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    Draft Development Plan of Rohtak City: A Critically Evaluation

    6.1 INTRODUCTION

    It is generally said that India lives villages. But it will not be wrong to say that modern

    India resides in its cities. Cities are the centres of growth to which the population from

    other regions gets attracted to. People migrate to urban centres for job opportunities, or

    new career opportunities, or for better education, or in hope of finding a better life. All

    the developed countries have at the some point of time experienced rapid urbanisation

    with cities emerging as centres of trade manufacturing and sophisticated service

    providers. With an ever-expanding economy and a sharp rise in the share of services in

    the national income, India is experiencing urbanisation at a pace witnessed never before.

    In total, some 108 million peoples, or one tenth of the total population, live in the

    countrys 35 largest cities. According to the 2001 census in all 27.78 per cent of the

    population lives in urban areas. The existence of such large numbers of people densely

    packed into compact regions leads to ever increasing burdens on the resources available

    in the cities. Housing, waste management, slums, transportation, have emerged as some

    of the most pressing problems in urban areas along with the overall issue of effective

    utilisation of land. It is in dealing with such problems that urban planning comes to the

    fore. Urban planning endeavours to provide a comprehensive development strategy for a

    city with a forward-looking approach. The tremendous increase in urban population needs

    demand for sustainable development plans, for the optimum use of land resources to give

    better future for coming generation.

    Urban planning (urban, city, and town planning) is a technical and political

    process concerned with the control of the use of land and design of the urban

    environment, including transportation networks, to guide and ensure the orderly

    development of settlements and communities. Urban planning concerns itself with both

    the development of open land and the revitalization of existing parts of the city, thereby

    involving goal setting, data collection and analysis, forecasting, design, strategic thinking,

    and public consultation. It concerns itself with research and analysis, strategic

    thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations,

    implementation and management (Taylor, 2007).

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    In the modern times, the origin of the concern for urban planning lies in the

    movement for urban reform that arose as a reaction against the disorder of the industrial

    city in the mid-19th century. Urban planning can include urban renewal, by adopting

    urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from decline. Contemporary planners

    seek to balance the conflicting demands of social equity, economic growth,

    environmental sensitivity, and aesthetic appeal. The result of the planning process may be

    a formal master plan for an entire city or metropolitan area, a neighbourhood plan, a

    project plan, or a set of policy alternatives. Successful implementation of a plan usually

    requires entrepreneurship and political astuteness on the part of planners and their

    sponsors, despite efforts to insulate planning from politics. In the late 20th century, the

    term sustainable development has come to represent an ideal outcome in the sum of all

    planning goals (Wheeler, 2004). It designs and regulates the use of space in a way that

    impacts, not just the physical form, but the social and economic functions that take place

    within the city.

    6.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN PLANNING

    The pre-Classical and Classical periods saw a number of cities laid out according to fixed

    plans, though many tended to develop organically. Evidence of planning has been

    unearthed in the ruins of cities in China, India, Egypt, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean

    world, and South and Central America. Early examples of efforts toward planned urban

    development include orderly street systems that are rectilinear and sometimes radial;

    division of a city into specialized functional quarters; development of commanding

    central sites for palaces, temples, and civic buildings; and advanced systems of

    fortification, water supply, and drainage. Often the central cities of ancient states grew to

    substantial size before they achieved governments capable of imposing controls.

    Designed cities were characteristic of the Mesopotamian, Harrapan, and Egyptian

    civilizations of the third millennium BC. Distinct characteristics of urban planning from

    remains of the cities of Harappa, Lothal, and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley

    Civilization (in modern day north western India and Pakistan) lead archaeologists to

    conclude that they are the earliest examples of deliberately planned and managed cities.

    The streets of many of these early cities were paved and laid out at right angles in a grid

    pattern, with a hierarchy of streets from major boulevards to residential alleys.

    Archaeological evidence suggests that many Harrappan houses were laid out to protect

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    from noise and enhance residential privacy; many also had their own water wells,

    probably for both sanitary and ritual purposes. These ancient cities were unique in that

    they often had drainage systems, seemingly tied to a well-developed ideal of urban

    sanitation (Davreu, 1978).

    For several centuries during the Middle Ages, there was little building of cities in

    Europe. Eventually towns grew up as centres of church or feudal authority, of marketing

    or trade. As the urban population grew, the constriction caused by walls and fortifications

    led to overcrowding, the blocking out of air and light, and very poor sanitation. Certain

    quarters of the cities, either by custom or fiat, were restricted to different nationalities,

    classes, or trades, as still occurs in many contemporary cities of the developing world.

