CITY SANITATION PLAN –DRAFT REPORT– UDAIPUR CITY

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  • CITY SANITATION PLAN DRAFT REPORT UDAIPUR CITY

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    NF INFRATECH SERVICE PVT. LTD., NEW DELHI

    CONTENTS

    Chapter 1 : Background ..................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Concept .................................................................................................................. 1

    1.2 The CSP Initiative ................................................................................................... 1

    1.2.1 Context ............................................................................................................ 1

    1.2.2 NUSP-Policy and Vision .................................................................................. 2

    1.2.3 Vision ............................................................................................................... 3

    1.2.4 The thrust of NSUP-Totally Sanitized City ........................................................ 3

    1.3 City Sanitation Plan ................................................................................................. 3

    1.3.1 Components of City Sanitation Plan ................................................................. 4

    1.3.2 Strategy for City Sanitation Plan ...................................................................... 4

    1.4 CSP Approach and Methodology ............................................................................ 5

    1.5 Detailed Plan of Action ............................................................................................ 6

    1.5.1 Profiling ULB .................................................................................................... 6

    1.5.2 Sensitisation / Orientation Workshop and Stakeholders Analysis .................... 6

    1.5.3 Constituting: City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) .............................................. 7

    1.5.4 Initiating IEC activities ...................................................................................... 7

    1.5.5 Situation Analysis and Mapping Current Status ............................................... 7

    1.5.6 Problem Analysis and Assessment of Options ................................................. 9

    1.5.7 Developing and Consolidating CSP ................................................................. 9

    1.6 Timeline for Totally Sanitized City/ .......................................................................... 9

    1.7 CSP Sanitation Ranking ....................................................................................... 10

    1.7.1 Categories of Indicators ................................................................................. 10

    1.8 CSP Communication Need Assessment ............................................................... 11

    Chapter 2 : City Profile ....................................................................................................... 1

    2.1 City Profile .............................................................................................................. 1

    2.2 REGIONAL SETTINGS and connectivity ................................................................ 1

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    2.2.1 Regional Setting .............................................................................................. 1

    2.2.2 Connectivity ..................................................................................................... 2

    2.3 PHYSIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 4

    2.3.1 Natural Drainage and Water Bodies ................................................................. 4

    2.3.2 Vegetation ....................................................................................................... 4

    2.3.3 Climate ............................................................................................................ 4

    2.4 UDAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ................................................................ 5

    2.5 Urban Control Area ................................................................................................. 5

    2.6 Land use and Master Plan ...................................................................................... 6

    2.7 DEMOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................... 8

    2.7.1 POPULATION GROWTH TREND ................................................................... 8

    2.7.2 SEX RATIO ..................................................................................................... 9

    2.7.3 LITERACY RATE ............................................................................................. 9

    2.8 ECONOMY ........................................................................................................... 10

    2.8.1 Small and Medium Industries ......................................................................... 11

    2.8.2 Tourism .......................................................................................................... 12

    2.9 Housing Scenario ................................................................................................. 14

    2.10 Administrative Structure ........................................................................................ 15

    Chapter 3 : City Sanitation Plan Components ................................................................... 18

    3.1 Toilet coverage ..................................................................................................... 18

    3.2 Solid Waste........................................................................................................... 18

    3.3 Storm water Drainage ........................................................................................... 19

    3.4 Drinking Water Supply .......................................................................................... 19

    3.5 Environment.......................................................................................................... 19

    3.6 Information, Education and Communication .......................................................... 20

    Chapter 4 : Water Supply ................................................................................................. 21

    4.1.1 Source of Water Supply ................................................................................. 21

    .................................................................................................................................... 25

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    4.1.2 Storage .......................................................................................................... 26

    4.1.3 Distribution Network ....................................................................................... 28

    4.1.4 Water Quality and Treatment Facility ............................................................. 28

    4.1.5 Water Quality ................................................................................................. 29

    4.2 Situation Analysis ................................................................................................. 29

    4.2.1 Connections and Domestic Metering ............................................................. 29

    4.2.2 Area and Population Coverage ...................................................................... 30

    4.2.3 Unaccounted water ........................................................................................ 32

    4.2.4 Service Adequacy and Key Issues ................................................................. 32

    4.3 Future demand and Gap Analysis ......................................................................... 33

    4.4 Ongoing Projects .................................................................................................. 34

    4.5 Future Requirement .............................................................................................. 34

    4.5.1 WTP and Storage Proposal ........................................................................... 35

    4.6 Framework for Action ............................................................................................ 54

    4.6.1 Strategies and Time Frame ............................................................................ 55

    4.6.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................... 55

    4.6.3 Best Practice.................................................................................................. 55

    Chapter 5 : Making City Open Defecation Free ................................................................ 57

    5.1 Present Status ...................................................................................................... 57

    5.1.1 Individual Sanitation System .......................................................................... 57

    5.2 Public Toilets ........................................................................................................ 58

    5.3 Public Urinal.......................................................................................................... 62

    5.4 Sanitation in InstitutIONS ...................................................................................... 63

    5.5 Situation Analysis ................................................................................................. 63

    5.5.1 Household Toilets .......................................................................................... 63

    5.5.2 Septic Tanks .................................................................................................. 63

    5.5.3 Leach pit ........................................................................................................ 64

    5.5.4 On Pit Latrines ............................................................................................... 65

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    5.5.5 Public Toilets and Urinals............................................................................... 66

    5.6 Gap analysis ......................................................................................................... 67

    5.7 Proposal Under CSP ............................................................................................. 68

    5.8 Framework for Community Toilet .......................................................................... 69

    5.9 Construction & Maintenance of Modern Public Toilets on BOT (Built, Operate &

    Transfer) Basis ................................................................................................................ 71

    5.9.1 Indicative Methodology for taking up Construction of Modern Public Toilets on

    BOT basis .................................................................................................................... 72

    5.10 Ecosan toilets ....................................................................................................... 79

    Chapter 6 : Sewerage management ................................................................................. 80

    6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 80

    6.2 Present status ....................................................................................................... 80

    6.3 Existing Sewerage System ................................................................................... 83

    6.3.1 Sewerage System constructed by PHED ....................................................... 83

    6.3.2 Sewerage system constructed by UIT ............................................................ 86

    6.3.3 Pumping Stations and Lifting Stations in the existing system ......................... 87

    6.3.4 Pumping Station near Amba Mata Bridge ...................................................... 87

    6.3.5 Pumping Station (PS) Near Chand Pol .......................................................... 87

    6.3.6 Pumping Station at Gadiya Devra .................................................................. 88

    6.3.7 Lift Station near Naganagri Ramdwera .......................................................... 88

    6.3.8 Lift Station near Maharaja Ghat ..................................................................... 88

    6.4 Disposal of sewage ............................................................................................... 89

    6.4.1 Existing Trunk Line ........................................................................................ 89

    6.4.2 Pumping and Lifting Stations ......................................................................... 89

    6.5 situation Analysis .................................................................................................. 90

    6.6 future requirement................................................................................................. 90

    6.6.1 Waste Water Management ............................................................................ 91

    6.6.2 Demand and Gap in Waste Water Management ............................................ 92

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    6.7 Framework for Action ............................................................................................ 93

    6.7.1 Strategies and Time Frame ............................................................................ 95

    6.7.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................... 95

    6.7.3 Best Practice.................................................................................................. 95

    Chapter 7 : Waste Water Management ............................................................................ 97

    7.1 Sanitation Models/Technologies ........................................................................... 97

    7.1.1 Wet and Dry Sanitation .................................................................................. 97

    7.1.2 On-Site and Off-Site Sanitation Systems ....................................................... 98

    7.1.3 Types of Toilets ............................................................................................. 98

    7.1.4 Level of Sanitation and Service Provisions: ................................................... 99

    7.1.5 On-Site or Off-Site Disposal: ........................................................................ 100

    7.2 Technical Options ............................................................................................... 102

    7.2.1 On-Site Sanitation Technologies .................................................................. 103

    7.2.2 Off Site Wastewater Treatment Technologies: ............................................. 108

    7.3 Reference ........................................................................................................... 124

    Chapter 8 : Solid Waste Management ............................................................................ 125

    8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 125

    8.2 Administration ..................................................................................................... 125

    8.3 Solid Waste Quantities ........................................................................................ 126

    ...................................................................................................................................... 127

    8.4 Existing Solid Waste Management System ......................................................... 127

    8.5 Domestic Waste .................................................................................................. 127

    8.6 Commercial waste .............................................................................................. 128

    8.7 Waste from other institutions ............................................................................... 128

    8.8 Waste from street sweeping ................................................................................ 128

    8.9 hazardous waste ................................................................................................. 128

    8.10 industrial waste ................................................................................................... 129

    8.11 collection system ................................................................................................ 129

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    8.11.1 Work Force .................................................................................................. 133

    8.11.2 Street sweeping and Solid Waste Collection ................................................ 134

    8.12 Gap analysis ....................................................................................................... 135

    9.1 Proposals under CSP ......................................................................................... 136

    9.2 Future waste generation ..................................................................................... 138

    9.3 Waste Treatment Options ................................................................................... 138

    9.3.1 Strategies and Time Frame .......................................................................... 142

    9.3.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................... 143

    Chapter 10 : Drainage and storm water management ................................................... 145

    10.1 Existing status ..................................................................................................... 145

    10.2 Industrial Waste .................................................................................................. 146

    10.3 issues in existing drainage system ...................................................................... 147

    10.4 Major Water Bodies ............................................................................................ 147

    10.5 Construction of new Drains ................................................................................. 150

    10.6 Development Plan for Ahar River ........................................................................ 150

    Chapter 11 : The lake and Lake system ........................................................................ 151

    11.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 151

    11.1.1 History ......................................................................................................... 151

    11.2 Lake System: ...................................................................................................... 151

    11.2.1 Pichola ......................................................................................................... 151

    11.2.2 Pichola Watershed ....................................................................................... 152

    11.2.3 Parts of Pichola ............................................................................................ 153

    Swaroop Sagar: ......................................................................................................... 153

    11.2.4 Govardhan Sagar ........................................................................................ 153

    11.2.5 Fateh Sagar Reservoir ................................................................................. 153

    11.3 Morphometric of Udaipur Reservoirs ................................................................... 154

    11.4 Importance .......................................................................................................... 154

    11.4.1 As water Resources ..................................................................................... 155

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    11.4.2 As Tourist Centre ......................................................................................... 155

    11.5 Issues ................................................................................................................. 155

    11.5.1 Waste Disposal ............................................................................................ 156

    11.5.2 Drying up of Lake ......................................................................................... 156

    11.5.3 Siltation ........................................................................................................ 156

    11.5.4 Weeding ...................................................................................................... 156

    11.5.5 Boating ........................................................................................................ 156

    11.5.6 Idol immersion ............................................................................................. 156

    11.5.7 Sewage Inflow ............................................................................................. 157

    11.5.8 Washing ....................................................................................................... 157

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    List of Tables

    Table 2.1: Comparison of Sex ratio- India, Rajasthan & Udaipur City .................................... 9

    Table 2.2: Comparison of Literacy Rate- India, Rajasthan & Udaipur city............................ 10

    Table 2.4: Responsibility Matrix-Water Supply and Sewerage ............................................ 17

    Table 4.2: Details of CWRs ................................................................................................. 26

    Table 4.3: Storage details ................................................................................................... 27

    Table 4.4: Salient features of Municipal Water supply ......................................................... 28

    Table 4.5: Water Treatment Plants ...................................................................................... 28

    Table 4.6: Water Quality in Pichola Lake............................................................................. 29

    Table 4.7: Water Tariff ........................................................................................................ 30

    Table 4.8: Water Supply coverage ...................................................................................... 30

    Table 4.9: Demand Supply Gap .......................................................................................... 34

    Table 4.10: Proposed WTPs ............................................................................................... 36

    Table 4.11: Proposed Storage facilities ............................................................................... 36

    Table 4.12: Proposed pipe line network .............................................................................. 38

    Table 4.13: Investment Plan-Macro Level ........................................................................... 54

    Table 4.14: Investment Plan Micro Level............................................................................. 54

    Table 4.15: Strategies and Time Frame Water Supply ..................................................... 55

    Table 5.1: Individual Sanitation System .............................................................................. 57

    Table 5.2: Pubic Toilets ....................................................................................................... 59

    Table 5.3: Existing and Proposed Toilet Facilities ............................................................... 68

    Table 6.2: Existing and Proposed Sewer Lines ................................................................... 91

    Table 6.3: Sewage Generation ............................................................................................ 91

    Table 6.4: STP Proposals ................................................................................................... 92

    Table 6.5:Investement Plan Macro Level ............................................................................ 93

    Table 6.6:Investment Plan Micro Level ............................................................................... 93

    Table 6.7: Strategies and Time Frame ................................................................................ 95

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    Table 7.1: Type of Waste generated in different disposal process....................................... 98

    Table 8.2: Solid waste Composition .................................................................................. 126

