Educational Measurement

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<ul><li><p>ajplus.wordpress.comTwitter: @jamesbrionesadrianbrionesofficialpage</p></li><li><p>OVERVIEW</p></li><li><p>MeasurementThe process by which information about the attributes or characteristics of things are determined and differentiated.</p></li><li><p>3 Common statements involvedin measurementIdentify and defining the quality or attribute that is to be measured.Determining a set of operations by which the attribute may be made manifest and perceivable.Establishing a set of procedures or definitions for translating observations into quantitative statements of degree or amount.</p><p>(Thorndike &amp; Hagen, 1977)</p></li><li><p>EvaluationA process of summing up the results of measurements or tests, giving them some meaning based on value judgments. (Hopkins &amp; Stanley, 1981)</p></li><li><p>EvaluationFrom an educational standpoint, evaluation may be defined as a systematic process determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved by pupils. (Gronlund, 1981)</p></li><li><p>What is EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT?Refers to the use of educational assessments and the analysis of data such as scores obtained from educational assessments to infer the abilities and proficiencies of students.</p></li><li><p>What is EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT?The approaches overlap with those in psychometrics. Educational measurement is the assigning of numerals to traits such as achievement, interest, attitudes, aptitude, intelligence and performance.</p></li><li><p>Measurement V.S. Evaluation (Is it?)MEASUREMENTProcess of quantifying individuals achievement, personality, attitudes, habits and skillsQuantification appraisal of observable phenomenaProcess of assigning symbols to dimensions of phenomenaAn operation performed on the physical world by an observerProcess by which information about the attributes or characteristics of things are determined and differentiatedEVALUATIONQualitative aspect of determining the outcomes of learning.Process of ranking with respect to attributes or traitAppraising the extent of learningJudging effectiveness of educ. experienceInterpreting and analyzing changes in behaviorDescribing accurately quantity and quality of thingSumming up results of measurement or tests giving meaning based on value judgmentsSystematic process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achievedConsidering evidence in the light of value standard and in terms of particular situations and goals which the group of individuals are striving to attain.DATA &amp; INTERPRETATION</p></li><li><p>Education Decisions Based on Evaluation</p></li><li><p>Data-based DecisionsUsing data to drive improvement was identified as a key to success in a report developed by the National Education Goals Panel after a series of hearings designed to find examples of successful schools and to understand why those schools were succeeding. Specifically, the successful schools use performance information to determine where they were succeeding and where they needed to direct their efforts for improvement (Rothman 2000, i).In a study of Maryland elementary schools, Schafer et al. (undated) found that in schools they characterized as more successful, principals are involved with assessment of student improvement and make classroom decisions based on these assessments. </p></li><li><p>Asking the Right QuestionsWhat should students know, and how should they be able to use what they know?How well should students perform?What will we do to assess student performance?How well do students actually perform?What will we do to improve student performance? Hibbard and Yakimowski (1997) </p></li><li><p>Collecting and Analyzing DataIdentifying the key questions is only a first step. The next step, data analysis, requires the availability of high-quality, targeted data in a format that helps to address the questions.Collected and Analyzed data should be:can be easily disaggregated not only by school but by classroom and specific groups of students; andprovide a detailed analysis of results by objective or skill in addition to overall scores. </p></li><li><p>You can measure and evaluate but at the end of the day the question will always be, what are you going to do about it?</p></li><li><p>Responding to what data tells usAligning the curriculumImproving teaching strategiesProviding special instruction for students who need it</p></li><li><p>Martin Luther King, Jr.The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.</p></li><li><p>ajplus.wordpress.comTwitter: @jamesbrionesadrianbrionesofficialpage</p><p>*Robert L. Thorndike(19101990) was apsychometricianandeducational psychologistwho made significant contributions to the analysis of reliability, the interpretation of error, cognitive pen pene of students in various countries.[1]Like his father,Edward Thorndike, he conducted research in both animal and human psychology. WithIrving Lorge, Thorndike published a standardized test in 1954 which later became, with the collaboration of Elizabeth Hagen, the widely usedCognitive Abilities Test. He was one of the first to write aboutcluster analysis.[2][3] Thorndike was a professor atTeachers College,Columbia Universityfrom 1936 to 1976.[4]He received his B.A. (Mathematics) fromWesleyan Universityin 1931, and his M.A. and Ph.D. (both in Psychology) fromColumbia Universityin 1932 and 1935, respectively. He was president of theAmerican Educational Research Associationand thePsychometric Society.</p><p>Dr. Elizabeth HagenDr. Elizabeth Hagen began her professional career as a high school science teacher. In 1950, she became a research associate and lecturer in the Department of Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. From 1972-1976, she served as Dean for Academic Affairs at Teachers College. In 1978, she was named the Edward Lee Thorndike Professor of Psychology and Education, a ranking she still holds as a professor emeritus.Over the years, Dr. Hagen has consulted with many governmental and private organizations on measurement problems. Her experiences include serving as program director of both the Nurse Scientist Program and the Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at Teachers College.In 1960, the American Personnel and Guidance Association presented her with the Outstanding Research Award for her work as project coordinator and co-author of the project findings of the Ten Thousand Careers Study. In 1970, she was elected a fellow of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Hagen was elected to the National Academy of Education in 1979.Dr. Hagen retired from teaching in 1981 and has been busy since then as a co-author of theStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Editionand as a co-author of Forms 4, 5, and 6 of theCognitive Abilities Test*In any school or district using data to make decisions, a key step should be developing the right questions. While these questions should be tailored to fit the needs of the school, Hibbard and Yakimowski (1997) suggest that school staff begin with five guiding questions as they start discussions about their use of assessment data for decision making: *Aligning the curriculum - alignment began with a detailed analysis of the local curriculum. This analysis required reflecting on several other sources of data, including the state content standards and results from state and local assessments for each subject area and grade, K-12. Therefore, schools with good assessment systems integrated their own history of assessment performance into the alignment and development process. The specific approach to this work varied, but four common activities [curriculum analysis, realignment of the local curriculum, alignment of the local assessment system, and reflection on data from the curriculum analysis and from results of state and local assessments] tended to drive the process (2000).Improving teaching strategies - The data not only help teachers see specific areas of difficulty for each student, it also helps teachers and principals to pinpoint objectives that either need to be covered more thoroughly or taught in a different way. Teachers can then be given supportstaff development, assistance from a master teacher, etc.with either content or instructional approaches to improve their teaching (Cawelti and Protheroe 2001).Providing special instruction for students who need it - instructional processes that enable teachers to accomplish three things on a daily and weekly basis:(1) organizing instruction to regularly administer interim assessments of skills taught before moving on to new material,(2) providing tutoring or extra help for those students who fail to master the skills taught and enrichment learning activities for those who have mastered the skills, [emphasis added] and(3) providing frequent practice throughout the year to ensure retention for students who have initially mastered the skills needed (2000, 98).**</p></li></ul>


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