    The physical form of medieval and Renaissance towns and cities followed the

    pattern of the village, spreading along a street or a crossroads in circular patterns or in

    irregular shapes, though rectangular patterns tended to characterize some of the newer

    towns. Most streets were little more than footpaths more a medium for communication

    than for transportation and even in major European cities paving was not widely

    introduced before the 12th century. As the population of the city grew, walls were often

    expanded, but few cities at the time exceeded a mile in length. Conscious attempts to plan

    cities remerged in Europe during the Renaissance. Although these efforts partly aimed at

    improving circulation and providing military defence, their prime objective was often the

    glorification of a ruler or a state. From the 16th century to the end of the 18th, many cities

    were laid out and built with monumental splendour. The result may have pleased and

    inspired the citizens, but it rarely contributed to their health, to the comfort of their

    homes, or to efficiency in manufacturing, distribution, and marketing.

    In much of the world, city plans were based on the concept of a centrally located

    public space. The plans differed, however, in their prescriptions for residential

    development. In the United States the New England town grew around a

    central commons; initially a pasture, it provided a focus of community life and a site for a

    meetinghouse, tavern, smithy, and shops and was later reproduced in the central squares

    of cities and towns throughout the country. Also from the New England town came the

    tradition of the freestanding single-family house that became the norm for most

    metropolitan areas. The central plaza, place, or square provided a focal point for

    European city plans as well. In contrast to American residential development, though,

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    European domestic architecture was dominated by the attached house, while elsewhere in

    the world the marketplace or bazaar rather than an open space acted as the cynosure of

    cities. Courtyard-style domiciles characterized the Mediterranean region, while

    compounds of small houses fenced off from the street formed many African and Asian

    settlements.

    India has a long history in the development of planned settlements. Guidelines for

    their built form are well documented from as early as the Vedic era. At that time,

    settlements focused on the shrine, citadel and granary. They had a defined perimeter,

    often walled for security and were complementary to a large number of spontaneous

    settlements of the territory. This scenario is also true of all great ancient civilisations and

    often, planned settlements were synonymous with planned colonisation. Perimeters, when

    expanded, incorporated also market gardens and grazing grounds to ensure against long

    periods of seize but almost without exception, ground plans or land plans were corollaries

    to conceptualised built form. This form however did not apply to the habitation sectors of

    plebeians and even of higher income groups and which grew without ground rules and as

    organically as spontaneous settlements. The industrial revolution, among other crisis

    actions, necessitated interventions through public utilities as essential and inseparable part

    of settlement liveability. Ventilation, potable water, safe disposal of liquid and solid

    waste, fire safety, drained lands and green lungs were the prime catch words in an

    integrated process of both, redevelopment and development within settlement or town

    limits. This soon caught on in India where the first efforts in modern town planning

    originated with the appointment of sanitary commissions in 1864 in each of the three

    presidencies of Madras, Bengal and Bombay, and which in due course became the State

    departments of Public Health Engineering and/or of Health. Under the Bombay Municipal

    Corporation Act of 1888, building regulations were introduced to ensure adequate light

    and ventilation and limits on the quantum of built space on land. It however, did not

    regulate the type of uses permitted both in development and redevelopment zones. A land

    use plan within city limits was now possible if the Municipal Corporation asked for it but

    interestingly opposition to land use zoning came from the land owning elite. In 1915, the

    sociologist planner, Patrick Geddes on an invitation first from the Madras Government

    and later by princely states and other presidencies, recommended implementable Town

    Planning Schemes through beneficiary participation and within regional frameworks.

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    Planning consists of making choices among the options that appear open for

    the future, and then securing their implementation, which depends upon allocation of

    necessary resources (Roberts, 1974). All this planning exercise takes the form of a

    document called master/development plan which is one of the important tools to guide

    and manage future growth of the cities in a planned manner. Since its introduction in UK

    under the Town and Country Planning Act 1947, master plan has been widely prepared

    for many cities of both the developing and developed countries. It is a long term plan and

    usually prepared to guide the future growth of a city for the next 20 to 25 years mainly

    consisting of a report, land use maps, and programme of action. Conceptually,

    master/development plan is based on study of existing situation of each and every

    component of a city comprising land use, socio-economic and other facilities surveys,

