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Latin America Section 1 Slide 2 Latin America Section 1 Preview Starting Points Map: Turmoil in Latin America Main Idea / Reading Focus Trends in Latin America The Cuban Revolution Other Conflicts Revolution and Intervention Slide 3 Latin America Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Slide 4 Latin America Section 1 Reading Focus What were some key economic and social trends in postwar Latin America? How did the Cuban Revolution come about and what changes did it bring? What other revolutions arose in Central America? Main Idea In reaction to economic and social conditions in Latin America after World War II, many Central American countries experienced revolutions that involved intervention by the United States. Revolution and Intervention Slide 5 Latin America Section 1 After World War II many countries in Latin America struggled to address problems of poverty and inequality. Roots of poverty, inequality go back to history of colonialism Most land, wealth in hands of elite Economies based on agricultural exports To decrease dependence on foreign countries, import- substitution led industrialization policy adopted Economic Trends Local industries developed to replace need to import manufactured goods Dependence on foreign countries remained for investment, technology, loans, military aid Rural land use remained a major issue Industrialization Trends in Latin America Slide 6 Latin America Section 1 Economic Trends Industrialization did not solve land problems Rural lands Owned by small group of elites, many with ties to U.S. business interests Peasants struggled to find land to farm Addressing the issue Some countries took land from large landholders, gave to landless peasants Mixed results, but still major economic trend Slide 7 Latin America Section 1 Cities Unable to make living in rural areas, people flocked to regions cities Movement caused rapid urbanization Many found life no easier in cities Shortages of food, housing, safe drinking water presented challenges Social Trends Large gap between rich, poor major social issue Liberation Theology promoted by priests Church should be active in struggle for economic, social equality Criticized by Catholic Church, but popular in Catholic Latin America Slide 8 Latin America Section 1 Summarize How did people in Latin America try to deal with some of the regions economic and social problems? Answer(s): industrialization, land reform, migration to cities, Liberation Theology movement Slide 9 Latin America Section 1 In Cuba, social and economic trends led to a revolution. There, social inequality and heavy U.S. influence led to a revolt that brought communism to this large Caribbean island. Cuba very dependent on U.S. 1950s, hotels, casinos owned by wealthy Americans, Cubas elite U.S. owned sugar, tobacco plantations Reasons for Revolt Valuable exports from plantations Little land for peasants to farm Cuba one of richest Latin American countries Most Cubans could not earn living Rich and Poor Business interests encouraged U.S. government support of corrupt dictators Anticommunist Fulgencio Batista took power in 1952 military coup U.S. Support The Cuban Revolution Slide 10 Latin America Section 1 The Cuban Revolution The coming of Castro Batistas Cuba A rich country with too many poor people Batistas coup stirred discontent, nationalism among poor Revolutionaries under Castro Led unsuccessful attack, 1953; guerrilla war became full-scale revolution, 1955 Batista fled 1959; Castro took control Slide 11 Latin America Section 1 Castro focused on ending U.S. dominance, redistributing wealth, reforming society Energies went to restructuring economy, society, government, foreign policy 1961, program virtually eliminated illiteracy in one year Created medical care system, raised life expectancy Castros Programs Broad support for revolution to remove Batista Most did not know what kind of revolution Castro would lead Middle-class Cubans supported moderate democratic reforms Many Castro revolutionaries, including Che Guevara, wanted Marxist regime Goals of the Revolution The Cuban Revolution Slide 12 Latin America Section 1 The Cuban Revolution Changes under Castro Limited size of landholdings Nationalized private property, businesses To ensure he had power to make changes Took full control of government Took away freedom of press Result of radical actions Led Cuba more toward communism Led Cuba toward confrontation with U.S. Slide 13 Latin America Section 1 U.S. Involvement Cubas move toward communism troubled U.S. leaders Viewed Latin America as part of U.S. sphere of influence Wanted to keep communism out of region Cuban Missile Crisis 1962, CIA learned Soviet Union building nuclear missile site in Cuba President John Kennedy ordered naval blockage to keep Soviet ships out World came close to nuclear war before compromise, missiles removed Organization of American States Set up shortly after World War II to promote economic, military cooperation 1961, U.S.-trained invasion force of Cuban exiles landed at Bay of Pigs Mission to spark nationwide uprising against Castro; mission failed The Cuban Revolution Slide 14 Latin America Section 1 Mixed results as well; economy suffered from U.S. embargo Castros policies led many Cubans to leave country, many for U.S.; caused economy to struggle Castro relied on Soviet Union for economic support; Soviet collapse in 1991 hurt economy Economic Effects of Revolution Mixed results since Cold War; good access to health care, education Peoples civil liberties restricted under one-party system Government jails opponents, spies on citizens Results of the Revolution The Cuban Revolution Slide 15 Latin America Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect What were some of the causes and effects of the Cuban Revolution? Answer(s): Causessocial inequality, U.S. influence, revolts; Effectsaccess to health care and education, but restricted freedom, economy still suffers Slide 16 Latin America Section 1 Causes Economic conditions not only cause of revolutions Political corruption, repression U.S. support for corrupt governments stirred nationalism U.S. Concerns Pressure from United Fruit Company, concerns over Arbenz s leftist leanings U.S. decided to remove from power Guatemala 1952, Guatemalan president Arbenz used land reform to redistribute land to peasants Policy hurt American-owned United Fruit Company CIA Intervention Intervened in coup that toppled Arbenz, replaced him Start of repressive dictatorship Civil war raged from 1970s until peace accord of 1996 Other Conflicts Slide 17 Latin America Section 1 El Salvador Military dictatorships kept power through unfair elections, repression 1980 assassination of Archbishop Oscar Romero, outspoken government critic, sparked bloody civil war between Communist guerillas, army Reagan Administration Supported Salvadoran government and army Provided money and military aid Violence continued into the 1990s Civil War Peasant villagers often caught in middle Government death squads roamed countryside, killed anyone suspected of aiding opposition Other Revolutions Slide 18 Latin America Section 1 Nicaragua Nicaragua struggled with instability Ruled for four decades by Somoza family Wealthy family, controlled about one quarter of countrys farmland Anti-communist views kept them in favor with U.S. Corruption, violent tactics alarmed many Nicaraguans 1979, Somoza forced to flee Sandinistas, revolutionary group took over capital Ruled as junta, group of leaders who rule jointly Launched economic, social reforms Allowed political opposition Sandinistas Reagan administration cut off aid Sandinistas looked to socialist countries for financial aid Contras, U.S.-trained, funded rebel group, began campaign of violence 1984 election kept Sandinistas in power, though violence continued Contras Other Revolutions Slide 19 Latin America Section 1 Make Generalizations How did U.S. influence affect conflicts in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua? Answer(s): civil war, violence, some corrupt leaders overthrown, economic problems, some financial and military aid

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