waste Management,Volume (Issue)- 60(7)Page# 875-83.PUBLICATION DETAILS 3. Presentation Overview Background Methodology Results Pyrolysis product yields Properties of char and condensate Efficiency of pyrolysis Nutrient distribution Conclusions 4. Backgroundhttp://www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/purl/794292-6l279H/native/794292.pdfGeorgia ranks first in the United States in production of poultry andpoultry products, supplying approximately 12% of U. S. production.EDF. 2000. Animal Waste a National Overview. Taken from Environmental Defense Fund Scorecard (www.scorecard.org)January 15, 2000. 5. Problems with land application Approximately, 39% of theP produced is potentiallyexported to the stateswater ways.Risse, L. M. and S.A. Cheadle. 1996. Pollution Prevention in Agricultural Livestock Production.http://www.p2pays.org/ref/02/01305.pdfDark blue areasrepresent more than75lbs of phosphorousloading per acre peryear 6. BackgroundPoultry litterFertilizer EnergyScreeningFinefractionCoarsefractionNdegwa, P. M .1990. Fractionation of poultry litter for enhanced utilization and reduction of environmental pollution. MS thesis.Clarke, GA: The University of Georgia, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering. 7. Background Thermo-chemical PathwaysPoultry LitterPyrolysis Bio-oilGasCharGasification SynthesisGasHydrogenCombustion 8. FractionationCoarsefractionFinefractionPoultry litterPelletingoperationPyrolysisGasification/CombustionEnergyBio-oilGasCharEnergyEnergyBinderFertilizer pelletsEnergyOur Vision 9. ObjectiveTo document the effect of fractionation (screensize 0.85mm), pyrolysis temperature and heatingrate on production, nutrient content, and grossheating values of char and bio-oil. 10. Experimental ProcedureCharacterized Bio-oilProximate Analysis Bomb CalorimeCharacterized CharStorageSamplingTwo Controls: Raw and coarsefraction with No PyrolysisType: Raw, coarseHeating rate: 10 and 30C/minTemperature: 300 and 500 CEfficiency of pyrolysisC, N, S DistributionData Quality Indicators: Precision, Bias, Accuracy, Data completeness, DataTreatments 11. The various components in pyrolysis setup are: 1. Nitrogen gas, 2. Gas diffuser, 3. Thermocouple tomeasure biomass temperature 4. Furnace (CV Furnace model ), 5. Data logger, 6. Computer, 7.Condenser coil, 8. Condensate collector, 9. Ice bath condenser made of five cylinders identical to #8, 10.Water bubbler, 11. Filter made of dry rite, quartz wool, and glass wool, 12. Exhaust, 13. Water dischargeto drain, 14. Water inlet to condenser, 15. Reactor, 16. Gasket , 17. Biomass holding basket.Batch PyrolysisReactor 12. Results: Pyrolysis Product YieldOnly temperature had effect on product yields. The achievedheating rates were in the range of 2.5 to 2.9 degC/min againsttarget heating rates 13. Results: Condensate PhasesHeavy PhaseMedium PhaseLight Phase 14. Results: Condensate Phase Yieldheavy5%medium81%light14%Condensate phases at 500CNo treatment factor has significant effect on condensatephase yields 15. Pyrolysis Product Properties Bio-Char Energy Content Proximate analysis Condensate 16. Results: Calorific value of charsTreatment detail Calorific Value MJ/kgRaw, No Pyrolysis 13.80 0.69aCoarse, No Pyrolysis 16.63 2.24bRaw, 10C/min, 300C 15.83 2.35bCoarse, 10C/min, 300C 17.03 1.40cRaw, 30C/min, 300C 16.26 1.69bCoarse, 30C/min, 300C 17.39 1.27cRaw, 10C/min, 500C 16.36 1.69bCoarse, 10C/min, 500C 16.57 1.42bRaw, 30C/min, 500C 16.52 2.18bCoarse, 30C/min, 500C 16.73 1.61cNote: Numbers followed by same letter are not