    Table 8.3: Details of Manpower and Equipment ................................................................ 133

    Table 8.4: SWM Vehicles ................................................................................................. 133

    Table 8.5: Existing SWM system in the City ...................................................................... 134

    Table 9.1: Inventory of Existing Drainage Length .............................................................. 145

    Table 9.2: Major Water Bodies .......................................................................................... 148

    Table 9.3: Major Flood Prone Areas in Udaipur City......................................................... 149

    Table 10.1 Morphometric features & irrigation details of reservoirs ................................... 154

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    List of Figures

    Figure 1.1: Approach and Methodology ................................................................................ 5

    Figure 2.2: Projected Population by different method ............................................................ 9

    Figure 2.3: Main workers participation of Udaipur City ........................................................ 11

    Figure 2.4: Marginal workers participation of Udaipur City .................................................. 11

    Figure 2.5: Tourist inflow of Udaipur comparison with other cities of Rajasthan .................. 12

    Figure 2.6: Major Tourist spot of Udaipur. ........................................................................... 14

    Figure 2.7: Institutional Framework-WSS ........................................................................ 17

    Figure 4.2: Water supply map of the city. ............................................................................ 24

    Figure 4.3: Water supply coverage...................................................................................... 31

    In first phase the ESRs are proposed at the out growth areas sucha s Palri, Badagaon,

    Sukher, Bhuwana, Dewali Rural , IIM colony, Govardhan Vilas Rural, and in Sajjan Nagar. 36

    Figure 4.5: Exiting and Proposed WTPs and Storage ......................................................... 38

    Figure 4.6: Proposed distribution network ........................................................................... 39

    Figure 5.2: Existing Urinals ................................................................................................. 62

    Figure 5.3: Schematic representation of Black Water Disposal Septic Tanks ...................... 63

    Figure 5.4: Typical section of a Septic Tank ........................................................................ 65

    Figure 5.5 Schematic representation of Pit Toilet ................................................................ 66

    Figure 7.1: Option for collection and drainage of waste water ........................................... 101

    Figure 7.3: Oxidation Ditch.............................................................................................. 108

    Figure 7.4: Rotating Biological Contactor .......................................................................... 109

    Figure 8.1: Composition of Waste (Veg. Market) and in commercial centre ...................... 127

    Figure 8.2: : Location of Dust Bins and Solid waste dumping site..................................... 131

    Figure 8.3: Waste collection area ...................................................................................... 133

    Figure 9.1: Containers Proposed in UMC and in OG area ................................................. 137

    Figure 11.2 Lake Pichola .................................................................................................. 152

    Figure 11.1 Udaipur Lake System ..................................................................................... 152

    file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207892file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207904file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207907file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207909file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207911file:///D:/SUBHASH_NF/CSP%20UDAIPUR/REPORT/DRAFT%20REPORT_UDAIPUR_02%20FEB.docx%23_Toc379207912

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    Chapter 1 : BACKGROUND

    1.1 CONCEPT

    Sanitation is a holistic term which can be defined as hygienic measures taken to maintain

    public health, which includes safe disposal / reuse of excreta, liquid waste and solid wastes,

    control of vectors of diseases, domestic, personal and food hygiene. It includes both

    infrastructure (for example, latrines, compost pits) and behavior (for example, improved

    hygiene practices, habit formation to switch from open to fixed point defecation).

    Improved sanitation is hygienically separating human excreta from human contact and hence

    reducing health risks to humans (WHO). Inadequate sanitation is thus the lack of improved

    facilities (toilets, conveyance, and treatment systems), and hygienic practices (for example,

    hand washing, proper water handling, personal hygiene, and so on) that exposes people to

    human excreta and fecal-oral pathogens through different transmission pathways.

    Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide. Sanitation related illnesses in

    both children and adults deplete productivity and resources and ultimately contributes to

    deprivation. The problem of sanitation is much worse in urban areas than in rural due to

    increase in congestion. The character of urban growth is often informal and takes place

    predominantly in peri-urban areas or at city fringes. These results in a high number of people

    exposed to severe health and environmental risks because they are unserved by the citys

    sanitation systems. Tangible problems connected with urban sanitation are:

    production of enormous amounts of waste and wastewater that is insufficiently

    collected and treated;

    lack of on-site systems for proper fecal sludge management;

    pollution of shallow ground water often the source of drinking water for slum dwellers

    by leaking sewers, waste, and latrine contents; and

    Uncontrolled reuse of (untreated) sewage for irrigation in peri-urban agriculture.

    Municipalities all over the world face great difficulties in providing sustainable infrastructure to

    their citizens especially in developing countries since they are most affected by this rampant

    urbanization.

    1.2 THE CSP INITIATIVE

    1.2.1 Context

    According to 2011 census, the Urban Population in India has increased to 31.16 percent

    i.e. 121.1crore persons, compared to 27.8 percent in 2001. This massive urban

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    Water supply: As per 2011 census 70.6 per cent of urban population is covered by individual connections, compared with 91 per cent in China, 86 per cent in South Africa and 80 per cent in Brazil. Duration of water supply in Indian cities ranges from 1 hour to 6 hours, compared with 24 hours in Brazil and China and 22 hours in Vietnam. Per capita supply of water in Indian cities ranges from 37 lpcpd to 298 lpcpd for a limited duration, while Paris supplies 150 lpcpd continuously and Mexico 171 lpcpd for 21 hours a day. Most Indian cities do not have metering for residential water connections. Seventy percent of water leakages occur from consumer connections and due to malfunctioning of water meters. Non-revenue water (NRW) accounts for 50 per cent of water production compared with 5 per cent in Singapore.

    Sanitation: Even a partial sewerage network is absent in 4861 cities and towns in India. Almost 50 percent of households in cities like Bangalore and Hyderabad do not have sewerage connections. As per 2011 census, about 13 per cent of urban households do not have access to any form of latrine facility and defecate in the open. Census 2011 also revealed that about 37 per cent of urban households are connected with open drainage and another 18 per cent are not connected at all. Less than 20 per cent of the road network is covered by storm water drains. As per the report of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) 2009, only about 20 per cent sewage generated was treated before disposal in Class I cities and Class II towns (as per 2001 census). As per CPCB report brought out in 2005, about 1,15,000 MT of Municipal Solid Waste is generated daily in the country. However, scientific disposal of the waste generated is almost non-existent.

    transformation accompanying Indias rapid economic growth is posing unprecedented

    challenges to Indias growing cities and towns particularly in the provision of infrastructure

    such as water, sanitation and sewerage meeting the needs of a future urban population of 600

    million people by 2031.

    Cities and towns of India are visibly deficient in the quality of services they provide, even to

    the existing population. Present status of urban service delivery is given in box below.

    This has imposed significant public health and environmental cost to urban areas, which

    contributes more than 60percent of the countrys GDP. The status in respect of the urban poor

    has even been worse. Need was to match massive investment requirement both capital and

    O&M for providing urban infrastructure to the urban population1 and to achieve target of

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    1.2.2 NUSP-Policy and Vision

    The Government of India had launched National Urban Sanitation Policy in November 2008

    with the goal of making India community driven, totally sanitized, healthy and livable cities

    and towns. Policy is to bring together the Central, State and Local governments on one side

    and Non-government organizations and public participation on the other to ensuring proper

    flow of funds for upgrading services to the international standards.

    1Economic Survey 2004-2005 stated: investment needs for urban WSS and SWM for the

    2002-2007 period of Rs 537 billion, and funds available were estimated to be about Rs 358

    million.

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    The policy advocates that all cities would become open defecation free, all human wastes and

    liquid wastes would be collected and safely treated and adequate resources would be

    available for the operation and maintenance of the sanitation facilities.

    1.2.3 Vision

    All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and livable and ensure and

    sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens with a

    special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and

    women.

    To translate National Urban Sanitation Policy vision into action plans, states are required to

    develop state sanitation strategy. Cities which are responsible for sanitation are required to

    develop city sanitation plans, implement and maintain the infrastructure facilities.

    The policy focuses on management of human excreta and associated public health and

    environmental impacts, however for totally sanitized city the solution needs to be integral,

    taking into account other elements of environmental sanitation, i.e. solid waste management;

    generation of industrial and other specialized/ hazardous wastes; drainage; as also the

    management of drinking water supply.

    1.2.4 The thrust of NSUP-Totally Sanitized City

    A totally Sanitized City will be one that has achieved the outputs or milestones specified in the

    National Urban Sanitation policy, the salient features of which are as follows:

    Cities must be open defecation free.

    Must eliminate the practice of manual scavenging and provide adequate personnel

    protection equipment that addresses the safety of sanitation workers.

    Municipal wastewater and storm water drainage must be safely managed.

    Recycle and reuse of treated wastewater for non-potable applications should be

    implemented wherever possible.

    Solid waste collected and disposed-off fully and safely.

    Services to the poor and systems for sustaining results.

    Improved public health outcomes and environmental standards.

    1.3 CITY SANITATION PLAN

    City Sanitation (Master) Plans (CSP), are the outputs of strategic planning processes for

    citywide sanitation sector development. Its objective is to develop and maintain a clean, safe

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    and pleasant physical environment to promote social, economic and physical wellbeing of all

    sections of the population. It encompasses plan of action for achieving 100 percent sanitation

    in the city through demand generation and awareness campaign, sustainable technology

    selection, construction and maintenance of sanitary infrastructure, provision of services, O&M

    issues, institutional roles and responsibilities, public education, community and individual

    action, regulation and legislation.

    1.3.1 Components of City Sanitation Plan

    A city sanitation plan is guided by the vision, missions, and goals of sanitation development as

    well as strategies to meet these goals. The city sanitation plan covers:

    Technical Aspects, including strategies and programs for the development of (a)

    domestic as well as industrial wastewater services, (b) solid waste including clinical

    and other hazardous waste management, and (c) storm water drainage system.

    Non-Technical Aspects, including strategies for the development of non-physical

    aspects such as (a) community awareness and participation, (b) policy and regulation,

    (c) institutional capacity, (d) private sector engagement, (e) NGO engagement, (f)

    financing and tariffs, and (g) monitoring and evaluation.

    1.3.2 Strategy for City Sanitation Plan

    A broad city level strategy for preparation and implementation of the City Sanitation Plan is

    based on five strategic pillars, namely, (1) Technology Options; (2) Financial Options; (3)

    Institutional and Governance Options; (4) Capacity Enhancement and Awareness Generation

    Options; and (5) Inclusive Approach. The strategic outputs and proposals are guided by the

    following points:

    Ensured Coordination-Enhancing synergy among the actors in various

    departments working in the field of water supply and sanitation, such as health,

    education, public health and engineering department, including municipal government

    agencies, industry, environment, transport, pollution control board, the private sector,

    NGOs, and others.

    Locally Adaptable Plan: Employing appropriate technologies that are suitable to

    user needs, while ensuring that they are relevant to the citys actual conditions,

    comply with technical standards, and prevent potential impacts.

    Equitable: Develop sanitation in all parts of the city (city-wide), prioritizing poor

    residential areas where the health risks are highest.

    IEC: Promote awareness of health and hygiene behavior while creating demand for

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    better sanitation services.

    Resource Generation and Mobilization: Create opportunities and incentives for

    private sector initiatives in the development and operation of sanitation services.

    Increase funding from sources other than municipal government, such as from the

    national and provincial governments, donor agencies, the private sector and the public.

    Existing Infrastructure Utilization: Foster better use of existing sanitation

    services, which becomes the basis for developing new services.

    Partnering citizens: Encourage the development of community-based sanitation

    services, especially in areas where public and private services are difficult to

    establish. Engage stakeholder groups, including women groups, in sanitation

    planning, in line with their respective capacities.

    Institutional and regulatory Frame Work: Create enabling institutional and

    regulatory frameworks to accelerate sanitation services development.

    1.4 CSP APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY

    It is ensured that CSP for Udaipur be an inclusive, comprehensive and participatory, providing

    for complete access to sanitation to the entire population of the town keeping in focus the

    existing status of sanitation infrastructure as well as future development perspective and

    growth of the urban areas in the city. With the said objective sequence of activities undertaken

    with multi tasks performed by the consultant along with all stakeholders are given on the next

    page in figure 1.1.

    Figure 1.1: Approach and Methodology

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    1.5 DETAILED PLAN OF ACTION

    1.5.1 Profiling ULB

    As a preparatory work, a preliminary profiling of ULBs using service level benchmark

    indicators and city ratings to highlight the sanitation situation, health indicators and current

    projects is undertaken from secondary data sources.

    1.5.2 Sensitisation / Orientation Workshop and Stakeholders Analysis

    Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) is responsible for sanitation therefore approach should be

    demand responsive. This gives way for strategic involvement of stakeholders from data

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    collection to analysis to prioritization of plan formalization. It generatesinformed civil society

    helping in monitor its implementation. Various institutions, organizations, individuals, NGOs,

    academics, journals, local corporations, industry owners, consultants, representatives of

    private sector etc. are identified in Udaipur, suggesting the strengths and competencies

    required for sanitation.