    based on analysis of existing situation, forecasting of future trends, and finally making

    proposals for the growth and management of the city. This concept of planning prevailed

    in the UK until the publication of Planning Advisory Group (PAG) Report in 1965, which

    suggested a new type of plan referred to in the report as development plan comprising of

    structure and local plans (Allmendinger, 2000). Although Master planning is an outdated

    concept replaced by structure planning (and more recently by unitary planning in UK), it

    is still being practiced in many developing countries including India. Devas and Rakodi

    identify various reasons why despite of several weaknesses master planning approach

    continue to dominate the urban planning systems of many developing countries. These

    include: professional training and ideology of planners at the top of their profession

    emphasizing planning standards difficult to attain in real world situation; vested interests

    of donor agencies, consultants, professionals, administrators, city managers, and

    politicians; and inappropriate legislative basis for planning in terms of plan preparation

    and implementation (Devas and Rakodi, 1993).

    In India Town and Country Planning Organisation (TCPO) was established in

    1962. TCPO has been playing an important role in formulating policies, programmes and

    strategies for urban development in the country. The Organisation is responsible for

    providing assistance and advice of highest order to Central and State Governments,

    Public Sector Agencies, Development Authorities and Urban Local Bodies on matters

    pertaining to urban & regional planning and development. Master or Development Plans

    have been prepared by State Town and Country Planning Organisations in India.

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    Department of Town and Country Planning, Haryana, has, thus, prepared Development

    Plans for cities in the state.

    6.3 DRAFT DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF ROHTAK CITY

    Rohtak city is located at a distance of 75 kilometres from National Capital of Delhi on

    National Highway No. 10. Delhi is the only Metropolis in whole of Northern Region of

    India. Rohtak city is located in the National Capital Region. Town and Country Planning

    Organisation of India prepared a National Capital Region Plan in consultation with the

    planning departments of adjoining states. National Capital Region (NCR) is a unique

    example of inter-state regional development planning for a region, having a total area of

    over 33500 Square Kilometres spanning over 15 districts in the states of Uttar Pradesh,

    Haryana, Rajasthan and National Capital Territory of Delhi, with the National Capital as

    its core. The National Capital Region (NCR) in India was constituted under the National

    Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) Act, 1985. According to NCR Regional Plan

    2021, Rohtak city is one of the Regional Centres with population ranging from 3 lakh to

    10 lakh. A Regional Centre is a well established urban centre and one among the highest

    order settlement of six-tier hierarchy of urban settlement in India. The Development Plan

    of Rohtak city is prepared by state TCP Department in consultation with the NCRPB.

    This is the main reason that Rohtak city is getting funds both from state government and

    NCRPB. The Draft Development Plan of Rohtak city for 2025 was prepared in 2006. The

    next year i.e. in 2007 the Revised Draft Development Plan of Rohtak city for 2025 was

    prepared. The present chapter takes a critical view of the Development Plan of Rohtak

    city for 2025. The following parameters from the basis for a critical evaluation in the

    present case:

    Difference between DDP 2006 and Revised DDP 2007

    Anticipated rate of growth in population

    Appropriate allocation of land for future urban growth

    Green belt

    Urban Village

    Loss of agriculture production

    Unauthorised colonies

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    Draft Development Plan 2025 of Rohtak city (Notified in 2006):

    The Draft Development

    Plan is a long term plan and such plan documents are usually prepared to regulate the

    future growth of a city for the next say 20 to 25 years. The report mainly consists of land

    use maps, and programme of action. A brief description about the proposal plan 2025 is

    discussed in the coming section of the chapter.

    Table 6.1 Projected Population of Rohtak city

    * Projected population of 4 years. Source: Town and Country Planning Office, Rohtak

    The Draft Development Plan has been prepared for the projected population of

    8.07 lakh by 2021 AD and 9.86 lakh by 2025 AD (Table 6.1).

    This existing town and the villages in the urbanisable area cover a total built-up

    area of about 2004 hectares and it will accommodate the population of about 3.0 lakh

    persons. The planning in this area is conspicuously absent and it is thickly populated. The

    residential density of 125-150 persons per hectare proposed in published plan has to be

    revised to the realistic density of about 250 persons per hectare.

