ded 103 educational psychology, guidance and counseling the state university of zanzibar


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  • OUTLINE Meaning of Memory Types of memory Memory and learning Memory Strategies
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  • DEFINITIONS (Oxford Concise Dictionary: 2009) defines memory as 1 a person's power to remember things 2 the mind regarded as a store of things remembered 3 the power of the mind to remember things. (Atkinson:1999) defines memory as the the ability to recall or recognize previous knowledge (Michelle et al:2002)defines memory as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes, stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.
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  • TYPES OF MEMORY Sensory memory (milliseconds ) Short-term/working (seconds to minutes) Long-term memory (minutes to years)
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  • Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal MEMORY STAGES
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  • SENSORY MEMORY/ REGISTER Sensory memory - the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. Capacity everything that can be seen at one time. Duration -200500 milliseconds after an item is perceived The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation, or memorization, is an example of sensory memory. Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory
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  • Sperlings Experiment Demonstrating the Duration of Sensory Memory In George Sperlings (1960) classic experiment, (1) subjects stared at a screen on which rows of letters were projected for just one-twentieth of a second, then the screen went blank. (2) After intervals varying up to one second, a tone was sounded that indicated the row of letters the subject should report. (3) If the tone was sounded within about one-third of a second, subjects were able to report the letters in the indicated row because the image of all the letters was still in sensory memory.
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  • Sperling s test phase medium
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  • Sperling s test phase low
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  • SHORT TERM MEMORY Short-term memory (STM) (working memory) - the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. Duration of STM - lasts from about 12 to 30 seconds without rehearsal Example of STM: 1. Dialing a phone number and having no idea what number you dialed. You are using a new phone and cant find the re-dial and 2.cramming for an exam, afterwards, you have no idea what you studied. STM is susceptible to interference (e.g., if counting is interrupted, have to start over).
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  • Increasing STM capacity Memory capacity can be increased through these procceses: 1.Chunking: bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, so that more information can be held in STM. Which is easier to remember? 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6 2Maintenance rehearsal:- Mental or verbal repetition of information allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 20-30 seconds
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  • LONG TERM MEMORY Long-term memory (LTM) - the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently Long term can be days, months, years, or decades. The question is more of being able to find information you had stored and know you used to be able to remember it.
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  • LONG TERM MEMORY Transferring information from short term to long term: 1.Repetition 2.Organizing information 3.Connecting information to previously known information
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  • LONG TERM MEMORY The loss of information from long-term memory is referred to as forgetting. We forget because what we are learning at the present time interferes with our ability to remember information we learned at an earlier point in time Example: During the normal school day, students are presented with new information,, approximately every 45 to 60 minutes. A child may have a 45-minute math lesson during which the process for adding fractions was introduced. Then, before this information has had time to consolidate in long-term memory, the student moves on to science where the process of photosynthesis is introduced. This situation produces fertile ground for "forgetting". WHY WE FORGET?
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  • REMEMBER Sensory and short-term memory are associated with the process of encoding or registering information in memory, the long-term memory system is associated with the processes of storage and retrieval of information from memory.
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  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEMORY AND LEARNING The relationship is entirely one sided! We can say: Memory is a behavioral change caused by an experience. Learning is a process for acquiring memory (organisation of long-term memory) Learning results from Information Processing and Causes Changes in Memory
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  • 1.REPETITION : (advertisers have said that if they can get you to watch something 80 times, you have it for life! Have you noticed commercials that are repeated immediately.) Reciting: Recite formulas or other pieces of information you need to remember Make a song, saying, or mnemonic Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! 2. Intent to Remember/ purpose: You need to want or intend to remember something: An example might include reading for a while and realizing you have no idea what you have been reading. So,when you get ready to study. Think about the assignment. What is the purpose? Look at the chapter title, headings, structure. If there are questions, look at the summary, questions, and any vocabulary or side notes. Now that you have taken two or so minutes to set a purpose for what you are to do, begin reading. Try to organize what you are reading with the end in mindthe summary or questions you saw. Make notes
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! 3. Meaningfulness: What you are learning needs to have some meaning. Instead of saying I need help with section 6 of chapter 2, it would benefit you more to realize you are asking for help in addition The more you can attach meaning to what you are learning and areas where you are having problems, the better equipped you become to fill gaps in information and learn.
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! 3. Categorization & Labeling: Organizing information in a way that you can consciously label the new information and know where to store the new information to find it when you need it.
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  • 4. Visual Imagery This helps memory enormously, but much of memory does not consist of concrete nouns In everyday life we need to understand complex ideas and concepts Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory!
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  • 4. Association/Connecting to familiar information: Association and Connection is where you build on what you already know. It uses your prior knowledge as the foundation for you to continue to build and add. As you gain in knowledge and understanding about yourself, you become more aware of what you know, what you need to know and can begin to make better decisions about how to get there.
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! 7. Mnemonic devices: What are they? When should you use them? Can anyone name some? KQZ NLR XOJ BTK YSW
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! Do smart cramming! Review only No new material Focus only on areas you want to try to remember Practice a Memory Dump to unload things you fear you will forget
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  • Strategies to Improve Learning and Memory! Improving Your Memory Concentrate Comprehend Remember
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  • CAN YOU ANSWER THIS QUESTIONS? What are some factors affecting how long we will remember something?
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