    A City level orientation workshop at city level involving identified stakeholders has been

    organized to highlight key issues related to access sanitation in city, in particular, slums;

    awareness generation on behavioral change; community participation and project

    prioritization; and a number of technical, institutional and financial issues to be addressed in

    CSP.

    1.5.3 Constituting: City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF)

    The National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) has recommended formation of a multi-

    stakeholder City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) which will be responsible for overseeing the

    preparation, planning and implementation of the City Sanitation Plan. The main objective of

    CSTF is to have representation from different segment of the society for an inclusive

    sanitation plan, which serves all segments of the society.

    CSTF has been constituted to mobilize Stakeholders towards clean city environment and

    hygienic disposal of solid as well as liquid waste. Building consciousness of urban local

    bodies, government agencies and amongst the people of the city towards positive outcome of

    totally sanitize city. CSTF will organize a multi-stakeholder, multi-party meeting in the

    preparatory stage, and take a formal resolution to make the city 100% sanitized.

    1.5.4 Initiating IEC activities

    A city-wide Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Strategy is designed for raising

    awareness on the public health and environmental importance of sanitation. The socio-cultural

    bases against sanitation and sanitary work are targeted, and dignity and humane approach

    promoted in the elevation of priority to sanitation in public affairs. Further, the public-good

    nature of urban sanitation necessitating collective action needs to be highlighted in the minds

    of all stakeholders. For this purpose, it is recommended that ULBs utilizes suitable player for

    inter-personal IEC and training from the existing system like; ward development committees,

    health institutions, schools, the private sector (retailers, contractors, suppliers, plumbers,

    masons), neighborhood committees and NGOs, Anganwadi workers etc.

    1.5.5 Situation Analysis and Mapping Current Status

    Situation will be analyzed by taking into consideration the ground realities, local conditions,

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    and assessment of the present sanitation situation. The team of consultants will undertake the

    following tasks:

    a. Obtain base maps and develop them with the help of TSS, and available secondary data

    on the citys demographics, service levels of water and sanitation.

    b. Collect and plot on city map information on sanitation (household toilets, public/

    community toilets, collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of human excreta

    through sewer networks or surface drains and household liquid wastes, with special

    emphasis on slums).

    c. Collect information on solid waste (collection, transportation and disposal including

    treatment of waste) and other relevant information.

    d. Collect and plot on city map information on drains (existence/ type of drains whether

    builtup pucca drains or kuchcha drains/ condition/ whether flowing or blocked/ practice of

    dumping solid waste indiscriminately in the drains/ their size, type and direction of flow/

    whether functional or otherwise/ whether the drains are likely to pollute nearby water

    sources and create other nuisance/ their maintenance.

    e. Collect information on water supply, wastewater generation, collection and disposal,

    including proposed sewage collection and treatment schemes, which are being

    implemented or planned.

    f. Collect and categorize the institutions from the point of generating liquid and solid waste,

    including institutions (like industries, hospitals) that produce and dispose hazardous

    wastes, including impact of this waste on public water bodies and the environment in the

    surrounding area.

    g. Collect data on municipal finances, (including financial grants available from various state

    and national schemes such as ILCS, etc.), especially demand and collection of water and

    sewerage/ sanitation charges, including connection fees and user charges; and capital

    costs and operation and maintenance costs for water and sewerage/ sanitation services,

    and solid waste.

    h. Collect information on organizational roles and responsibilities, and monitoring and

    evaluation arrangements for the delivery of sanitation services.

    i. Collect additional data to fill the gaps in the available information.

    Note: The Situational Analysis will address all issues like: coverage of sewer network and

    zone wise STP capacity utilization, status of public toilets, disposal of night soil where sewer

    connection does not exist, disposal of domestic wastewater/ storm water/ solid waste,

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    disposal of wastes of special category (like industrial waste and public institutions) and other

    issues pertaining to sanitation. The results of the analysis will be presented on the city map.

    Situation Analysis Report shall be presented to stakeholders for validation of findings, and to

    solicit suggestions towards improvements in sanitation.

    1.5.6 Problem Analysis and Assessment of Options

    Followed by situational analysis key issues are identified in coverage, access, treatment and

    disposal, institutional, financial, social and cultural aspects and capacity concerns. Also

    reviewed comprehensive range of sanitation and wastewater management options, including

    industrial and municipal sewerage, sewage treatment , conventional and low cost, centralized

    and decentralized sewerage, separate and combined and effluent disposal options, on-site

    sanitation options, separate programs for schools, public toilets, sanitation in slums,

    community-based NGO-supported programs etc.

    Purpose of options analysis is to identify plausible technical, financial and institutional

    solutions and will consider (i) unit cost per beneficiary, (ii) maximizing both human and

    environmental benefits, (iii)sustainability, (iv) a long term plan, (v) government policy including

    land use zoning, (vi) piloting new approaches, (vii) beneficiary participation, (viii) wastewater

    as a resource, (ix) lessons learned from the past and (x) political commitment.

    1.5.7 Developing and Consolidating CSP

    Having completed above steps, CSP has been formulated to articulate Sanitation Goals,

    specific quantifications both in terms of technical, capacities and financials based on

    stakeholder consultations and the analysis of choices made depending on costs of capital

    investments, operation and maintenance, monitoring, and evaluation.

    Project priorities for sanitation considered the following:

    1. Serving the un-served urban poor

    2. Serving the un-served schools

    3. Serving the un-served public areas

    4. Institutional capacity building for sustainability and environmental monitoring

    5. Grant elements for demonstration pilot projects for eco-sanitation (private developers)

    6. Rehabilitation of existing facilities.

    7. Improvement of existing sanitation (septic tank sludge and effluent treatment).

    8. Extension of existing sewerage and sewage treatment (as a last priority).

    1.6 TIMELINE FOR TOTALLY SANITIZED CITY/

    The system shall be designed under the broad framework as per the guidelines for a design

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    period of 30 years; however, the planning shall entail the implementation of the design in

    phases to meet the ultimate goals of the CSP. The phased approach aims to navigate through

    the challenges posed by the limitations in investments, institutional capacities, and community

    engagement in a proficient manner. The phases and the corresponding timelines are defined

    as stated below:

    Table 1.1: Timeline for Totally Sanitized City

    Phase Year

    Immediate 2013 - 2015

    Short-Term 2016-2018

    Mid-Term 2019- 20-28

    Long-Term 2029 - 2045

    1.7 CSP SANITATION RANKING

    In order to promote urban sanitation and recognize excellent performance in this area, the

    Government of India instituted an annual award scheme for cities. The award was based on

    the premise that improved public health and environmental standards are the two outcomes

    that cities must seek to ensure quality of life for urban citizens. The awards were not merely

    an assessment of hardware or expenditure incurred in urban sanitation but how these lead to

    achievements of milestones of 100 % safe disposal of wastes from the city on a sustainable

    basis. For the assessment, The Ministry of Urban Development identified a set of output,

    process and outcome indicators that were used to assess the existing sanitation conditions in

    the city. The list of indicators pertained to the practice of open defecation, access to sanitation

    (individual, community and public), collection, treatment and disposal of solid and liquid

    wastes, proper upkeep and maintenance of the sanitation infrastructure, clear institutional

    roles and responsibilities and improvements in health and environment.

    The survey was undertaken across 423 cities including Municipal Corporations and Class A

    cities across the country. As per the national ranking, Udaipur was ranked 262ndat the national

    level with an overall aggregate mark of 31.95 on 100.

    1.7.1 Categories of Indicators

    The rating exercise involved three categories of indicators:

    Output Indicators: pertained to the city having achieved certain results or outputs in

    different dimensions of sanitation ranging from behavioral aspects and provision, to safe

    collection treatment and disposal without harm to the citys environment. There were nine

    main output-indicators accounting for 50 points of the total of 100 points.

    Process Related: indicators pertained to systems and procedures that exist and are

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    practiced by the city agencies to ensure sustained sanitation. There were seven main

    process-indicators accounting for 30 points of the total of 100 points.

    Outcome Related: indicators included the quality of drinking water and that of water in

    water-bodies of city, as also the extent of reduction in sanitation-related and water-borne

    diseases in the city over a time period. There were three main outcome-indicators

    accounting for 20 points of a total of 100 points. (The weights for output, process and

    outcome indicators were valid for this round of rating).

    1.8 CSP COMMUNICATION NEED ASSESSMENT

    Information, Education and Communication (IEC) & Capacity Building strategy are integral to

    core issue of developing city sanitation plan. It leads to development of robust yet effective

    awareness and communication strategy for promoting hygiene & sanitation in the city to

    trigger behavior change and demand for sanitation. The strategy will aim for citizen

    participation in improving city sanitation specifically reaching out to the slum dwellers and

    urban poor in the city. It will evolve a method, tools & techniques, and use of various media

    (interpersonal, print, electronic, folk) including advocacy with opinion leaders NGOs/CBOs and

    other stakeholders to deliver awareness strategy in the city. The experience of previous

    awareness programmes organized in the city has also been taken into account to integrate

    the innovative ideas and strategies used.

    Objectives: The objective of IEC & Capacity Building Strategy is to evolve an effective plan of

    sustainable programmes for capacity building and sensitization of implementers, education

    and enhancedawareness for stakeholders specifically citizens regarding sanitation activities in

    Udaipur City. The strategy is designed to:

    Strengthening CSP implementation by Urban Local Body through training and capacity

    building;

    Sensitize citizens for adopting water wastage minimization, segregation & management

    and open defecation free practices through IEC campaign.

    By working at both the levels mentioned above a culture of communications and

    consultations is fostered leading to participation.

    Methodology: Water and sanitation services in cities face specific challenges. Udaipur is a

    tourist as well as industrial and commercial centre. There is a massive in-flux of tourist and

    workers is a daily phenomenon. In some parts of the year influx is higher than the others.

    These pose challenges to the city administration with respect to toilets, solid waste

    management and water supply. It was found that communication is a crucial element in

    improving service delivery standards. However, apart from educating citizens on health and

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    hygiene, improving municipal processes by way of citizen consultation and participation

    remains a necessary goal; without citizen inputs right from the design stage implementation of

    water and sanitation projects risk failure.

    Communication needs assessment identified three stages for implementation of Information,

    Education and Communication strategy for improvement in water and sanitation services.

    These are 1) Awareness, 2) Process and 3) Compliance. While it is generally understood that

    these stages would lead to better citizen participation in the schemes, it is in fact imperative

    for all stakeholders to be appraised of them from their own specific stand points. Awareness

    includes an understanding of health and hygiene related education specifically directed

    towards slums. Equally important is an awareness of municipal leaders about the problems

    face by all the residents including slum and middle class households, sanitation workers. This

    awareness is generally taken for granted. Here, proposal is of open and specific appraisals be

    carried out without assuming too much of prior knowledge regarding sanitation issues. Next is

    to create processes which are essential to maintain improved services. These could include

    citizen participation in community toilet maintenance, outsourcing of operations and

    maintenance to private partners in public toilets, solid waste management and establishing

    citizen grievance resolution systems to name a few. A consolidation of these gains can only

    occur when all stakeholders comply with the rules. As system of incentivizing desirable

    behaviours and weeding out undesirable behaviours must be developed, these programmes,

    processes and goals will be set by the urban local body.

    The key idea is to carry out a needs assessment within the existing infrastructure as well as

    the strategy to go with expansion of infrastructure. Following steps were identified before

    visiting the field.

    1. Identifying stakeholder groups and available channels of communication categories them

    2. Focus Group Discussions, Interviews, Transit Walks.

    3. Topic Guides were prepared for each stakeholder group.

    4. Data Collection. Field assessment of communications needs was carried out.

    These methods helped the author evolve a case study approach towards communication

    needs assessment for Udaipur. Case study approach offers the best possible method for

    evolving Information, Education and Communications strategy for the city concerned. As the

    city is large a random sample based survey will cost a lot and will be labour intensive. Such as

    survey is likely to conceal extreme situations within a large city. A case study approach

    utilizing information sampling can reveal much more through discussions with citizens on the

    margins and those on the frontlines of implementation.

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    I. Stakeholders: Opinion leaders to be targeted as a high influence group both for

    interviews and implementation of communications strategies among residents,

    establishments and ULB officials. Resident include all those living within city municipal

    limits they can be classified as HIG, LIG and slum dwellers. In smaller towns a division

    into higher income group, middle class and Slum dweller could be sufficient. Shop

    keepers and commercial establishments constitute a separate group especially for

    generation of market and industrial waste. Interview and discussions included officials

    from various departments, residents in middle class areas, sanitation workers, NGOs

    involved in water and sanitation sector, shopkeeper, factory owners, leather

    storeowners, media persons etc.

    II. Locations for FGDs were selected to represent the variety of samples. Slum locations

    can be classified based on local knowledge. Generally, slums in outskirts and those in

    interiors offer two different typologies. There are slums with predominant SC or ST

    populations. Slums along railway lines and those along riverbeds form an essential

    typology. Vicinity to industry constitutes another significant parameter.