    The land use proposed in Draft Development Plan 2025 of Rohtak city (prepared

    in 2006) has been shown in Map 6.1. Residential uses will cover an area of 2740 hectares

    in the proposed sectors 1,2,3,4,5 part, 6, 7-part, 9, I 0, 14,18-part, 19, 21-E, 21-F, 22, 23,

    24-Part, 25-Part, 26-part, 27,27-C-part, 27-0,28, 30-B, 30-C, 30-D, 31-A, 31-8, 33, 33-A,

    33-8, 34-part, 35-part, 36, 36-A and 37. Major part of residential area of the city will be in

    the northern parts along the NH-71A towards Gohana, north eastern parts along SH-18

    towards Sonipat and eastern parts along NH-10 towards Delhi.

    Commercial area of about 460 hectares has been provided in sector 18-A, 30, 30-

    A, 24, 25, 27-C, 35 (all partly). Sector l8-A is proposed for commercial uses viz. trade,

    warehousing, storage and wholesale trade etc. Sector 30 and 30A are proposed to be

    Year Decennial Population Growth rate (in percent)

    Projected Population

    2001 - 371415 2001-2011 45 538552 2011-2021 50 807828 2021-2025 55 985550*

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    developed as City Centre. These sectors cover a major part of area under commercial uses

    and will be located in IMT on NH-10. Other big area under this category is in sector 24

    along NH-71A towards Jhajjar. Besides a few commercial belts have also been provided

    in Sectors 6, 28, 2l-C, 21-E, 34, 37 and opposite to Sector 7, 8, 20, 22D, 27, 33, 36A and

    37 along development plan roads and spread in all around.

    Table 6.2 Land use of Rohtak city as per Draft Development Plan 2025 (prepared in 2006)

    Land use Area within

    Municipal Limit (Hectare)

    Area outside Municipal

    Limit (Hectare)

    Total Hectares Percentage

    Residential 352 2388 2740 35.37 Commercial 152 308 460 5.94 Industrial 163 1079 1242 16.02 Transport and Communication

    47 869 916 11.82

    Public Utility 48 314 362 4.67 Public and Semi Uses

    132 820 952 12.29

    Open spaces 152 856 1008 13.01 Special Zone Total

    34 34 68 0.88

    Total 1080 6668 7748 100 Source: Town and Country Planning Office, Rohtak

    The industrial uses of land proposed in the Draft Development Report are mainly

    located in the southern parts of the city. It is on southern side of the city keeping in view

    the proposal of final development plan published in 1982 as well as the Revised Final

    Development plan published in 1998. Industrial Modern Township (IMT) has been set up

    in the southern direction keeping in mind wind direction and connectivity to transport

    network (NH-71A and railway). It covers around 16 per cent area of the total area.

    According to NCR policies, Rohtak city will develop as domain regional centre for a

    balanced industrial development of the region. The main proposed location for industrial

    development lies on the junction of NH-10, NH-71 and NH-71A.

    Absolute area under transport and communication uses is 916 hectares that

    accounts for around 12 per cent. Keeping in mind the proposed growth of the city, area

    under this category has increased from earlier published Plan (498 hectare). Proposal of

    Transport Nagar has been made in sector 18-part, 21-A adjacent to railway line. Around

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    125 acres of land has been proposed for truck parking along NH-71 near southern bypass

    of the city. One patch of this category is proposed near railway station for loading and

    unloading of heavy materials.

    Services like water supply, grid substation, disposal works fall under public

    utilities and cover an area of 241 hectares. For solid waste management an area of about

    20 hectares has been proposed along the Drain No. 8 in sector 21-B near Singhpura

    village.

    Rohtak city has been developed as an educational city. Keeping this in mind vast

    land has been reserved for institutional purposes between NH-10 and railway line towards

    Delhi. The city has high potential for higher and technical education. To accommodate

    such institutions an area of 952 hectares has been proposed under public and semi public

    uses of land. Some of the institutions like defence, police and jail institutions have been

    proposed near Southern Bypass near Sunari Kalan village.

    The area under Tilyar complex and Renakpura reserved by Archaeology

    Department are taken under open space uses. Total area under this category is 1008

    hectares. A proposal of 100 metre green belt has been made on both the sides of northern

    and southern bypass of the city and green belt of 60 metres width on both sides of the

    National Highways has been provided in widening the width of green belt of 30 metres.

    The Draft Development Plan proposed for a Special zone spread over an area of

    68 hectares which will includes recreation, entertainment, and commercial, group housing

    and institutional uses in sector 21.

