Comp 422: Parallel Programming

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Comp 422: Parallel Programming. Shared Memory Multithreading: Pthreads Synchronization. Reminder: Process Management. pthread_create() : creates a parallel thread executing a given function (and arguments), returns thread identifier. pthread_exit(): terminates thread. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Comp 422: Parallel ProgrammingShared Memory Multithreading:Pthreads Synchronization

  • Reminder: Process Managementpthread_create(): creates a parallel thread executing a given function (and arguments), returns thread identifier.pthread_exit(): terminates thread.pthread_join(): waits for thread with particular thread identifier to terminate.

  • General Program StructureEncapsulate parallel parts in functions.Use function arguments to parametrize what a particular thread does.Call pthread_create() with the function and arguments, save thread identifier returned.Call pthread_join() with that thread identifier.

  • Pthreads SynchronizationCreate/exit/joinprovide some form of synchronization, at a very coarse level,requires thread creation/destruction.Need for finer-grain synchronizationmutex locks,condition variables.

  • Mutex Locks (1 of 4)pthread_mutex_init(pthread_mutex_t * mutex,const pthread_mutex_attr *attr);Creates a new mutex lock.Attribute: ignore.

  • Mutex Locks (2 of 4)pthread_mutex_destroy(pthread_mutex_t *mutex);Destroys the mutex specified by mutex.

  • Mutex Locks (3 of 4)pthread_mutex_lock(pthread_mutex_t *mutex)Tries to acquire the lock specified by mutex.If mutex is already locked, then calling thread blocks until mutex is unlocked.

  • Mutex Locks (4 of 4)pthread_mutex_unlock(pthread_mutex_t *mutex);If calling thread has mutex currently locked, this will unlock the mutex.If other threads are blocked waiting on this mutex, one will unblock and acquire mutex.Which one is determined by the scheduler.

  • Use of Mutex LocksTo implement critical sections (as needed, e.g., in en_queue and de_queue in TSP).Pthreads provides only exclusive locks.Some other systems allow shared-read, exclusive-write locks.

  • Condition variables (1 of 5)pthread_cond_init(pthread_cond_t *cond,pthread_cond_attr *attr)Creates a new condition variable cond.Attribute: ignore for now.

  • Condition Variables (2 of 5)pthread_cond_destroy(pthread_cond_t *cond)Destroys the condition variable cond.

  • Condition Variables (3 of 5)pthread_cond_wait(pthread_cond_t *cond,pthread_mutex_t *mutex)Blocks the calling thread, waiting on cond.Unlocks the mutex.

  • Condition Variables (4 of 5)pthread_cond_signal(pthread_cond_t *cond)Unblocks one thread waiting on cond.Which one is determined by scheduler.If no thread waiting, then signal is a no-op.

  • Condition Variables (5 of 5)pthread_cond_broadcast(pthread_cond_t *cond)Unblocks all threads waiting on cond.If no thread waiting, then broadcast is a no-op.

  • Use of Condition VariablesTo implement signal-wait synchronization discussed in earlier examples.Important note: a signal is forgotten if there is no corresponding wait that has already happened.

  • PIPEP1:for( i=0; i
  • PIPE Using PthreadsReplacing the original wait/signal by a Pthreads condition variable wait/signal will not work.signals before a wait are forgotten.we need to remember a signal.

  • How to remember a signal (1 of 2)semaphore_signal(i) {pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_rem[i]);arrived [i]= 1;pthread_cond_signal(&cond[i]);pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex_rem[i]);}

  • How to Remember a Signal (2 of 2)sempahore_wait(i) {pthreads_mutex_lock(&mutex_rem[i]);if( arrived[i] = 0 ) {pthreads_cond_wait(&cond[i], mutex_rem[i]);}arrived[i] = 0;pthreads_mutex_unlock(&mutex_rem[i]);}

  • PIPE with PthreadsP1:for( i=0; i
  • NoteMany shared memory programming systems (other than Pthreads) have semaphores as basic primitive.If they do, you should use it, not construct it yourself.Implementation may be more efficient than what you can do yourself.

  • Parallel TSPprocess i:while( (p=de_queue()) != NULL ) {for each expansion by one city {q = add_city(p);if complete(q) { update_best(q) };else en_queue(q);}}

  • Parallel TSPNeed critical section in update_best, in en_queue/de_queue.In de_queuewait if q is empty,terminate if all processes are waiting.In en_queue: signal q is no longer empty.

  • Parallel TSP: Mutual Exclusionen_queue() / de_queue() {pthreads_mutex_lock(&queue);;pthreads_mutex_unlock(&queue);}update_best() {pthreads_mutex_lock(&best);;pthreads_mutex_unlock(&best);}

  • Parallel TSP: Condition Synchronizationde_queue() {while( (q is empty) and (not done) ) {waiting++;if( waiting == p ) {done = true;pthreads_cond_broadcast(&empty, &queue);}else {pthreads_cond_wait(&empty, &queue);waiting--;}}if( done )return null;elseremove and return head of the queue;}

  • Pthreads SOR: mainfor some number of timesteps {for( i=0; i
  • Pthreads SOR: Parallel parts (1)void* sor_1(void *s){int slice = (int) s;int from = (slice*n)/p;int to = ((slice+1)*n)/p;for(i=from;i
  • Pthreads SOR: Parallel parts (2)void* sor_2(void *s){int slice = (int) s;int from = (slice*n)/p;int to = ((slice+1)*n)/p;

    for(i=from;i

  • Reality bites ...Create/exit/join is not so cheap.It would be more efficient if we could come up with a parallel program, in whichcreate/exit/join would happen rarely (once!),cheaper synchronization were used.We need something that makes all threads wait, until all have arrived -- a barrier.

  • Barrier SynchronizationA wait at a barrier causes a thread to wait until all threads have performed a wait at the barrier.At that point, they all proceed.

  • Implementing Barriers in PthreadsCount the number of arrivals at the barrier.Wait if this is not the last arrival.Make everyone unblock if this is the last arrival.Since the arrival count is a shared variable, enclose the whole operation in a mutex lock-unlock.

  • Implementing Barriers in Pthreadsvoid barrier(){pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex_arr);arrived++;if (arrived
  • Parallel SOR with Barriers (1 of 2)void* sor (void* arg){int slice = (int)arg;int from = (slice * (n-1))/p + 1;int to = ((slice+1) * (n-1))/p + 1;

    for some number of iterations { }}

  • Parallel SOR with Barriers (2 of 2)for (i=from; i
  • Parallel SOR with Barriers: mainint main(int argc, char *argv[]){pthread_t *thrd[p];/* Initialize mutex and condition variables */for (i=0; i
  • Note againMany shared memory programming systems (other than Pthreads) have barriers as basic primitive.If they do, you should use it, not construct it yourself.Implementation may be more efficient than what you can do yourself.

  • Busy WaitingNot an explicit part of the API.Available in a general shared memory programming environment.

  • Busy Waitinginitially: flag = 0;

    P1:produce data;flag = 1;

    P2:while( !flag ) ;consume data;

  • Use of Busy WaitingOn the surface, simple and efficient.In general, not a recommended practice.Often leads to messy and unreadable code (blurs data/synchronization distinction).On some architectures, may be inefficient or may not even work as intended (depending on consistency model).

  • Private Data in PthreadsTo make a variable private in Pthreads, you need to make an array out of it.Index the array by thread identifier, which you can get by the pthreads_self() call.Not very elegant or efficient.

  • Other Primitives in PthreadsSet the attributes of a thread.Set the attributes of a mutex lock.Set scheduling parameters.

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