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    Chapter 2 : CITY PROFILE

    2.1 CITY PROFILE

    Udaipur city of dawn, is a lovely land around the blue water lake hemmed in the by the lush

    hills of Aravallis. A vision in the white drenched and beauty, Udaipur is a fascinating blend of

    sights, sound and experiences and inspiration for the imagination of poets, painters and

    writers. It has kaleidoscope of fairy tale of palaces, lakes, temples and gardens. The city

    carries the flavor of heroic past, epitomizing velour and chivalry.

    Udaipur was founded in 1559 by Maharna Udai Singh II as the final capital of the erstwhile

    Mewar Kingdom, located to the southwest of Nagada on the banks of Banas river. Legend is

    such that the Maharana Udai Singh II came upon a hermit while hunting iin the foothills of the

    Aravalli range. The hermit blessed the king and asked him to build a palace on the spot,

    assuring him it would be well protected. Udai Singh II consequently established a residence

    on the site. In 1568 the Mughal emperor Akbar captured the fort of Chittorgarh and Udai Singh

    II moved capital to the site of his residence, which became the city of Udaipur.

    As the Mughal empire weakened, the Sisodia Ranas and later Maharanas (Also called

    Guhilots or Suryavansh), who had always tried to oppose Mughal dominance, reasserted their

    independence and recaptured most of Mewar except for Chittorgarh. Udaipur remained the

    capital of the state, which became a princely state of British India in 1818. Being a mountain

    region and unsuitable for heavily armoured Mughal horses, Udaipur remained safe from

    Mughal influence in spite of much pressure. The Rajvansh of Udaipur was one of the oldest

    dynasties of the world.

    2.2 REGIONAL SETTINGS AND CONNECTIVITY

    2.2.1 Regional Setting

    In geographical terms, it covers an area that lies between 242849 and 244256 N latitudes

    and 733651 and 734946 E longitude. It has an altitude of 598 meter from Mean Sea

    Level.

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    Situated in north-eastern part of Girwa Tehsil of Udaipur district, Udaipur is historically and

    geographically the heart of erstwhile Mewar State. Located almost in the middle on stretch of

    Delhi- Mumbai National Highway (NH8),

    Figure 2.1: Regional Setting

    2.2.2 Connectivity

    Udaipur is located almost at the centre of the Delhi-Mumabi National Highway (NH-8). Udaipur

    is well connected to state capital Jaipur (420 km) in northeast and Ahmedabad (250km) in

    southwest. Udaipur is connected to other centers to the state by three state highways, SH-9

    connecting Chittorgarh, SH32 connecting Banswara and SH-32 connecting Mount Abu.

    Udaipur is well connected by road to major cities in India. Brilliant road network ensure people

    to enjoy a relaxed journey to and from Udaipur. This mode of commuting is quite easy and

    economical. Udaipur Bus Stand has regular bus services, connecting Udaipur with nearby

    cities including Delhi, Jaipur, Chittorgarh, Indore, Kota, Ajmer, Ahmedabad and Mt. Abu.

    Rajasthan Roadways provides the facility of Deluxe Buses and AC coaches for the

    convenience of passengers. One can also hire taxis and cars to reach Udaipur by road.

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    Udaipur Railway Station is located at a comfortable distance from the city of Udaipur.

    Rajasthan Railways connects Udaipur station with all the other cities of Rajasthan as well as

    India. There are frequent trains which run to and from Udaipur connecting Jaipur, Mumbai and

    Delhi.

    Udaipur Airport namely Maharana Pratap Airport is located near Dabok at a distance of 22

    kms from the city. Many domestic airlines connect the city to all the major cities of India

    including Jaipur, Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata. Regular air services are available for Delhi and

    Mumbai.

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    2.3 PHYSIOGRAPHY

    Udaipur is located in the center of a Saucer shaped (Bowl shapes) valley basin and is girdled

    Aravalli hills.

    The general slope of the city is towards the southeast.

    2.3.1 Natural Drainage and Water Bodies

    Udaipur is drained by Ahad River, which is the main river of the region which flows from the

    north west towards south east. The river is seasonal river, which originates from a 991 meter

    high hill in the north eastern part of Gogunda plateau.

    The region is blessed with numerous water bodies. The major water bodies in the region are

    Lake Pichola, Lake Fatehsagar, Lake Govardhan Sagar and Badi Talab,

    2.3.2 Vegetation

    The vegetation is very scanty, the natural vegetation has almost disappeared due to instance

    biotic interference. The over grazed and completely degraded area has now traces of trees,

    shrubs and grass species. The common trees available are Aam, Roonjh, Godal, Dhak,

    Kumtha, Mahuwa, Neem, Babul, Ber, Anwala, Besharm, Dhamas and Thor.

    2.3.3 Climate

    Udaipur city has particularly a tropical climate. The three main seasons, summer, monsoon

    and winter respectively, dominate the city of Udaipur. Situated at an altitude of 598m above

    sea level, moreover in a desert area, Udaipur has sultry type of Climate. However, Udaipur is

    the only place in Rajasthan that has quite moderate climate throughout the year. In summers,

    the scorching sun makes the city hot whereas in winters the weather is pleasant.

    Being located in the desert lands of Rajasthan, the climate and weather of Udaipur is usually

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    hot. The summer season runs from Mid-March to June and touches the temperature of 38C.

    Monsoons arrive in the month of July heralded by dust and thunderstorms. The city annually

    receives around 637 mm of rainfall. This scanty amount of rainfall makes Udaipur more

    humid. The humidity reaches to the extent of 90 % during the months of Monsoons.

    2.4 UDAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

    Udaipur Municipal Corporation is the administrative headquarters of the Udaipur district in the

    state of Rajasthan in western India. The Municipal Corporation of Udaipur is comprises of 55

    wards and the total geographical area of the city is 64 Sq km.

    2.5 URBAN CONTROL AREA

    Udaipur Urban Control area belt prepared to control unplanned development and ensure

    systematic urban development. This belt is about 3 to 4 km radius around Udaipur. This belt

    consists of urbanized area, Urbanizable area and Municipal area and 62 revenue villages. The

    land within urban control area can be utilized apart from agriculture, for diary horticulture, farm

    houses, resorts, motels, amusement park, water theme parks and ago based industries.

    The boundary of urban control area is fixed in order to have proper planned development of

    villages, which are out of urbanized area because if the development of these rural areas is

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    not counted then it may affects adversely the development of urbanized area.

    Sl No. Zone Area in Ha Population 2001 Density per Ha

    1 Village area 11296 96,112 8.5

    2 Urbanizable area 11348 7540 0.66

    3 Urbanized Area 5737 2492 0.43

    4 Municipal Area 6410 3,89,438 60.75

    Total Urban Control Area 34791 4,95,582 14.24

    Souce:City Development Plan 2015

    Northeast part of Udaipur has plain area so secondary and tertiary activities are increasing in

    this direction. Amberi, Sukher, Sobhagpura, Raghunathpura and Bhuwana located in

    north/northeast direction of Udaipur have small-scale industries and maximum minerals

    activities. Hindustan Zinc Ltd. established near Lake Udai sagar in east direction of Udaipur

    urban control area. Dabok, Gudli and Gadwa area in developed Mewar industrial area and

    other small-scale industries have also come up along this corridor towards Chittorgarh. Major

    development activities have increased near water bodies and highways of Udaipur. Udaipur is

    essentially developing along NH8 to Ahmedabad and NH76 to Chittorgarh. See map 3.5 to

    look at the growth directions of Udaipur.

    2.6 LAND USE AND MASTER PLAN

    The master paln-2001 is proposed a land use pattern of 2022. Out of the total developed area,

    37.42% was allocated for residential use, 18.8% under circulation, 12.3% as public and semi-

    public, 10.5% as industrial, 3.82% as commercial, 25.41% as recreational and 1.2% as

    Government lands.

    LANDUSE AREA IN ACRE

    1971 1988 1997 2011

    RESIDENTIAL 1585 2565 4988 8052

    COMMERCIAL 115 295 548 659

    INDUSTRIAL 170 910 1152 1553

    GOVT AND SEMI-GOVT 75 92 96 212

    RECREATIONAL 365 302 358 534

    PUBLIC AND SEMI PUBLIC 1010 1615 1632 2066

    CIRCULATION 540 995 1105 1387

    DEVELOPED LAND 3860 6774 9879 14463

    GOVT LAND 130 800 865 929

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    AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED

    ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES, FARM,

    AND FOREST

    75 255 285 1579

    WATER BODIES 85 135 1900 2394

    OTHER OPEN SPACE 150 531 9672 7560

    TOTAL 4300 8495 22601 26925

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    2.7 DEMOGRAPHY

    2.7.1 POPULATION GROWTH TREND

    In 2011, Udaipur had a population of 451,735 of which male and female were 234,681 and

    217,054 respectively. Although Udaipur city has population of 451,735; its urban metropolitan

    population is 475,150 of which 246,856 are males and 228,294 are females. Udaipur urban

    control area belt was prepared to control unplanned development. This belt is about 3 to 4 km

    radius around Udaipur. This belt consists of urbanized area, Urbanizable area and Municipal

    area and 62 revenue villages. The land within urban control area can be utilized apart from

    agriculture, for dairy, horticulture, farm houses, resorts, motels, amusement park, Water Park

    and agro-based industries.

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    Figure 2.2: Projected Population by different method

    It is suggested that average of all the method should be taken into consideration.

    Table 2: Projected Population

    Year Projected Population

    2011 451735

    2021 541219

    2031 641457

    2041 755736

    2.7.2 SEX RATIO

    Males and females constitute 51.95% (234,681) and 48.05% (217,054) of the total population,

    respectively. The overall sex ratio is 925, which is lower than the National figure.

    Table 2.1: Comparison of Sex ratio- India, Rajasthan & Udaipur City

    Area Sex Ratio (Overall) Sex Ratio (Children 0-6 yrs.)

    India 940 914

    Urban India 926 902

    Rajasthan 926 869

    Udaipur City 925 869

    Source: Census 2011

    2.7.3 LITERACY RATE

    Total number of literate people in Udaipur City is 366,598 (90.66%). Male literacy rate is

    higher at (200,051) compared to female literacy rate of 166,547). The average literacy rate of

    2013 2015 2021 2025 2031 2035 2040 2041

    Arithmetic 466258 480781 524350 553395 596964 626010 662317 669578

    Geometric 474555 498528 577959 637826 739452 816047 923042 946069

    Incremental 465898 479940 521347 548351 587956 613759 645337 651562

    Average 468904 486416 541219 579857 641457 685272 743565 755736

    0

    100000

    200000

    300000

    400000

    500000

    600000

    700000

    800000

    900000

    1000000

    Po

    pu

    lati

    on

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    the city is 90.66 percent of which male and female literacy is 95.56 percent and 85.39 percent

    respectively.

    Table 2.2: Comparison of Literacy Rate- India, Rajasthan & Udaipur city

    Area Total Male Literacy Rate Female Literacy Rate

    India 74.04 % 82.14 % 65.46 %

    Urban India 84.90 % 89.67 % 79.92 %

    Rajasthan 67.66 % 80.51 % 52.66 %

    Udaipur City 90.66 % 95.56 % 85.39%

    Source: Census 2011

    2.8 ECONOMY

    Traditionally, Udaipur has been an important tourism, commercial/industrial, administrative,

    transportation and education center of the region. With presence of famous Lakes in the city

    and close proximity to Ahmadabad, tourism remains a major contributor to the citys economy.

    Table: Work force participation of Udaipur city

    Total workers Main workers Marginal workers

    Total 209680 193355 16325

    Male 169120 160186 8934

    Female 40560 33169 7391

    Source: Census 2011

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    Figure 2.3: Main workers participation of Udaipur City

    Figure 2.4: Marginal workers participation of Udaipur City

    2.8.1 Small and Medium Industries

    The constraints for the industrial growth in Udaipur District are shortage of water for drinking

    and Industrial use, lack of Broad Gauge railway link; infrastructure facilities for the Industries

    are inadequate at other place then Udaipur City.

    4730 2845 10186

    175594

    3169 1933 7987

    147097

    1561 912 2199

    28497

    0

    20000

    40000

    60000

    80000

    100000

    120000

    140000

    160000

    180000

    Cultivators Agricultural

    Labours

    Houshold

    Industry

    workers

    Others Workers

    Total

    Male

    Female

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000

    14000

    Cultivators Agricultural

    Labours

    Houshold

    Industry

    workers

    Others Workers

    Total

    Male

    Female

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    Table: Industry at a Glance

    Sl.No Head Unit Particulars

    1 Total industrial unit No. 4021

    2 Registered Medium & large unit No. 29

    3 Estimated avg. no. of daily worker employed in Small scale

    industries

    No. 27423

    4 Employment in Large and Medium industries No. 8941

    5 No. of Industrial area No. 8

    6 Turnover of Micro & Small Enterprises In Lacs 116873

    7 Turnover of Medium & Large scale industries In Crore 1276.10

    2.8.2 Tourism

    In putting forth the goals of employment generation and poverty alleviation, the Rajasthan

    Government is effectively viewing tourism as an economic industry. The hope is that tourism

    will provide more jobs in the state, thereby distributing wealth and reducing poverty. Corporate

    incentives such as the levying of industrial electricity rates, exemptions and reduction of

    taxes, interest subsidies, free land appropriation for site development, etc. are being

    suggested to create a competitive and attractive market for growth. By thus securing

    corporate involvement, World Bank loans, and other international and national bank loans, the

    Government is embracing the potential for an advanced model of tourism development one

    which will enhance the flow of money into the economy and uplift the population through new

    labor and service market opportunities and incentives.