    Revised Development Plan 2025 of Rohtak city (notified in 2007):

    The plan has been prepared for the projected population of 7.49 lakh persons by

    2021 and 9.43 lakh by 2025 as shown in Table 6.3. The layout Plan of the city is shown in

    Map 6.2. A brief description about the proposal plan 2025 is discussed in the following

    section.

    The Government

    of Haryana notified the Revised Draft Development Plan 2025 AD for Rohtak vide Town

    and Country Planning Department, Notification No. CCP (NCR)/ RDDP (RTK)/2007/329

    dated 18 September, 2007.

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    According to the Revised DDP residential uses of land would cover an area of

    3109 hectares which will mean around one third of the total area. After the

    implementation of this plan the residential density of the city (both existing and proposed

    residential) will become 215 persons per hectares. A major portion of this category falls

    in the northern parts of the city and remaining part scattered all around the city.

    Table 6.3

    Projected Population of Rohtak city

    * Projected population of 4 years. Source: Town and Country Planning Office, Rohtak

    About 636 hectares in absolute terms and 7.3 per cent share of the total land is

    proposed under commercial use. The revised document shows that land under this

    category will fall in the sector 18-A, 24 Part, 25 Part, 30 and 31-A. In theses sector 18-A

    which is located in the central part of the city for whole sale trade, ware housing and

    storage. Sector 24 Part and Sector 25 Part are proposed to be located near Asthal Bohar

    railway station for development of heavy building materials.

    Industrial area under the new proposal will covered an area of 1160 hectares. The

    industrial sectors have been proposed for location in the east, west south of the city.

    Industrial Model Township (IMT) proposed as new industrial areas are planned in the

    eastern part of the city along NH-10. In Revised Development Plan the industrial area has

    been increased keeping in view the overall policies of NCR, which treats Rohtak city as a

    regional centre. The industrial area will house agro based industries along with a large

    scale mother industrial unit and automobile industry. A new site of Fire Station is

    proposed in sector 22-A and 30-A. Also, a new site for Employees' State Insurance

    Corporation (ESIC) hospital is planned in sector 22-B and 31-B.

    Area under transport and communication are 1052 hectares. Keeping in mind the

    projected growth of the city, area under transport and communication, which also

    includes roads, has been increased in the revised proposal. Area reserved for parking has

    also been raised due to industrial growth of the city. Specific locations for truck Parking

    Year

    Decennial Population Growth rate (in percent)

    Projected Population

    2001 - 381889 2001-2011 40 534644 2011-2021 45 748501 2021-2025 65 943111*

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    are proposed in the revised plan. This includes locations along Jhajjar Road, NH-10,

    Bhiwani Road and Sector 30-D near industrial area (IMT). Proposal of Transport Nagar

    has also been made in sector 18 part and 21-A.

    Table 6.4 Land use of Rohtak city per Draft Development Plan 2025 (prepared in 2007)

    Land use Area within

    Municipal Limit (Hectare)

    Area outside Municipal

    Limit (Hectare)

    Total Hectares Percentage

    Residential 644 2465 3109 35.98 Commercial 48 588 636 7.36 Industrial 72 1064 1136 13.42 Transport and Communication

    20

    1032

    1052

    12.18

    Public Utility 42 390 432 5 Public and Semi Uses

    251

    660

    911

    10.54

    Open spaces 152 1121 1273 14.73 Special Zone 34 34 68 0.79 Total 1263 7354 8617 100

    Source: Town and Country Planning Office, Rohtak

    Around 432 hectares of land are under public utilities. In this category activities

    related to water supply, grid substation and disposal works shall be included. Keeping in

    mind the proposed growth of the city exact sites for the said land use are located in

    different parts of the city. The areas under this category are near southern bypass (village

    Simli), Sonipat road, Jind road and opposite to sector 20 proposed. A new site is proposed

    for disposal works developed by Public Health Department near Singhpura village and in

    Sector 21-B near Drain No. 8. An area of about 20 hectares is proposed for solid waste

    disposal along Drain No. 8 in Sector 21-B.

    Around 10 per cent of the total land of the city is proposed for public and semi

    public uses. In the revised plan also keeping in mind that Rohtak is an educational city, a

    vast amount of land has been reserved for educational institutional purpose. This land is

    located between NH-10 and Delhi Rohtak railway line. In this category around 911

    hectares land in proposed in sector 7 part, 25 A, 26 A, 26 B, 27 A, 27 B, 29 and 31. In

    this plan the sites for fire station and Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC)

    Hospital are proposed. Some of the institutions like Police, Jail and Defence have been

    proposed for development neat south to southern bypass near Sunaria Kalan village.

