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  • Slide 1
  • Cognitive Dissonance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 2
  • Persuasion - Cognitive Dissonance Theory 1 For example, a person who is addicted to smoking cigarettes but also suspects it could be detrimental to his health suffers from cognitive dissonance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 3
  • Persuasion - Cognitive Dissonance Theory 1 The most famous example of how Cognitive Dissonance can be used for persuasion comes from Festinger and Carlsmiths 1959 experiment in which participants were asked to complete a very dull task for an hour https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 4
  • Interpersonal communication - Cognitive dissonance theory 1 The theory of cognitive dissonance, part of the Cybernetic Tradition, explains how humans are consistency seekers and attempt to reduce their dissonance, or discomfort, in new situations.Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. The theory was developed in the 1950s by Leon Festinger.Donsbach, Wolfgang (2008). Cognitive Dissonance Theory. The International Encyclopedia of Communication. Donsbach, Wolfgang (ed). Blackwell Publishing. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 5
  • Interpersonal communication - Cognitive dissonance theory 1 For this reason, cognitive dissonance is considered a drive state that encourages motivation to achieve consonance and reduce dissonance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 6
  • Interpersonal communication - Cognitive dissonance theory 1 An example of cognitive dissonance would be if someone holds the belief that maintaining a healthy lifestyle is important, but they dont regularly work out or eat healthy, they may experience dissonance between their beliefs and their actions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 7
  • Choice-supportive bias - Relation to cognitive dissonance 1 The theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce Cognitive dissonance|dissonance. Choice-supportive bias is potentially related to the aspect of cognitive dissonance explored by Jack Brehm (1956) as postdecisional dissonance. Within the context of cognitive dissonance, choice-supportive bias would be seen as reducing the conflict between I prefer X and I have committed to Y. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 8
  • Persuade - Cognitive Dissonance Theory 1 For example, a person who is addicted to smoking cigarettes but also suspects it could be detrimental to his health suffers from cognitive dissonance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 9
  • Persuade - Cognitive Dissonance Theory 1 The most famous example of how Cognitive Dissonance can be used for persuasion comes from Festinger and Carlsmiths 1959 experiment in which participants were asked to complete a very dull task for an hour https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 10
  • Motivation - Cognitive dissonance theory 1 Suggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 11
  • Motivation - Cognitive dissonance theory 1 While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a drive theory|motivational drive to reduce dissonance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 12
  • Cognitive dissonance 1 Cognitive dissonance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 13
  • Cognitive dissonance 1 Leon Festinger's 'theory of cognitive dissonance' focuses on how humans strive for internal consistency. When inconsistency (dissonance) is experienced, individuals largely become psychologically distressed. His basic hypotheses are listed below: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 14
  • Cognitive dissonance - Magnitude of dissonance 1 The pressure to reduce cognitive dissonance is a function of the magnitude of said dissonance. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 15
  • Cognitive dissonance - Reducing cognitive dissonance 1 Cognitive dissonance theory is founded on the assumption that individuals seek consistency between their expectations and their reality. Because of this, people engage in a process called dissonance reduction to bring their cognitions and actions in line with one another. This creation of uniformity allows for a lessening of psychological tension and distress. According to Festinger, dissonance reduction can be achieved in three ways: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 16
  • Cognitive dissonance - Theory and research 1 Most of the research on cognitive dissonance takes the form of one of four major paradigms. Important research generated by the theory has been concerned with the consequences of exposure to information inconsistent with a prior belief, what happens after individuals act in ways that are inconsistent with their prior attitudes, what happens after individuals make decisions, and the effects of effort expenditure. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 17
  • Cognitive dissonance - Belief disconfirmation paradigm 1 If the dissonance is not reduced by changing one's belief, the dissonance can result in restoring consonance through misperception, rejection or refutation of the information, seeking support from others who share the beliefs, and attempting to persuade others.Harmon-Jones, Eddie, A Cognitive Dissonance Theory Perspective on Persuasion, in The Persuasion Handbook: Developments in Theory and Practice, James Price Dillard, Michael Pfau, eds https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 18
  • Cognitive dissonance - Belief disconfirmation paradigm 1 They faced acute cognitive dissonance: had they been the victim of a hoax? Had they donated their worldly possessions in vain? Most members chose to believe something less dissonant to resolve reality not meeting their expectations: they believed that the aliens had given Earth a second chance, and the group was now empowered to spread the word that earth- spoiling must stop https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 19
  • Cognitive dissonance - Induced-compliance paradigm 1 A 2012 study using a version of the forbidden toy paradigm showed that hearing music reduces the development of cognitive dissonance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 20
  • Cognitive dissonance - Free-choice paradigm 1 This can be explained in terms of cognitive dissonance https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 21
  • Cognitive dissonance - The Fox and the Grapes 1 A classic illustration of cognitive dissonance is expressed in the fable The Fox and the Grapes by Aesop (ca https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 22
  • Cognitive dissonance - Other related phenomena 1 Cognitive dissonance has also been demonstrated to occur when people seek to: https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 23
  • Cognitive dissonance - Other related phenomena 1 There are other ways that cognitive dissonance is involved in shaping our views about people, as well as our own identities (as discussed more in the sections below) https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 24
  • Cognitive dissonance - Applications of research 1 In addition to explaining certain counter- intuitive human behaviour, the theory of cognitive dissonance has practical applications in several fields. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 25
  • Cognitive dissonance - Education 1 Creating and resolving cognitive dissonance can have a powerful impact on students' motivation for learning.Aronson, E https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 26
  • Cognitive dissonance - Education 1 Psychologists have incorporated cognitive dissonance into models of basic processes of learning, notably constructivism (learning theory)|constructivist models https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-toolkit.html
  • Slide 27
  • Cognitive dissonance - Education 1 Meta-analysis|Meta-analytic methods suggest that interventions that provoke cognitive dissonance to achieve directed conceptual change have been demonstrated across numerous studies to significantly increase learning in science and reading. https://store.theartofservice.com/the-cognitive-dissonance-to

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