    Figure 2.5: Tourist inflow of Udaipur comparison with other cities of Rajasthan

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    In this regard, the Tourism Development Mission seeks to create new sectors of tourism and

    advance infrastructure, services and amenities. Desert tourism, adventure tourism, pilgrimage

    tourism, weekend tourism, road-side tourism, golf tourism, desert skiing, scooter adventures,

    water sports, film shooting, etc., are being developed. By offering unique and novel tourism

    options and opportunities, the Mission anticipates an increase in the number of tourists

    frequenting Rajasthan, a greater draw from corporate interests, and a subsequent revenue

    increase of nearly ten-fold by the year 2010. The projected cost for new tourism development

    totals approximately Rs.460 crore. Alongside these new sectors, core infrastructure, in the

    form of highways, roads, airports, bridges, and rail connectivity is slated for growth and

    improvement. The projected cost for infrastructure improvements and additions is Rs.500

    crore.

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    Figure 2.6: Major Tourist spot of Udaipur.

    Source: Heritage development report of Udaipur Municipal Council,

    2.9 HOUSING SCENARIO

    Total houses under residential use are 121144 units (including only residence and residence

    cum other use), while the total number of households in Udaipur as per 2011 Census is

    90347. Also, average household size is moderate at 5.00 persons per family.

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    2.10 ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE

    'Good governance' is the overarching objective of public administration in the civic arena. In

    virtually all sectors of public intervention and service delivery, it is now agreed that unless and

    until the state of governance is 'good', service or product delivery will not be proper. In the

    recent past, a large number of people and organizations have given a variety of definitions of

    what governance is all about. Governance is defined differently in terms of the context.

    According to one definition, the ways in which stakeholders interact with each other in order

    to influence the outcomes of public policies " is public governance. According to the World

    Bank, the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country's economic

    and social resources for development " is good governance.

    There are today dozens of definitions of what governance and good governance is. However,

    if one has to summaries and list downs the ten characteristics of good governance, they would

    be:

    Citizen involvement, participation and satisfaction

    Transparency in all decision making

    Accountability of actions taken

    Equality and social inclusion

    Ethical and honest behavior

    Ability to compete in a global environment

    Efficiency of service delivery

    Respect for democratic values

    Respect for the rule of law

    Use of appropriate technology and environmental sustainability

    Provision of urban services and maintenance of public assets has normally been the

    responsibility of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) consisting of Municipal Corporations,

    Municipalities, Municipal Councils, Urban Development Authorities, etc. The 74th

    Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) significantly enhanced the role of these institutions by

    including functions such as town planning and overall urban development, regulation of land

    use, urban poverty alleviation, etc. as part of mandate of ULBs. This has brought ULBs to the

    forefront of management of urban centres.

    However, Department of Urban Development and Housing, Government of Rajasthan has

    overall responsibility for the urban sector. The Directorate of Local Bodies is the nodal agency

    for all administrative matters relating to the local bodies. It is also responsible for framing

    procedures and rules for speedy implementation of various schemes funded by central and

    state government in urban areas.

    Municipal Corporations are responsible for the maintenance of city roads, this responsibility

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    rests with the Public Works Department (PWD) in Municipal Councils and Municipalities.

    Public Health and Engineering Department (PHED) is responsible for all aspects relating to

    urban water supply, right from development to O&M. PHED is also responsible for

    development of sewerage system whereas the O&M is the responsibility of the respective

    ULBs.

    Rajasthan Housing Board (RHB) is responsible for construction of housing colonies that are

    supposed to be handed over to the ULB after completion.

    In urban areas where there is no Development Authority or UITs, the responsibility for land

    acquisition rests with the state government and the responsibility for infrastructure

    development is with the respective ULB.

    Table 2.3: Responsibility Matrix

    The development of urban sector is affected by various legislations. A brief summary of the

    important legislations affecting the urban sector in Rajasthan is as given below:

    Rajasthan Municipal Act 1959: The Act lays down provisions relating to the operation of

    Municipal Bodies (Municipal Corporations, Municipalities and Municipal Councils). It also

    lists down the discretionary and obligatory functions along with powers to impose taxes and

    other utility charges

    Urban Improvement Trust Act, 1959: Governing Act for creation and operation of UITs

    across Rajasthan. It also lays down the functions, constitutions and terms of office of

    members of the Trust

    Jaipur Development Authority Act, 1982: Governing Act for creation and operation of JDA

    Rajasthan Town and Country Planning Act: Deal with provisions relating to city planning

    and land use

    Rajasthan Land Revenue Act: Use of urban land and conversion of agriculture land: At a

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    policy level, the state has taken a number of initiatives such as development of guidelines

    for private participation in township development, amendments to various acts/rules

    affecting use of urban land and simplification of building bylaws.

    The state government has also formulated a policy for the management of solid waste and

    bio-medical waste in Rajasthan through private sector. According to the SWM policy, a state

    level empowered committee has been formed for the approval of proposals and selection of

    private party for setting up of Waste to Energy (WTE) and Waste to Compost (WTC). The

    policy also specifies the concessions available to and responsibilities of private entrepreneurs.

    Table 2.4: Responsibility Matrix-Water Supply and Sewerage

    Policy formulation PHED & Urban Department

    Policy statement State Drinking Water Policy (February 2010)

    Service provision PHED

    Infrastructure development Planning and implementation by PHED

    Financing

    GoR through PHED Budget RUFIDCO coordinates JNNURM

    and UIDSSMT funds

    Regulation

    GoR approves tariffs with inputs from PHED. No external

    monitoring of PHEDs technical and commercial performance.

    Figure 2.7: Institutional Framework-WSS

    Source: World Bank, 2012

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    Chapter 3 : CITY SANITATION PLAN COMPONENTS

    As per NUSP the definition of Sanitation is defined as Safe management of human excreta,

    including its safe confinement treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practice.

    While this pertains to management of human excreta and associated public health and

    environmental impacts, it is recognized that integral solution need to take account of other

    elements of environmental sanitation i.e. solid waste management generation of industrial and

    other specialized / hazardous waste ; drainage ; as also the management of drinking water

    supply. Taking into consideration the definition of sanitation and vision of Municipal

    Corporation which is in consonance with the vision for urban sanitation in India, following

    components have been taken into consideration while preparing the City Sanitation Plan.

    3.1 TOILET COVERAGE

    Achieving open defecation free city is the objective of

    preparing city sanitation plan. Access to toilets is key to

    improvement in Service Levels of sanitation facilities.

    The GOI has defined a Service Level Benchmark for

    toilet coverage and the benchmark value for this

    indicator is 100%. The citizen should have access to

    toilet whether individual or community in a service

    area. For the safe management of human excreta

    achieving 100% toilet coverage is must. Hence this

    component is included in the CSP.

    3.2 SOLID WASTE

    Solid waste management is also a very important

    element that needs to be taken care while preparing

    CSP. Typically the uncollected waste tends to

    gradually find its way into recycling in stream along

    the roads, clog the drains or in care of bio-

    degradable. The MoUD, GOI has defined eight

    indicators in these sectors. Environmental

    sustainability depends upon the effective & efficient

    management of Municipal Solid Waste.

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    3.3 STORM WATER DRAINAGE

    This is also very important component to be

    considered in CSP. If the storm water is not

    managed through drainage network, the

    incidence of water logging/flooding will

    occur that will impact significantly on

    number of persons as well as normal life

    and mobilization. Because of the water

    logging / flooding incidence public health in

    general might be at risk and there is

    possibility of water contamination also. Hence this component should be measured and

    monitored properly including in CSP.

    3.4 DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Drinking water supply is also very important for

    upkeep of sanitation facilities and

    environment/health status it is necessary to have

    sufficient water. Poor quality of water as well as

    insufficient quantity of potable water can pose

    serious public health hazardous water borne

    diseases are quite common in the cities,

    particularly among the urban poor. MoUD, GOI

    has specified a performance indicator for drinking

    water sector. Hence drinking water supply is also

    taken into consideration as one of the element of

    CSP.

    3.5 ENVIRONMENT

    The definition of sanitation takes into consideration the environmental impact as well as

    environmental sanitation and the vision for urban sanitation as stated in NUSP also takes into

    consideration the environmental outcomes. Without the upgraded environmental status it is

    not possible to ensure sustain good public health. Hence environment element is taken care

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    of while preparing the CSP.

    3.6 INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION

    As the overall goal of preparing City Sanitation Plan is to transform the city into community

    driven totally sanitized, healthy, and livable city it is necessary to include IEC/Awareness

    generation element in the city sanitation plan. Without IEC it is not possible to bring about

    sustain behavioral changes aimed at adoption of healthy sanitation practices.

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    Chapter 4 : WATER SUPPLY

    Drinking water supply is very important for upkeep of sanitation facilities and a for better

    environment/health status it is necessary to have sufficient water. Poor quality of water as well

    as insufficient quantity of potable water can pose serious public health hazardous and water

    borne diseases in the cities, particularly among the urban poor. MoUD, GOI has specified a

    performance indicator for drinking water sector. Hence drinking water supply is also taken into

    consideration as one of the element of CSP.

    Present Status

    4.1.1 Source of Water Supply

    The Udaipur city is relying on surface water and ground water sources. These sources are

    lakes and dams in and around the city and the tube wells located in Udaipur.

    4.1.1.1 Surface Water Sources

    Udaipur has numerous lakes in its vicinity. Lake Pichola, Lake Fatehsagar, Lake Jaisamand

    are being important ones from water supply point of view. These lakes along with, Mansi

    Wakal Dam and other local wells are the major source of drinking water supply in the city.

    Pichola Lake is the largest lake in the town and this manmade lake, dates back to 14th

    century. The capacity of the lake is about 13,677 million litres, while the maximum drawable

    limit is 19 MLD.

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    Table 4.1: Raw Water Supply

    Sl no

    Source FTL Gross capacity Present available capacity

    Max. Drawable limit

    ft mcft ML Guage mcft ML MLD

    1 Lake Pichola 11 483 13677 7.87 357 10110 19

    2 Lake Fateh

    Sagar 13 427.6 12108 9.75 344 9742 12.5

    3 Lake

    Jaisamand 27.5 14650 414829 10.83 7169 203026 19.5

    4 Lake Badi 32.5 370.75 10498 15.42 214 6060 0.25

    5 Dam Mansi

    Wakal RL-

    581 m 862 24410

    RL-579.80

    m 727 20589 22.7

    6 Local Sources 9.5

    Total 83.45

    Source: PHED Udaipur Circle - 2013

    Fateh Sagar Lake is a man-made lake constructed in the 19th century. Its capacity is 12108

    ML and its maximum drawable limit is 12.5 MLD.

    Jaisamand Lake is located approximately 50 kms from Udaipur. It was constructed during

    1730 A.D. for irrigation. Gross storage is around 415,000 million litres and minimum storage

    capacity is 75,000 million liters. Jaisamand Lake has a much larger storage in comparison to

    Pichola and Fateh Sagar and therefore it offers prospects of future development for water

    supply for Udaipur.

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    During emergency water is drawn from Badi Lake, which is located on the outskirts of

    Udaipur. Its gross storage is very less; hence it is not a regular source of water and maximum

    withdrawal of water is only 0.25 MLD at present.

    Figure 4.1: Location of Water sources

    4.1.1.2 Ground Water Source

    Apart from the surface water source, water is also drawn from 50 tube wells and 32 step wells

    located in the various parts of UMC. Besides, there are 8 tube wells constructed through

    RSMM (Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals) located at about 8-14 kms from the city in Jamar

    Kotra Mines and Kharbadiya Mines supplying water to city through Kaladawas Pumping

    Stations. Apart from these supplies, people directly drawn water from 180 panghats and 2650

    hand pumps.

    Out of total water production 20% is wasted in leakages, and available water to the public is

    hardly 66.76 mld, which is supplied to household population (466500- current population as

    per projection) a s well as bulk supply which are Railways, Military Engineering Service,

    Hindustan Zinc Limited, Hospitals and commercial establishments and malls. The average

    household water supply is 74 lpcd. As per the standard of 135 lpcd, the present water demand

    for domestic use in UMC is 62.97 MLD, bulk demand of 32 , and the demand for floating

    population is 2.16 MLD. Thus the total water demand in the city is 97.13 MLD and the current

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    supply is only 66.76 MLD which makes a gap of 30.37 MLD between supply and demand.