    These institutions will cover an area of 140 hectares.

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    Open area as proposed in the revised document will cover about 1273 hectares

    or about 15 per cent of the total area. The green belt along NH, SH and new bypass

    included in this category. Tilyar complex and Renakpura reserved by Archaeology

    Department are proposed for development under this category. The patches of this

    category are spread all around the city as shown in Map 6.2.

    Special zone includes recreation, entertainment, commercial, residential (grouping

    housing and plotted) and institutional uses in sector 21. About 68 hectares has been

    proposed for this category. This zone has been proposed in the southern side of FCI near

    railway station.

    Difference between DDP 2006 and Revised DDP 2007:

    Table 6.5

    Over a period of time, it has

    generally been felt that the Master/Development Plans have not been able to solve urban

    problems as they are unable to keep pace with urban growth. The gap between the

    proposal plan, and actual growth, and development need of a city has been ever widening.

    Present system of urban planning in India is based on purely population projections. In

    the present case the Development Plan is also prepared on the projected size of population

    for the year 2025. Population projections in both of the plans are shown in Table 6.1 and

    Table 6.3. While the original document anticipated a growth rate of 45 per cent during

    2001-11 in the population, the revised document anticipates a growth of only 40 per cent.

    Interestingly, the population size of the city corresponding to the base year i.e. 2001 does

    not match in the two documents.

    Rohtak city: Area under different categories in Development Plans (2006 and 2007)

    Land use

    2006 (Area in ha.)

    2007 (area in ha.)

    Difference (2007-2006)

    Residential 2740 3109 369 Commercial 460 636 176 Industrial 1242 1136 -106 Transport and Communication

    916 1052

    136

    Public Utility 362 432 70 Public and Semi Uses 952 911 -41 Open spaces 1008 1273 265 Special Zone Total 68 68 0 Total 7748 8617 869

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    (a)

    (b)

    Fig. 6.1 Rohtak city: Land under different uses (in percent) for DDP 2025

    Residential 35%

    Commercial 6%

    Industrial 16%

    Transport and Communication

    12%

    Public Utility 5%

    Public and Semi Uses 12%

    Open spaces 13%

    Special Zone Total 1%

    2006

    Residential 36%

    Commercial 7%Industrial

    13%

    Transport and Communication

    12%

    Public Utility 5%

    Public and Semi Uses 11%

    Open spaces 15%

    Special Zone Total 1%

    2007

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    This is despite the fact that population figures pertaining to 2001 were already declared

    by Census of India when the draft plan was under preparation. Further, in the revised

    document the population of the city is projected to grow at a rate of 65 per cent over a

    period of only four years i.e. 2021 to 2025. The corresponding figure proposed in the

    original document was 55 per cent. In this very short duration of time the growth rate

    does not seem to be real. In other words, the proposals in the Development Plan of the

    city for 2025 are based on exaggerated rate of growth in population. The areas under

    proposed plan for 2025 are higher than the actual demand of land will be.

    Absolute areas under different land uses in both of the Development Plans are

    shown in Table 6.5 and Fig. 6.1. Total area under residential uses and open spaces has

    been inflated in the revised document although anticipated size of population is 9.43 lakh

    in the revised document as against 9.86 lakh in 2006 and.

    Ironically, although the final projected population of the city for the year 2025 is

    smaller in the revised document than that in the original Draft Plan, the area under

    residential uses has been increased from 2740 hectares to 3109. There is a mismatch

    between population projection and proposed residential area in the two Drafts for

    Development Plan 2025.

    The percent share of area under different land uses has been shown in Fig. 6.1 (a)

    and (b). Also, the location of sites for industrial uses has been changed from 2006 to

    2007. In the original Draft Development Plans (DDP) area under industrial uses were

    proposed to be located in the southern part of the city. It was argued that this was done

    taking in view of general wind direction in the city. But in the next year in the Revised

    DDP, the industries have been proposed to be located in the eastern parts of the city. It

    remains to be known as to why in the revised plan wind direction has been ignored.

