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Early Modern England

Early Modern EnglandDrama of the Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Caroline eras

I dont want to cover the same material as the chapter or the Bryson, but there are some big things we should cover as we head into this era1

ElizabethanI sometimes use the word Elizabethan with great laxity, meaning anything between the ages of Henry VIII and Charles I akin to the main trends of Elizabethan thought.

--E. M. W. TillyardThe Elizabethan World Picture

Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Grey Mary I (Phillip II the king of Spain was co-regent) Elizabeth I James I Charles I 2

Henry VIIIEdward VILady Jane GreyMary I (& Phillip II)Elizabeth IJames VI/ICharles I

Henry VIIIB. 1491 D. 1547R. 1509-1547

Eddie Izzard on the Church of England: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ope-1Zb5t-k

The principal background event of the 16th century: Catholics vs. Protestants

Henry VIII breaks from the Catholic Church (1529-1536)More political than religiousFirst nation to embrace the Protestant Reformation that Martin Luther began in 1517Forced conversionsDissolution of the monasteries and redistribution of their wealth

WivesCatherine of Aragon Married 24 years (after shed been married to his brother)Annulled Anne BoleynMarried 3 yearsBeheadedJane SeymourMarried 1 yearShe diedAnne of CleavesMarried less than a yearAnnulledCatherin HowardMarried 2 yearsBeheadedCatherine ParrSurvivedMarried 4 yearsWinner Winner Chicken Dinner4

Edward VIB. 1537 D. 1553R. 1547 - 1553

Henrys only sonCrowned in 1547 at age 9Ruled as a protestantPower passed to his protestant cousin when it became clear he was dying5

Lady Jane GreyB. 1536 D. 1553R. 10 July, 1553 19 July 1553

Ruled for 9 days before Mary I had her thrown into the Tower of London and later executed 6

Mary IB. 1516 D. 1558R. 1553-1558(also Phillip)

Daughter from Henry VIIIs first marriage back when he was catholic 1st English queen in 400 years (or in 9 days, whichever)Roman Catholic300+ executed for heresy or sedition (Bloody Mary)Wyatt RebellionImprisoned her sister Elizabeth for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebelsExecuted her cousinEven after Mary died, Phillip tried to bring down Elizabeth7

Elizabeth IB.1533 D. 1603R. 1558-1603

One of her first moves as queen was to establish the English Protestant ChurchModerate, tolerant1588 The Spanish Armada (more on that with the Bryson)The bottom left painting was commissioned to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada note the placement of her hand on the globe to symbolize world dominationEra famous forAbove all the flourishing of dramaElizabeth enjoyed theaterBrushed off censorshipAllowed plays to be performed on sundaysRecognized and encouraged


More coming soon, but no visuals9

James VI and IB. 1566 D. 1625R. 1567/1603 - 1624

I freaking LOVE that hes both VI and I!!

Succeeded to the throne at 13 months when his mother Mary Queen of Scots was compelled to abdicate1603 ruled England, Ireland, and Scotland in Personal UnionJacobean eraBritish colonization of the Americas beginsThe Gunpowder Plot (1605)Drama and literature continue to flourishKing James Bibled10

Charles IB. 1600 D. 1649R. 1625 1649English Civil War: 1642-1645

Believed in the Divine right of kingsMarried a Roman CatholicCivil WarRoundheads vs. Cavaliers Demands for a constitutional monarchyTried and executed for high treason January 1649Monarchy abolishedCommonwealth of England declared 1649-1660Charles II restored to the throne and the monarchy was restoredf11

Roundheads vs. Cavaliers


Charles I : 54 at the start of his reign and 46 at the end of it13

Oliver Cromwell & The Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0172URVAM?ref_=aiv_dp_season_select

Horrible Histories 15:52-19:57

Background info: http://guides.wikinut.com/The-Republic-of-Britain/114s_5y5/

TheCommonwealthwas the period from 1649 onwards whenEngland, along later withIrelandandScotland,[1]was ruled as arepublicfollowing the end of theSecond English Civil Warand thetrial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth",[2]adopted by theRump Parliamenton 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth was vested primarily in the Parliament and aCouncil of State. During the period, fighting continued, particularly inIrelandand Scotland, between the parliamentary forces and those opposed to them, as part of what is now referred to as theThird English Civil War.In 1653, after the forcible dissolution of the Rump Parliament,Oliver Cromwellwas declared Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland" under the terms of theInstrument of Government, inaugurating the period now usually known asthe Protectorate. After Cromwell's death, and following a brief period of rule under his son,Richard Cromwell, theProtectorate Parliamentwas dissolved in 1659 and the Rump Parliament recalled, the start of a process that led to therestoration of the monarchyin 1660. The term Commonwealth is sometimes used for the whole of 1649 to 1660 a period referred to by monarchists as theInterregnum although for other historians, the use of the term is limited to the years prior to Cromwells formal assumption of power in 1653.