    Presently the alternate day water supply is maintained in the city. The duration of supply in

    different areas are varies from 45 to 90 minutes. There are total 70663 water connections in

    the city.

    4.1.1.2.1 Tube wells and step wells

    There are in total 50 tube wells and 32 step wells in the city from which the water is supplied

    for drinking purpose. Most of the open well are dried and are not in working condition. The

    bore wells are working and most of the bore well are converted to hand pump under the

    Panghat Yojna.

    4.1.1.2.2 Hand pumps and Panghats

    There are 2650 hand pumps installed across the town by the department and Urban Local

    Body. There are presently 180 panghats are functioning in the city in which the people are

    directly taking water for their domestic purpose.

    Figure 4.2: Water supply map of the city.

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    4.1.2 Storage

    Presently, clear water being colleceted in Clear Water Reservoirs (CWR) near to filter plants

    and campus for storage. Over all 24 nos CWRs were constructed in the city. The total

    capacity of the CWRs are 12751 KL.

    Table 4.2: Details of CWRs

    SL NO. DIVISION LOCATION CAPACITY

    in KL 1 City Division -

    1

    Doodh Talai 500

    2 City Division -

    1

    Gulab Bagh RGF Sump 20

    3 City Division -

    1

    Hiran Magri 1362

    4 City Division -

    1

    Patel Circle 700

    5 City Division -

    1

    Hiran Magri Sctor-14,I =-Block 400

    6 City Division -

    1

    Hiran Magri Sctor-14,I =-Block 150

    7 City Division -

    1

    Kanwar Puda 60

    8 City Division -

    1

    Panenyon ki Madri 1362

    9 City Division -

    1

    MB Collge 227

    10 City Division -

    2

    Madri Industrial Area 227

    11 City Division -

    2

    Purohiton ki Mrtlri (UIT) 600

    12 City Division -

    2

    Dhool Kot 300

    13 City Division -

    2

    Kanpur 500

    14 City Division -

    2

    Sajjan Nagor 60

    15 City Division -

    2

    Court Campus 200

    16 City Division -

    2

    Braham Pole 200

    17 City Division -

    2

    Badi Village 150

    18 City Division -

    2

    Amba Maia 133

    19 City Division -

    2

    Fateh Sagar 35

    20 City Division -

    2

    OTC Scheme 200

    21 City Division -

    2

    Manohai Pura 400

    22 City Division -

    2

    Saheliyon ki badi 545

    23 City Division -

    2

    Neemach Mata 2250

    24 City Division -

    2

    Nandeshwar 2170

    Source: PHED

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    Clear water being collected in CWRs after purification of raw water from filter plants through

    clear water rising mains of different sizes to OHSRs located in various part of the city for

    storage.

    Clear water through clear water rising mains collected in Over Head Service Reservoirs and

    Ground Level Service Reservoirs of various capacity constructed at various location of the city

    for storage to distribution of water to people. There are 32 OHSRs and the total capacity is

    24388 KL and there are 19 GLSRs with total capacity of 15986 KL in various parts of the city.

    Table 4.3: Storage details

    TYPE Nos CAPACITY in KL

    Clear Water Reservoirs 24 12751

    Over Head Service Reservoirs 32 24988

    Ground Level Service Reservoirs 19 15986

    Source: PHED

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    4.1.3 Distribution Network

    For the supply of water in the city, there is a pipe line network of around 400 km of 250 to 800

    mm dia pipes exists in the UMC. The water supply network covers almost 90% of the

    developed area within the Municipal Corporation Limit. There are pressure variations and

    water tested indicates that water supplied through the old line is not suitable for drinking. The

    water supply network laid in the old city area is more than 30 years old and most of them are

    broken and causes wastage of water.

    Table 4.4: Salient features of Municipal Water supply

    Indicators Details

    Existing distribution system length 400 km

    Coverage area 90 %

    Total Water Extracted 83.45 MLD

    Total Water Supplied 66.76 MLD

    Leakage (20%) 16.69 MLD

    Storage capacity 53.73 Million Litre

    Per capita availability of water at consumer end (in 2013) 119 lpcd

    No. of Tube wells 50

    Step Wells 32

    Hand pumps 2650

    Panghats 180

    Water treatment plants 10

    Source: Various

    4.1.4 Water Quality and Treatment Facility

    Water supplied is generally good. However in some areas contaminated water is found. Water

    quality generally falls during rainy season. There 10 three filter plants in Udaipur City. Details

    are given below:

    Table 4.5: Water Treatment Plants

    SL NO. DIVISION LOCATION TYPE CAPACITY

    1 City Division - 1 Doodh Talai RGF 13.62

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    2 City Division - 1 Doodh Talai RGF 2.85

    3 City Division - 1 Patel Circle RGF 7.57

    4 City Division - 1 Gulab Bagh RGF 4.54

    5 City Division - 1 Gulab Bagh Pressure Filter 2.27

    6 City Division - 1 Teetardi RGF 13.5

    7 City Division- 2 Fateh Sagar RGF 2.2

    8 City Division- 2 Fateh Sagar Pressure Filter 1.72

    9 City Division- 2 Neemuch Mata RGF 11.35

    10 City Division- 2 Nandeshwar RGF 23.35

    Total 82.97

    Source: PHED

    4.1.5 Water Quality

    The water quality test in lake Pichola reveals the presence of E-Coli bacteria in the water and

    the source of these bacteria are human excreta through sewer.

    Table 4.6: Water Quality in Pichola Lake

    PARAMETERS SURFACE BOTTOM BIS

    STANDAR

    D Total dissolved solids (mg/l) 335.5 335.5 500

    Biological Oxygen Demand (mg/l) 3 days at 27O C 14.5 12.2 30

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l) 48 24 250

    Alkalinity (mg/l) 132 154 200

    Hardness 180 180 300

    Nitrates (mg/l) 0.255 0.399 45

    The test result shows that, the most of the quality measuring parameters are within I

    prescribed limit as per the BIS and CPCB standards. But the presents of TSS and alkalinity

    are high in the drinking water. The water quality test in the surface water sources shows that,

    the quality of water is good enough for the drinking purpose.

    4.2 SITUATION ANALYSIS

    4.2.1 Connections and Domestic Metering

    There are total 95,450 water connections in the city, which includes domestic (87,568) and

    commercial (6280), industrial connections (602). There are 180 panghats are installed at

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    various locations for taking water directly by the households. These connections are include

    the bulk supply like water to railways, Millitary settlements, Malls, Industries etc.

    Table 4.7: Water Tariff

    Type of connection Connections Rate for consumption upto 15000 liters/month in Rs.

    Domestic 87568 32

    Commercial 6208 96

    Industrial 602 224

    Source: PHED

    4.2.2 Area and Population Coverage

    The main issue pertaining to the system is old distribution pipelines with high degree of

    scaling and the large volume of water loss during distribution. Considering all the above

    factors the net per capita supply is reported to below 135 lpcd, at 119 lpcd.

    In UMC the water supply is covered around 51 sqkm that is 80% of the area out of total 64

    sqkm geographical area. The water supply is also covered in the adjacent out growth areas

    like Pujawati colony, Indira puri colony in the northern part of the city.

    Table 4.8: Water Supply coverage

    UDAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

    TOTAL AREA 64 SQKM SUPPLY COVERED AREA 51 SQKM 80%

    UNCOVERED AREA 13 SQKM 20%

    LENGTH OF NETWORK 400 KM

    OUTGROWTH AREA

    TOTAL AREA 58 SQKM

    SUPPLY COVERED AREA 7 SQKM 12%

    UNCOVERED AREA 51 SQKM 88

    LENGTH OF NETWORK

    TOTAL URBAINZED AREA

    TOTAL AREA 122 SQKM SUPPLY COVERED AREA 58 SQKM 48%

    UNCOVERED AREA 64 SQKM 52%

    LENGTH OF NETWORK

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    Figure 4.3: Water supply coverage

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    4.2.3 Unaccounted water

    There is a significant water loss in the Udaipur water supply distribution system, from the

    supply end till it reaches the consumer end. It is estimated that system losses as ranging from

    15 percent to 20 percent it is around 16.69 MLD. Identification of sources and the amount of

    losses is constrained because of inadequate maps and consumer databases.

    Water losses may broadly be classified as physical losses and administrative losses. Physical

    losses are due to leakages from old, damaged, corroded pipe lines/ connections and leaking

    joints and overflow at overhead tanks. Consumer taps also cause significant waste of treated

    water. Administrative losses are due to theft, illegal tapping of water, unregistered

    connections, faulty meters and unrecorded supply due to poor records and billing errors. The

    distribution network is damaged and though aged, heavy scaling and pressure loss are

    reported.

    For effective a Leak Detection Study and implement the recommended options, it is necessary

    to have sufficient and reliable database regarding the water supply systems. A good

    information base, willingness to follow-up on systematic replacement of leaking pipes,

    defective meters and connections as well as tariff revisions, etc are critical to the success of

    the program. Control on unaccounted water and loss minimization can be achieved through

    prevention of illegal tapping, water metering, education and information management,

    promotion of water conserving household appliances etc.

    4.2.4 Service Adequacy and Key Issues

    4.2.4.1 Service Adequacy

    i. Low Supply Levels: Low per capita supply is noticed; the situation becomes worse in

    summer season with per capita supply coming to as low as 90lpcd. The frequency of

    supply in the city varies from one to another due to pressure difference.

    ii. Inadequate Treatment Capacity: The existing treatment plant is of only 82.97 MLD. In

    respect of increasing demand in the future, the treatment capacity needs

    augmentation. Present capacity is lower than adequate.

    iii. Inadequate Service Coverage: Though 70 percent of the city is served with water

    supply system, many slum areas are not covered by water supply network.

    iv. Inadequate Network Coverage: Considering the high population density within the

    inner area, the network adequacy demand, as a percent of road length, is low.

    v. Rainwater harvesting: The pattern of rainfall is erratic. However, there is high scope for

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    storing rainwater for recharging. Unfortunately, the ULB has taken no action in this

    direction.

    vi. Need for Source Augmentation: The present source of water is not adequate to meet

    out the requirements of the people till 2043, and augmentation will be required to meet

    future requirements.

    vii. Refurbishment of the Existing System in the Core Areas: The distribution system in the

    Core Areas has been laid before 60 years. Although intermittent rehabilitation works

    have been carried, based on complaints, the system needs a comprehensive

    rehabilitation measure based on Detail Study.

    viii. Need for Asset Management Action Plan: It is required to maintain an O & M

    Schedule, for Water Supply Assets, for regular maintenance and energy consumption

    optimization.

    4.2.4.2 Key Issues

    There always remains a clear gap between the revenue collected and the operation and

    maintenance cost. This gap generally remains due to following reasons:

    About 35 percent of total water supply is waste due to thefts and leakage.

    30 percent of existing area not covered by water supply system.

    Absence of proper billing mechanism

    There exists high pressure difference and excessive pumping to satisfy higher areas..

    Storage and distribution system have outlived their age. Distribution network has lost

    its carrying capacity considerably.

    The existing income sources of the municipality are not enough to meet the growing demand

    of water in the town. Tax revenues are providing resources to meet these needs for the time

    being but to meet the demand for the projected population of 2036 even and official grant

    assistance has not been able to fulfill gap between supply and demand.

    4.3 FUTURE DEMAND AND GAP ANALYSIS

    For Udaipur a standard norm of 135 lpcd water supply is followed till 2041 and a supply of 135

    lpcd is proposed for the years beyond that and demand has been calculated likewise.

    Year Population

    HH Demand

    Bulk Demand (15%)

    Floating Population (3%)

    Unaccounted water (15%)

    Total Demand

    Nos MLD MLD MLD MLD MLD

    2013 468904 63.30 9.50 1.90 9.50 84.19

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    2021 541219 73.06 10.96 2.19 10.96 97.18

    2031 641457 86.60 12.99 2.60 12.99 115.17

    2041 755736 102.02 15.30 3.06 15.30 135.69

    Source: Analysis

    The total water demand for the city is calculated by adding the water demand for different

    sectrors which includes Household demand, Bulk demand (15%), demand for floating

    population (3%) and unaccounted water that is distribution and treatemnt loss (15%). Thus the

    total water demand for the city is calculated as 97.18 MLD, 115.17 MLD and 135.69 MLD for

    the years 2021, 2031 and 2041 respectively.