    Growth of population: The revised DDP had anticipated a growth rate of 40 per cent

    during 2001-2011 in the population of Rohtak city. However, when 2011 Census results

    were declared it was found that the population of the city grew at the rate of only 26.67

    per cent. The gap between projected and actual growth rate was around 14 per cent. The

    magnitude of the gap between anticipated and actual growth rates is too large to be

    explained in terms of wrong assumptions. In other words, it is evident that the projected

    rate of growth was deliberately exaggerated in order to justify an increased allocation of

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    lands for residential purposes. Also, as already discussed in earlier chapter the growth rate

    of built up area in the city in recent past has been higher than the growth rate of

    population. Over a period of 39 years i.e. from 1972 to 2011 the built up area of the city

    has grown by almost five times while the population of the city has barely trebled. The

    growth rate in built up area is thus more than twice as that in population growth during

    the period. The actual growth rate in the population of the city in the past should have

    formed base for future development plans. In addition to this the residential sectors

    namely Sector 2, Sector 2 Part, Sector 3, Sector 3 Part and Sector 4 of HUDA are not yet

    fully developed. Total residential number of plots, vacant plots and the share of vacant

    plots in these residential sectors are shown in Table 6.6. As could be seen around 45

    percent of the total plots in these residential sectors are still vacant. Lands of many of

    these residential sectors were acquired by HUDA more than a decade ago.

    Table 6.6: Rohtak city Plots still lying vacant in selected residential Sectors of HUDA

    Sector No Total no. of Plots Vacant Plots Per cent Sector 2 1940 1061 45.31 Sector 2 part 240 150 37.50 Sector 3 900 244 72.89 Sector 3 part 480 273 43.13 Sector 4 840 241 71.31 Total 4400 1969 44.75

    Source: Calculated by the researcher through field visit of the area.

    The fact that many of the plots are still lying vacant indicates that people have purchased

    these plots not as induced by actual housing needs but as part of their future investment

    plan. Thus, land use change during the recent past is not demand driven rather it is linked

    with a fast growing real estate business in the city facilitated by the proximity to NCR of

    Delhi.

    Suitable land for future urban growth: Rohtak city is located in fertile land of

    the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The city is surrounded by agricultural land. The land which is

    highly fertile is suitable for agricultural purposes and therefore should be reserved for

    agricultural use only. The land which is not suitable for agricultural uses should be taken

    for future urban development. In the earlier chapter, land suitability for future urban

    growth based on six criteria namely- land use land cover, distance from the main roads

    (National Highways and State Highways), distance from built up area, fertility status

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    of soil, depth of ground water and ground water quality was examined. The proposed

    land use plan as per revised DDP of the city was overlaid on the land suitability

    analysis output. The results are shown in Map 6.3. It is striking to note that several

    patches of high fertile lands in the southern parts of the city along Jhajjar road as

    revealed in land suitability analysis are earmarked for future urban development in the

    plan proposal. It is important to note that such lands cover nearly 3000 acres. On the

    contrary, as was revealed by land suitability analysis, the north-western parts of the

    city along Jind road would have been a highly suitable choice for future urban

    development. Perhaps the planning authorities did not take into account the quality of

    land objectively. Rather, it appears their priorities were guided by market forces.

    Green belt : Department of Town and Country Planning, Haryana, proposed green belt

    on both sides of National Highways, State Highways, bypass of the cities, and other

    planned roads. But on ground this belt is missing in almost all the cities of Haryana

    excepting perhaps Karnal. In Karnal green belt on both sides of NH-1 is maintained. The

    green belt is missing in Rohtak city. Here it is noted that the DDP is prepared for 2025

    but the roads/bypass i.e. bypass in the northern part of the city behind Bus Terminal

    which were completed around 5 years ago are still without green belt. In the DDP all the

    National Highways are proposed to have green belt of 60 metres on both the sides.

    Despite this, recently constructed bypass on NH-10 near Kheri Shad village does not have

    green belt. A few patches of green belt are found in the city in residential sectors 1 which

    are mainly developed by HUDA on the NH-10 and near IMT.

    Urban Village: In 2010, the Municipal committee of Rohtak city was upgraded to

    Municipal Corporation. With this up gradation of civic status, the boundary of the city

    was expanded and eight villages namely- Bohar, Asthal Bohar, Garhi Bohar, Majra, Kheri

    Sadh,Kanehli, Sunari Kalanand Sunari Khurd were brought under municipal limit. In the

    DDP for 2025 of Rohtak city no mention has been made concerning planning of these

    urban villages. The proposed plan is restricted to the urban area only. This leaves out the

    edges or the urban fringe (where villages are located), often the most dynamic areas of urban

    growth. As could be seen the plan does not include Lal-Dora and therefore rural-urban

    linkages do not get integrated in the future growth plan of Rohtak city.