significantly different at 95% confidence level.Heating value of wood char is generally 28-29 MJ/kg 17. (Raw) (Coarse fraction)(Coarse, 300C, 10C/min)(Coarse, 300C, 30C/min)(Coarse, 500C, 30C/min)14.5719.401.52 1.94 1.8165.3067.5045.0048.1725.5523.9321.9133.6131.3343.1210.77 10.5921.39 20.4931.33Proximate analysis resultsMoisture Volatile matter Ash Fixed carbonOnly temperature affected proximate results 18. Results: Condensate propertiesType Appearance Carbon Oxygen Calorific value,MJ/kgMoisture Contentcoarse fraction (screen # 20, 0.85 mm) at 500C and 30C/minHeavyPhasedark black,semi solid,tar like56.64 19.13a 28.60 18.79a 31.46 2.99a 4.00 3.22aMediumPhaseorange-brown waterlike5.42 2.10b 81.35 2.55b 5.35 0.54*b 41.98 9.09bLightPhasegave darkgrey easyflowing liquid66.97 16.40a 15.82 19.14a 25.80 3.21a 12.69 7.74aMedium phase was mostly waterLight phase may be used as boiler fuels 19. Nutrient Distribution Carbon Nitrogen Sulfur Minerals 20. Results: Carbon distribution 21. Results: Nitrogen distribution 22. Results: Sulfur distribution 23. Minerals- It Matters.. Source of arsenic is roxarsone, an antibioticadditive to poultry feed. Excessive dissolved organic carbon enhancesarsenic solubility making its way to water bodies. Poultry litter can have maximum of 41mg/kgarsenic for land application. Pyrolysis process reduced ammonium nitrogen by99% and nitrate nitrogen by 95% 24. Results: Efficiency of pyrolysisChar coal energy conversion Coarse fractions had lower energy conversionefficiency than raw poultry litter (p-value=0.0153) Increasing pyrolysis temperature reduced energyconversion efficiency (p-value=0.0003) Coarse fraction char prepared at 300C and30C/min retained 68.71 9.37% of the totalfeedstock energy 25. Results: Efficiency of pyrolysisFixed carbon yield Only temperature significantly increased fixed carbonyield from 18.82 3.30% to 24.89 3.13% whenraised from 300C to 500C regardless of poultry littertype.Charcoal Carbon yield The charcoal prepared at 300C captured 64.26 6.35% of the total feedstock carbon; however, 51.65 5.84% carbon yield was recorded when pyrolysistemperature was 500C. 26. Conclusions The highest calorific value of the char coal(17.39 1.27 MJ/kg) was made from thecoarse fraction pyrolyzed at 300C whichcaptured 68.71 9.37% of the total feedstockenergy. The pyrolysis process doubles the ash contentin char but increased fixed carbon by 2.42times that of the original feedstock. 27. Conclusions Poultry litter must be heated above 500C if thepreferred product is light phase of thecondensate to produce low grade liquid fuel butit would only capture 4.90 3.91% of thefeedstock carbon. The medium fraction (84.62 2.25% yield at500C) captured 27.54% of the total feedstocknitrogen at two temperatures and may be usedas fertilizer. 28. AcknowledgementsDr. Sid ThompsonDr. K.C. DasK. SinghDr. Mark RisseDr. John WorleyJim Palmer, EPA 29. Thats All Folks !!!! 30. Background and JustificationEconomics of Poultry Litter fuel A typical farm (100k head/year) will produce about 125dry tons litter each year If we use 100 dry tons of that litter in a 75% efficientgasifier, it would be equivalent to 9300 gallons of LPG,or $10,000 in equivalent value. The value of the resulting 25 tons of ash would be$1250 (as a fertilizer). The poultry grower only uses 6000 gallons of LPG in ayear (82 dry tons of litter).Reardon, J. P., J. Wimberly, and J. Avens. 2001. Demonstration of a small modular bio-power system usingpoultry litter. DOE SBIR Phase-1. Littleton, CO.: Community Power Corporation. </p>