    To the projected population 15 percent additional population is added to achieve greater

    efficiency in service delivery. Gaps are calculated for 2021, 2031 and for 2041, are given in

    table 3.5 below:

    Table 4.9: Demand Supply Gap

    Year

    Projected Population

    Daily Supply

    Total Water

    Demand Shortage

    Storage Capacity

    Treatment Plant

    Capacity

    Refurbishment of old network

    (km) LPCD MLD MLD MILLIONLITER

    MLD

    2013 468904 135 84.19 17.43 53.72 82.97

    2021 541219 135 97.18 0.00 60 100 33% of existing system

    2031 641457 135 115.17 0.00 70 120 33% of existing system

    2041 755736 135 135.69 0.00 80 140 33% of existing system

    Source: Analysis

    4.4 ONGOING PROJECTS

    There is proposal for providing water supply to Gokul Village and RK Puram, under Urban

    Water Supply Scheme. The estimated cost of the project is 494.52 Lacs and it is expected to

    complete the work by June 2014. The general abstract of the DPR is given below.

    4.5 FUTURE REQUIREMENT

    The demand for water by 2041 is around 135 MLD. Hence it is proposed to increase the

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    extraction of water from existing source as mentioned in the below table. Apart from that it is

    proposed to extract water from the Badi Madar Dam and CHoti Madar dam which is located

    22 km away from the city in north western direction. The Ahar River is flowing from this dam.

    EXISTING PROPOSAL - CSP

    SOURCE EXTRACTION SOURCE EXTRACTION

    LAKE PICHOLA 19 BADI MADAR DAM 15

    LAKE FATEH SAGAR 12.5 CHOTI MADAR 5

    LAKE JAISAMAND 19.5 LAKE JAISAMAND 5

    LAKE BADI 0.25 LAKE BADI 5

    DAM MANSI WAKAL 22.7 DAM MANSI WAKAL 20

    LOCAL SOURCES 9.5 LOCAL SOURCES 5

    TOTAL 83.45 TOTAL 55

    Figure 4.4: Location of badi madar and choti madar dams

    4.5.1 WTP and Storage Proposal

    The water demand for 2041 is 135 MLD, hence the capacity required for treatment plant is

    140 MLD (addition of 5 MLD for safer side). In first phase, it is proposed to construct a 20

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    MLD capacity WTP in Badagaon rural for trating the water from Badi madar and choti madar

    dam. The capacity of the existing WTPs should be augmented in phase 2 and 3.

    Table 4.10: Proposed WTPs

    PROPOSAL -CSP PHASE CAPACITY

    WTP AT BADAGAON RURAL 1 20 MLD

    AUGUMENTING EXISTIN G WTPs 2 & 3 37 MLD

    Source: Analysis

    The total storage capacity needed by 2041 is 80 MLD that is 60% of the water demand. The

    existing capacity is only 53 MLD. Hence it is proposed to construct the storage facilities of

    additional 26.5 MLD by 2041 in different phases.

    Table 4.11: Proposed Storage facilities

    PHASES NOS CAPACITY IN MILLION LITRE

    PHASE 1 - 2021 1.5 ML X 3 & 2ML X 1 6.5

    PHASE 2 - 2031 2 ML X 5 10

    PHASE 3 - 2041 2 MLX 5 10

    TOTAL 13 26.5

    Source: Analysis

    In first phase the ESRs are proposed at the out growth areas sucha s Palri, Badagaon,

    Sukher, Bhuwana, Dewali Rural , IIM colony, Govardhan Vilas Rural, and in Sajjan Nagar.

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    Figure 4.5: Exiting and Proposed WTPs and Storage

    The existing supply covered area in UMC is 80% of the total area. The remaining 20% of the

    area is covered under the proposal by CSP. In addition to that under CSP, it is planning to laid

    proper water supply network in the out growth area of around 88%. For covering all these

    areas it is required to lay around 362 km pipe line network including the rising mains and

    distribution. Since the water distribution lines in the walled city is decades old and cement

    concrete pipes, maximum network is deteriorated and causes leakes. Hence it is proposed to

    replace around 35 km network of pipe line in walled city area.

    Table 4.12: Proposed pipe line network

    COVERAGE WITH IN UMC 20%

    COVERGAE IN OUT GROWTH AREAS 88%

    DISTRIBUTION NETWORK 362 KM

    REPLACEMENT OF OLD NETWORK IN WALLED CITY 35 KM

    Source: Analysis

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    Figure 4.6: Proposed distribution network

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    4.6 FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

    INVESTEMENT PLAN MACRO -LEVEL

    Table 4.13: Investment Plan-Macro Level

    SL NO.

    INDICATOR BENCHMARK PRESENT

    SITUATION

    OTHER PROJECTS TARGETS TO BE

    ACHIEVED (44.53%)

    FUND REQUIREMENT (Rs. IN Crore)

    SOURCE

    RUIDP

    RAY (4.47%)

    CMC GoR GoI

    20% 10% 70%

    % 100%

    1 Development of water

    supply scheme 0 0 0

    INVESTEMENT PLAN MICRO LEVEL

    Table 4.14: Investment Plan Micro Level

    SL NO. PARTICULARS TOTAL FUND

    2013-2014 - 50% 2014-2015 - 50%

    CMC GoR GoI CMC GoR GoI

    20% 10% 70% 20% 10% 70%

    1

    2

    TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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    4.6.1 Strategies and Time Frame

    Table 4.15: Strategies and Time Frame Water Supply

    S. No. Strategy 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

    1 Asset Management Plan

    2 Leak detection plan

    3 Piloting 24/7 water supply

    4 Network Coverage for General Households

    5 Network Coverage for Slum Households

    4.6.2 Recommendations

    Artificial recharge through rainwater harvesting and riverbeds should be undertaken. The

    surplus water flow during monsoon period should be used for recharging depleted water

    bodies and lastly roof-top rain-water harvesting should be made mandatory in building bye

    laws especially in the over-exploited blocks.

    All new development areas should have two distribution lines, one for drinking water and

    other for non-drinking water/recycled treated wastewater to reuse the treated wastewater. At

    least 50percent of the treated wastewater should be recycled for these purposes and

    emphasis should be laid towards waste minimization, which can also help in improving the

    overall environment. Government may also provide liberal tax rebates for

    institutions/industries adopting recycled wastewater to compensate for the cost involved in

    treating wastewater for recycling.

    4.6.3 Best Practice

    O&M Plan - Adoption of an O&M Plan and Schedule, including options of using the

    private sector for O&M (e.g. management contract).

    Unaccounted for Water (UFW) - Initiation water audit studies for Udaipur Municipal

    Corporation and ascertain the volume of unaccounted for water. The audit should

    specifically estimate the Unaccounted for Water, i.e., quantity of water lost due to

    leakages, especially as leakage in underground pipes.

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    Asset Management Plan - To address the condition assessment and the performance

    of the water supply assets, it is necessary that an asset management plan be prepared

    for the assets of water supply in the town.

    Mapping & GIS - To address the issue of system rehabilitation, mapping and

    establishing a GIS system is pertinent to detail out system location, characteristics, age

    and condition. This would enable identifying dilapidated sections of the network and

    those that require replacement.

    Tariff Revision - Future capital investments on system up-gradation being imminent,

    the tariff structure shall be revised from time to time to enable cost recovery and to

    service the additional debt from the capital investments. Simultaneously, installation of

    modern metering equipment shall be taken up in the municipality to affect a proper

    monitoring system and ensure cost recovery.

    Performance Monitoring- It is important to monitor the performance of the sector over

    the years for better service delivery and consumer satisfaction.

    Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building- For effective service delivery, it is

    necessary that the entire area of the town be divided into coverage zones. Training to

    the field staff of the department needs to be imparted for effective operation and

    maintenance of the system.

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    Chapter 5 : MAKING CITY OPEN DEFECATION FREE

    The practice of open defecation and open urination is found in many cities and towns of the

    State. It not only causes environment pollution but it also has a wider impact on health of

    the society, contamination of underground and ground water sources as well as

    irreparable damage to the dignity of individual as well as society.

    The households with no access to individual sanitary latrines either use public community

    toilets if existing or go for open defecation. This practice of open defecation by small or large

    portion of population results in environmental degradation, posing serious health problems

    for the human beings, the community and the society as a whole. Coupled with the above

    issues, there is a problem of huge floating and migrant population not having access to clean

    sanitary facilities, although they may be willing to pay for it. Also most of the work places

    in the towns and cities like shops, small restaurants, small offices etc., do not have

    provision for toilet facilities and this working population also may be resorting to open

    urination and defecation. All this results in water or air pollution imposing a heavy social

    and economic cost on the economy of the State. The privacy of citizens is violated &

    women find it unsafe and have to compromise at times on health and safety.

    Thus it is duty of Urban Local Body to create a system wherein it is assured that there

    are no cases of open defecation. The action taken includes provision of community/public

    toilets in areas like slums and squatter settlement, market places, Commercial areas,

    Educational institution areas, Hospital areas, tourist and Pilgrimage areas, and areas

    having floating population.

    5.1 PRESENT STATUS

    According to Census 2011, the total population of UMC is 4,51,735 and the number of

    households is 88,857. Among these households, only 93.82% have toilet facility within the

    premises and rest of the 6.18% of the population either going for open defecation or using

    public toilets like sulabh complex. As per the projection the current total population in the

    city is 4,68,904 (population in 2013).

    5.1.1 Individual Sanitation System

    Table 5.1: Individual Sanitation System

    Total number of households 88,857 In Percentage

    Number of households having latrine facility within the premises 83,364 93.82

    Number of households not having latrine facility within the premises 5,493 6.18

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    Source: Census of India, 2011

    Within Udaipur Corporation limit, around 94% of the households are having toilet facility in

    their own houses. Rest of the 6% of the households is going for open defecation and a small

    percent is depending on public toilets like Sulabh toilets. Most of the individual toilets have

    pit latrine system which do not have outlets baffles. Rest of the houses has septic tank

    system, from which the black water directly flows to the drains and it merges with the river

    system.

    The individual toilets does not have septic tank system, they have only pit latrine system

    Most of the slum dwellers are going for open defecation in surrounding vacant land and in

    agricultural lands. The slums located adjacent to railway line, uses the railway track and

    surrounding for their basic need. There are no community toilets in the UMC which is

    normally built for a group of households in backward area.

    5.2 PUBLIC TOILETS

    There are total 45 sulabh complex within corporation area of Udaipur. The head office of

    Sulabh Complex is in Udaipole and the total number of toilet seats are 664 including gents

    and ladies. Some of the Sulabh complexes are having

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    Table 5.2: Pubic Toilets

    Sr. No.

    Name of the complex

    No. of Seats

    No. of Bath No. of Urinal

    Sew

    er

    Sep

    tic

    Tan

    k

    Elec

    tric

    Met

    er

    Wat

    er S

    up

    ply

    Tub

    e w

    ell

    Lad

    ies

    Ge

    nts

    Lad

    ies

    Ge

    nts

    Lad

    ies

    Ge

    nts

    1 Udiapol, Bus Stand 11 16 2 Open 1 5

    2 Natraj Ki Gali 2 3 1 2 3

    3 Bhupal Hospital 8 10 2 Open 7

    4 Mental Hospital 7 13 3 Open 5 4

    5 Savina Sabji Mandi 5 8 Open 4

    6 Dhudh Talai 5 6 3

    7 Sukhadia Circle 3 4 1 1 8

    8 Fateh Sagar 4 6 Open 4

    9 Family Court 3 4 2 3

    10 Gulab Bhag 5 5 Open 4

    11 Alipura 7 8 Open 4

    12 P.W.D Pulia 4 7 1 Open 4

    13 Takkar Baba Purana 4 6

    14 Takkar Baba Naya 9 10 4

    15 Chetak Circle 4 6 5

    16 Nadagaada Mahila 18 Open

    17 Nadagaada Purash 31 Open 4

    18 Mahavat Vadi Behind Jagdish Mandir Mandir

    15 15

    19 Bichhoo Ghati Upper Hathi Pol 16 17

    20 Hathi Pole 14 21 Open 4

    21 Shikar Nagar (Jhadia Mkt) 7 8

    22 Court Choraha 1 1 2 7

    23 Amal Ka Kota Near Ayurvedic Hospital

    16 24 Open 10

    24 Kali Babdi Near Anaj Mandi 21 28 1 Open 4

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    25 Chhoti Bhoi Vada Ahead Of Anaj Mandi

    12 13

    26 Badi Bhoi Ka Vada Ahead Ofanaj 7 8

    27 Meera Park Before Jagdish Mandir

    9 8 2 Open

    28 Meetha Ram Ji Ka Vada Right Of Gulab Bag

    22 18 Open

    29 Savji Ka Vada Solanki Hati 8 7

    30 Sabti Nagar Ayyar Right Of Delhi Gate

    5 5 Open 4

    31 Nagar Parishad 2 4 4 14

    32 Govardhan Vilas 5 6 Open 3

    33 Delhi Gate 3 2 5

    34 Ashwani Bazar 6 9

    35 Near Malla Talai Choraha Near Mandir

    5 5 1 1 4

    36 Near Sevasram Choraha Ahead Of Bn College Near Over Bridge

    4 5 1 1 3

    37 Patel Circle 2 3 2

    38 Krishi Upaj Mandi 5 5 2 2 5

    39 Near Pooja Park 2 3 1 1 4

    40 Outside Dindaya Uppadhaya Park

    2 3 1 1 4

    41 Aklavya Colony Ahead Of Malla Talai

    5 5 1 1 5

    Tan

    ker

    42 Moti Magri (Fateh Sagar) Near Circuit House

    5 5 1 1 5

    Tan

    k

    er

    43 Dooth Talai (Under Construction)

    5 5 4

    44 Manik Lal Burma Park (Under Construction)

    5 5 4

    45 Asindh Ki Haveli (Under Construction)

    5 5 4

    Source: Sulabh International Society

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    Figure 5.1: Existing Public Toilets and Urinals

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    5.3 PUBLIC URINAL

    In the city there are 97 urinal complexes for both and female in various locations. Apart from

    this, there are 6 and 8 urinals for males and females respectively made of fibre. The total

    pots for male urinals are 231 nos and female urinal seats are 86.