The Great Chain of BeingGodAngelsRoyaltyCommonersAnimalsPlantsNonliving things

Order of the universe was as absolutely real and unquestionable as our notion that all humans are created with equal potential regardless of race, gender, or any other qualifierStretched from the foot of gods throne down to inanimate objectsEvery (known) speck of creation was a link on the chainNo part of the universe was superfluousEvery class can excel in a single particular functionSubdivisions as you moved away from the center there was a separate heirarchy No movement on the chain The idea of the American dream is utterly unthinkableMakes the journey of Helena in ALLS WELL (and Bertrams treatment of her) more comprehensible15

HumorismStar Trek IV: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMaGnpVaSGQ

Was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body that posited that an excess or deficiency of any of 4 distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health.

From Hippocrates onward; adopted by Greek, Roman, Islamic physicians until the advent of modern medicine in the 19th century.

The four humors are: black bile; yellow bile; phlegm; and blood.

When in balance a person is healthy16

Early Tudor DramaRalph Roister Doister by Nicholas Udall

Gammer Gurtons Needle by Mr. S

Gorboduc or Ferrex & Porrex by Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville

The University WitsThomas KydJohn LylyThe Spanish TragedyCampaspe, Endimion, and Loves Metamorphosis

Robert GreenChristopher MarloweFriar bacon and Friar Bungay, andTamburlaine the Great (pts. 1 & 2), Doctor James IVFaustus, The Jew of Malta, and Edward II

Fraternity of Sireniacal Gentlemen

The Mermaid Tavern was a tavern on Cheapside in London during the Elizabethan era. It was the site of the Fraternity of Sirenaical Gentlemen a drinking club that met on the first Friday of every month that included some of the eras leading literary figures (ben jonson, john donne, john fletcher, francis beaumont, etc. Shakespeares participation has been widely presumed but no actual evidence exists.

Tradition had it that it was the site of Jonson and Shakespeares battle-of-wits debates in which they discussed politics, religion and literature. According to legend, Shakespeare, though not as learned as Jonson often won these debates because Jonson was more ponderous and tangential.19

Ben JonsonEvery Man in His HumorVolponeEpicoeneThe AlchemistBartholomew Fair

Went to prison several times for writing politcal satireGenerally regarded as the second most famous Jacobean dramatist

Subtle changes during the reign of James VI/I: increasing cynicism and doubtTragicomedies: contrived happy endings for otherwise serious plays; pathetic and sensational vs. tragic emotionsHollywood blockbuster vs. indie filmsThrills and excitement more important than significant insights of complex characterizations

Technical skill increasesExposition clearerAction compressed into fewer episodesComplications built to startling climaxesQuiet scenes alternated with tumultuous onesPlays in this period are more skillfully contrived but lack profundity20

John WebsterThe Duchess of MalfiThe White Devil

Globe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnV54axNsw8&index=1&list=PL1NLFlCIMXIwjtumruEIRU6GxtsJe8Ktz Globe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoIP7Ftz5BI

Jacobean ranked closest to Shakespeare in modern eyesAdmired forWell drawn charactersPowerful dramatic poetryCriticized forObscurity of actionProtagonists surrounded by corruption which leads to their destruction but they do not gain any deep or new insights as a resultRaises important issues without illuminating them21

Inigo Jones

First significant British architect of the early modern period (left: Banqueting House at Whitehall)Applied the rules of Vitruvius to his designsCollaborated with ben jonsonTheatrical designer for masquesIs credited for introducing moving scenery and the proscenium arch to English theaterOver 450 drawings for scenery and costumes survive1615 appointed the Surveyor General of the Kings works


The Queens House @ greenwich23

The Tulip Staircase @ the queens hous, greenwich24

Court Plays&MasquesCourt Plays: https://www.netflix.com/watch/181