Climate: Monsoon Climate

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<p>Monsoon climate</p> <p>Monsoon climateA monsoon is a large scale reversal in wind direction which occurs seasonally across SE Asia and is associated with distinct dry and wet seasons.How is it caused?Movement of the ITCZThe point of max insolation alters throughout the year and the ITCZ migrates accordingly; north in June (dragging low pressure over India) and south in December (dragging high pressure over central Asia). </p> <p>How is it caused?Differential heatingSummer: Intense heating of land mass. Oceans take longer to warm. This generates pressure differences leading to SW winds (Em and Tm air masses).Winter: Land cools rapidly. Ocean retains warmth. Pressure change is reversed and winds move from NE (Tc and Pc from desert).</p> <p>How is it caused?Summer: SW MonsoonWinter: NE MonsoonITCZ dragged NorthLow pressure over IndiaLand warmer than seasCoriolis deflects northerly winds to the EastHeavy rains move North along west and east coastsEast rains deflected west due to Himalayas ITCZ dragged SouthHigh pressure over C.AsiaLand cools rapidlyCoriolis deflects southerly winds to the WestDry air dries further as it moves over Tibetan PlateauAir warms as it descends to the Indian plains </p> <p>How is it caused?Pattern of rainfall in summer monsoon is altered by topography. Western Ghats create rain shadow in central India. Himalayas have same effect for central Asia.Some areas of SE India and Sri Lanka receive rainfall in Winter as winds pass over Bay of Bengal and gain moisture</p> <p>Arrival and retreat of the monsoon rainThere is a stepped progression and recession of the monsoon rains as they cross India.Sri Lanka usually has monsoon rainfall in early May whereas in Pakistan it is July.In winter, the retreat begins in September but will not reach Southern India until November</p> <p>Monsoons and climate changeThe key question lies with the ability of the affected nations to cope with the changes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar</p> <p>Half of global population rely on annual monsoon to bring water for agricultureVariations of timing and intensity will affect billions of peopleFrequency has increased (10%) since 1950s, severe rains have doubledImpacts of heavy rains flash floods and landslides if these intensify the agriculture suffersEnd of 21stC temps up 3C some areas get more rain, others suffer droughtIncreases in cholera, hepatitis, malaria</p> <p>BangladeshTemperature up 1.5-2.0C by 2050Annual increase in precipitation of 10-15% by 2050More frequent and severe cyclones why?Increased river discharge why?Sea level rise of 3mm per year (world average is 2mm) and 1m by 2050 (15% loss of land)</p> <p>13-30m people displacedRice crop yield down 30%Mass migration to NE.India leading to?Coral reefs damagedLoss of Sundarban Islands unique ecosystem (mangroves) biggest carbon sink in region, supports Bengal Tiger, Indian Python, Estuarine Crocodile</p> <p>Responses to climate changeNo carbon emission restrictions based on comparative levels and popn (4th globally)Investment in drought/flood resistant cropsIncrease photovoltaic production to 1gigawatt per year. 4 companies in the photovoltaic business have set up in 'Fab City', a proposed semiconductor-making hub outside HyderabadIntegrated Coastal Zone Planning restoration of coral reefs and mangrove plantingNational Cyclone Risk Mitigation ProgrammeCoastal zone mapping of topography to identify areas at high riskConstruction of shelters and early warning systemsRajiv Ghandi plan to connect 79 million rural home to electricity why?Indias Solar Mission - decentralised power including large scale and domestic generation</p>