    Loss of agriculture production: The state government acquired lands for

    development in the light of Revised Draft Development Plan 2025. As already stated

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    earlier in the chapter, this land has been acquired to develop residential, institutional and

    industrial area during 2005 to 2010. During this period, government also gave land to

    private colonizers. The details of land given to private builders have already discussed in

    chapter IV (Table 4.6). In all, seven private developers were allocated a total of 797.4

    acres of land for development of residential colonies. The lands allotted to these private

    developers are still open land except some built up patches in respect of Omaxe

    Construction. Similarly, much of the lands acquired for IMT (around 1800 acres) to be

    developed by The Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation

    (HSIIDC) is still open although some industrial units have been established. Thus, in all

    around 6700 acres (2711.4 hectares) of land proposed for residential and industrial

    purpose have gone out of agricultural uses and are yet to be developed. There is a huge

    loss to agricultural economy posing serious threats to food security. There is net loss of

    about 10700 metric tonnes of wheat production per year due to this encroachment on

    agricultural land which still lies vacant. This is calculating by using Statistical Abstract

    Haryana (2007-08) taking the district average wheat production (yield per hectare).

    Unauthorised colonies: As per the notification of Delhi Development Authority through

    The Gazette of India, Unauthorized Development means a colony/ development

    comprising of contiguous area, where no permission of concerned agency has been

    obtained for approval of Layout Plan, and/ or building plan. Growth of unauthorized

    colonies is an integral part of the emerging economies as the cities attract more in-

    migrants that require spatial expansion. The field experience of the researchers indicate

    that in most of the cases rural people who migrated to Rohtak city mainly for better

    service including education for children purchased the agriculture land from the land

    owner through registry and constructed their houses. By the time the fringe area was

    merged into Municipal Area, demand for the provision of basic services becomes a major

    issue. Once Unauthorized Colonies come into existence, efforts for regularization start.

    Regularization means formally acknowledging existence of settlements. This necessitates

    due provision for infrastructure and other facilities in the recognised colonies. The

    unauthorized colonies in Rohtak city number 34 the details of which are shown in Table

    6.7. The unauthorized colonies mostly have been developed on agricultural land in

    peripheral areas of the city, perhaps due to low price of land. With the passage of time

    these unauthorized colonies were regularised. The regularization process of these

    unauthorised colonies is an integral part of vote bank politics. These unauthorized

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    colonies do not get mention in the DDP 2025. The lands on which these colonies exit

    form part of DDP. So, the implementation of future plan as per DDP will largely depends

    on these unauthorized colonies.

    Table 6.7 List of Unauthorized Colonies in Rohtak city

    Sr.no

    Name of colony Location

    1 Inderparsth Sonipat Road

    2 Harkidevi

    3 Rishi Nagar Ladot Road

    4 Shastri Nagar Basant Vihar

    5 Surya Nagar Singhpura Road

    6 Parvesh Nagar Gohana Road

    7 Rajiv Nagar Kacha Chamaria Road

    8 Barshi Nagar Jind Chock

    9 Shiv Colony Jind Railway Fatak

    10 Suryan Nagar -

    11 Area near IDC -

    12 Basant village Kutana -

    13 Sher Vihar -

    14 Ram Nagar Sunarian Road

    15 Kunj Vihar Sunarian Road

    16 Gokal Colony Sunarian Road

    17 Ajit Colony

    18 Amrit Colony Circular Road

    19 New Vijay Nnagar Circular Road

    20 Sheetal Nagar Jhajjar Road

    21 Anand Nagar -

    22 Tilak Nagar Ext. -

    23 Kabir Colony -

    24 Vishal Nagar Ext. Delhi Road

    25 Uttam Vihar -

    26 Area near Nehru colony ext.

    -

    27 Sanjay Colony near Indra Colony ext.

    -

    28 Roop Nagar near God college. Ext.

    -

    29 Area opp. Sugar Mill Colony near Janta Colony ext.

    -

    30 New Aggersain Colony

    -

    31 Friends Colony Delhi Road

    32 Asthal Bohar Colony -

    33 Ghari Majra -

    34 Basant Vihar -

    Source: MC Office, Rohtak

    In this context, unauthorized colonies became an important and urgent issue which need

    integration through planning interventions.

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