Clinical pathology: Complete Blood count

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Clinical pathology: Complete Blood count. GENERAL OBJECTIVE : After finishing lab activity of CBC, the student will be able to describe the CBC in the DMS case problem SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE : At the end of lab activity of CBC , the student will be able to interprete: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Clinical pathology: Complete Blood countGENERAL OBJECTIVE: After finishing lab activity of CBC, the student will be able to describe the CBC in the DMS case problemSPECIFIC OBJECTIVE: At the end of lab activity of CBC , the student will be able to interprete: - the normal of CBC - the abnormal of CBCComplete Blood Count (CBC)Providing important information about the kinds and numbers of RBC, WBC and platelet.Being part of routine physical examinationHelp :To evaluate symptoms (weakness, fatigue, bruising, fever, or weight loss)To diagnose conditions (anemia, infection)To diagnose diseases of the blood (leukemia)To monitor the response to some types of drug or radiation treatmentCBC usually includes :WBC countWBC differentialRBC countHematocritHemoglobinRBC indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC)Platelet countBlood smear **RDWESRCBC can be performed :Manually :HemocytometerCalculate from other CBC results (RBC indices)Automatically (hematologic analyzer)WBC countTo express WBC concentration per unit volume of blood (mm3).No distinction is made among the six normal cell types (band neutrophils,segmented neutophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils). Increase WBC count leucocytosisDecrease WBC count leucopeniaWBC Differential5 major kinds of WBCImmature neutrophil, band neutrophil include to the test.Each type of cell plays a different role in protecting the body.Number of each type give important information about the immune system.Expressed as a percentage of each type Increase/decrease number of each type help to identify :infection (neutrophilia, lymphocytosis)Allergic or toxic reaction to certain medication (eosinophilia)Malignancy (leukemia) HemoglobinMain component of RBCConjugated proteinServes as a vehicle for the transportation of O2 and CO2.Gives blood cell its red colorHemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin in blood.Decrease anemiaRBC indicesThere are 3 RBC indices :MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration).Their values are determined from other measurements noted during CBCPlatelet countexpressed as concentration platelet cells per unit volume of blood (mm3).Decrease thrombocytopeniaIncrease thrombocytosisRDWRed Cell Distribution widthReports whether all the red cells are about the same width, size, and shape.This helps further classify the types of anemia. Erythrocyte Sedimentation RateMeasuring the sedimentation of erythrocytes in diluted human plasma over a specified time period (1 hour) Measuring the distance from the bottom of the surface meniscus to the top of erythrocyte sedimentation in a vertical column containing diluted whole blood.Not very specific/diagnostic test still use in many institutions as a screening test for inflammationFactors affecting ESRRBC size & shapePlasma fibrinogen & globulin levelsMechanicalTechnicalFactors affecting the ESR :Increase :Rouleaux formationFibrinogen (elevated)Immunoglobulin (excess)Decrease :MicrocytesSickle cellsSpherocytesMethods performing ESR :Manual :Westergren MethodWintrobe MethodAutomaticNormal values :Adult men0-15 mm/hAdult women0-20 mm/hDiseases associating with an elevated ESR :1. Chronic infections(Tb)2. Multiple Myeloma3. Cryoglobulinemia4. Temporal arteritis5. Inflammatory diseases6. Pregnancy7. AnemiaMalignant neoplasmsParaproteinemiasMacroglobulinemiaHyperfibrinogenemiaRheumatoid arthritisCollagen diseasePolymyalgia rheumaticaResultsNormal value can vary from lab to labNormal value for CBC tests varies, depending on age, sex, elevation above sea level, and type of sample.

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