    Category Gents Ladies

    Cement Building 225 78

    Urinals made up of Fibre 6 8

    Total 231 86

    Source: Sulabh International Society

    Figure 5.2: Existing Urinals

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    5.4 SANITATION IN INSTITUTIONS

    In Udaipur Municipal Corporation all the educational institutions such as schools and

    colleges have access to toilet facility separately for girls and boys. Most of the government

    institutions are avail of toilets facility.

    5.5 SITUATION ANALYSIS

    5.5.1 Household Toilets

    In Udaipur City the sewer covered area is only 440 Ha that is less than 10% of total area of

    the city. This area includes the walled city, Ambamata Colony, Mallatalai Colony Ekalavya

    Colony and the colonies which are situated around the lakes. The households located in

    these area are only connected with sewer lines and rest of the households in the city are

    either connected to leach pit (on site disposal) or have septic tanks (on site disposal) or have

    pit latrines (on site disposal). In case of septic tanks the effluents are directly disposed into

    the open channels/drains, which is not a healthy practice as the effluent may carry

    pathogenic micro-organism.

    Toilet type with Leach Pit (Single / double); Septic tanks and On Pit types of disposal

    mechanism fall under On Site type of disposal methods. Detailed description of each type is

    given below.

    5.5.2 Septic Tanks

    MIG/ HIG class of settlements have septic tank. It is observed during the survey that timely

    cleaning of septic tanks is not practiced by most of the households. Cleaning is practiced

    only if it is blocked and use of toilet is no more possible. The schematic sketch below

    demonstrates the existing working system of the septic tanks in Chittorgarh where the waste

    water from the septic tank is let into open drains or in open grounds near the houses.

    Figure 5.3: Schematic representation of Black Water Disposal Septic Tanks

    As pointed out, the sludge from the septic tanks is emptied as per users convenience when

    they face problem such as blockage, etc. Whereas, in order to ensure effective functioning of

    septic tanks, it is necessary to empty the septic tanks once in every two to three years.

    Presently, the local authority has four suction pumps, which are used to remove the sludge

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    on demand.

    Septic tanks provide an excreta treatment system in location where a sewerage system is

    not available. The option of septic tank is generally opted by those households which can

    afford the capital cost and its operation and management cost or the households not having

    sewer connectivity in the vicinity.

    The system consists of a water tight settling tank with one or two chambers/, to which waste

    is carried out by water flushing down a pipe connected to the toilet which usually has a

    Utrap. However, this system does not dispose of wastes; it only helps to separate the solid

    matter from the liquid. Some of the solids float on the surface, where they are known scum,

    while others sink to the bottom where they are broken down bacteria to form a deposit called

    sludge.

    The liquid effluent flowing out of the tank is, from a health point of view, as raw sewage and

    remains to be disposed off, normally by soaking into the ground through a soak pit. The

    system works well where the soil is permeable and not liable to flooding or water logging. In

    case of Gwalior the availability of Soak pit along with septic tank is very rear and the liquid

    effluent from the tank directly goes into the open drains.

    5.5.3 Leach pit

    Leach pit is the most preferred means of disposal of toilet waste by those households which

    are not having sewer connectivity. According to this technology, the water & gas from

    excreta gets absorbed through the pores of the pit and solid gets decomposed into the

    manure. This technology maintains the system under hygienic condition that is free from

    odour and insect nuisance. Pits may be in circular, square or rectangular. The pit and

    squatting slab may be circular or rectangular. These are preferably lined as it holds the soil

    and prevents the pit from collapsing. Lining may be done with honey combed brick wall or

    perforated concrete rings or stone masonry etc. Leach pit are generally provided at the back

    of squatting pan. For circular pits, the minimum distance between the two pits should not be

    less than its depth while for rectangular pits; both the pits can be clubbed together with

    common partition wall plastered on both sides.

    In India, according to the published data, the amount of human waste generated is about

    400 gram faeces and 2200 gram urine per person per day. For such type of pit, an amount

    of 1 kg of wet weight per person per day is taken account for calculating the pit design.

    Based on this, for effective depth or capacity of wet latrines a provision of 37 litres(1.3 cu. ft)

    per person per year should be sufficient.

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    The pit may be single or double depending upon choice, need of the User and space

    available. In case of Gwalior the single pit is the most common. The typical section of a

    leach pit toilet is shown in the following figure:

    Figure 5.4: Typical section of a Septic Tank

    5.5.4 On Pit Latrines

    On Pit latrine is nothing but constructing the superstructure right above the leach its. Even

    direct pit also has two types of construction. One type is without water seal. The problem in

    this type is that there will be fly/mosquitos nuisance as well as the foul smell due to direct

    opening. The other type is with water seal. The leach pit should be deeper, so that darkness

    in the pit should not attract the flies and mosquitoes. Basement should be raised well above

    the ground level to avoid runoff entry into the pit; squatting slab should be strong enough to

    take the load.

    The removal of sludge has been done by two ways,

    a) By vacuum cleaning and jetting machine and

    b) Manually through a side whole on the floor of the toilet which is covered with a stone slab.

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    About 10% of the total households are having on

    pit toilets in their houses. The figure below shows

    the schematic flow diagram of the treatment

    systems through pit. The black water is collected in

    pits that are closed once they get filled. However,

    there is lack of knowledge about proper filling and

    use of sludge/ compost generated. In most of the

    cases it has a pit with a concrete slab on it and a

    toilet is constructed over the pit. It is a kind of

    leach pit where inner lining of bricks is absent.

    In most of the cases it has a pit with a concrete

    slab on it and a toilet is constructed over the pit.

    The pits are lined with bricks and plastered with

    the cement. It was observed that the pits are

    emptied with the help of the suction vehicle

    available with the local authority.

    Figure 5.5 Schematic representation of Pit Toilet

    The Reasons for the open defecation are :-

    a. Economic weakness to construct toilet

    b. Lack of space in for the construction of toilet

    c. In adequate number of toilet in walking distance

    d. Tendency of not to pay or inability to pay the user charges.

    e. Habit of defeating in open

    f. Lack of awareness about the sanitation and hygienic conditions

    g. Illiteracy

    h. Less fine amount and no procedure of prosecution under IPC

    5.5.5 Public Toilets and Urinals

    The condition of unpaid public toilets and urinals are very pathetic in nature. The regular

    cleaning is not done in these toilets. Most of the toilets and urinals are lacks water supply

    and electricity connection.

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    5.6 GAP ANALYSIS

    In UMC, at present there are 88,857 households are exists in which 5,493 households does

    not have toilets in their premises. This population depends on either public toilets or going

    for open defecation. Hence the shortages of toilets are 5,493 population should be covered

    under CSP is 28,564 souls (5,493 HH Toilets). Here CSP is proposing 570 community toilets

    that is 1 toilet seat for 50 persons as per the Guidelines for Community Toilets-1995 by

    Ministry Urban Affairs & Employment, GoI. These 570 community toilet seats should be

    placed in 57 Community Toilet complexes, that is each complex have ten seats and 5

    urinals. These complexes are proposing in each ward by considering the population density

    and the socio-economic condition of the people. Particularly it is proposing in the areas

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    where people are going open defecation. The mobile community toilets should be placed in

    the tourist spots and in the congested areas where sufficient land is not available for the

    construction of toilet and septic tank. All the toilets septic tanks should connected with sewer

    system.

    Table 5.3: Existing and Proposed Toilet Facilities

    Demand of HH toilets 88,857

    Shortage of toilets 5,493

    Population should be covered under CSP 28,564

    Provision of community toilet under CSP (1 toilet seat for 50 persons) 58

    Number of Toilet seats 580

    Source: Analysis

    5.7 PROPOSAL UNDER CSP

    It is proposed to provide 58 community toilets having ten seats and five urinals each. The

    community toilets should be provided in open defecation area, slum areas, and residential

    areas of economical weaker sections who cannot afford the cost of individual toilets. In CSP

    promotes ECOSAN Toilets in the outskirts of the city. The mobile toilets can be placed in

    congested areas and tourist spots where the availability of the land is a constrain.

    the construction of public toilets can be meet by applying the methods of BOT (Built Operate

    and Transfer) or BOOT(Built Own Operate and Transfer).

    Figure 5.6: Proposed Community Toilets

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    5.8 FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY TOILET

    Therefore, the following frame work is developed for handling such issues in a rational

    manner over a future period of time. This concept note describes the following issues:-

    Need for a community toilet facility on self-sustaining basis.

    What should constitute community toilet facility

    The locations for establishing such facility

    How community toilet facility should be established and operated / maintained.

    (a) Need for a community toilet facility on self-sustaining basis:

    The community toilet facility is mainly required for the floating population, which

    includes people coming to market places, people traveling from one place to another, and

    making transit halt at railway stations, bus stands, market places etc.,

    the organized and unorganized work force moving from one spot to another and who

    are stationed at one place, but not having access to toilet facilities. In addition, the members

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    of the households, which have no individual sanitary toilets either because of want of

    space in their dwelling units or for other social or technical reasons, may also need

    this. The community and people going to cinema halls, temples etc also need such facility

    because of the absence of good facility at such places. Such a facility will also help in solid

    waste management on scientific lines since quality of bio-degradable waste and recyclable

    waste will improve if such facility ensures that open defecation does not result in

    contamination of solid waste generated at the above mentioned places including the road

    side solid waste.

    (b) What should constitute community toilet facility?

    The community toilet facility should ideally have between 5 to 10 individual toilets with

    secure locking and water supply arrangements and electricity supply. Out of it, a section

    should be earmarked for women and the toilet facility should be

    designed in a way that it can be used by physically challenged persons and old

    citizens, who need help from another person for using the facility. The above

    prescribed components should be minimal in the common toilet facility depending on the

    locations and the specific requirements of a place. Additional components like bath room

    facilities with changing rooms for men and women separately and some waiting area for

    people wishing to make a brief halt can also be thought of wherever required for floating

    population. The provision for wash basin for brushing of teeth,shave etc., may also be

    provided. Additionally, locker system also can be provided where people can keep their

    belongings safely while they are busy in other activities. It should have a provision

    for adequate lighting and ventilation arrangements along with suitable security

    provisions. It should provide access to physically challenged persons.

    (c) The locations for establishing such facility:

    Ideally the community toilet facility should be located at a place where the intended

    user population normally moves or stays for a brief time. Such locations could be main

    shopping centres, market centres, agriculture markets, trade centres like market yards,

    cooperative factories, bus stands, railway stations, places like frequently visited ie.,

    temples, educational institutional centres, cinema halls etc. The location should be such

    that it is easily accessible from public pathways / roads. The exact location can be finalized

    by undertaking a demand survey. In addition, the community toilet for slum dwellers etc.,

    should be near the households of the users in order to ensure usage by people who do not

    have / cannot have individual toilets due to various reasons.

    (d) How such facilities should be taken up in urban local bodies:

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    Community toilet facility can be established on BOT basis in which the selected

    operator will have to invest its own funds to construct the total facility including the

    different services to be provided like water supply, lighting, security arrangements etc.

    The urban local bodies can permit the use of land on long term basis on the condition

    that the user charges will be fixed by the operator in consultation with the Municipal

    Commissioner. However, there shall not be transfer of title in any form. The urban local

    bodies can, however, help in providing and facilitating the obtaining of different

    permissions wherever required by the operator.

    The operations and maintenance will be fully managed by the operator, and the urban

    local body will not have to contribute anything towards O&M costs. There shall be a

    contract entered into between the operator and the urban local body duly specifying the

    scope of responsibilities for both the operator and the urban local body; provision for

    compensation in case of non-operation of the facility by operator, provision for appointment

    of arbitrator in case of a dispute provision for mutually agreed user fee etc. The

    community toilet for slum dwellers etc., shall be constructed by the municipality from

    out of sanitation funds, general funds etc., including water supply connection, electricity

    connection, a room for operator to stay etc. The maintenance should however preferably be

    outsourced.

    The operators representatives in both the types of community toilets should stay

    at the facility throughout and the design of the facility should include

    residential accommodation for representative of operator.

    Efforts to be made to prevent the people from using public open spaces for

    urination and defecation IEC approach on an intensive scale followed by

    enforcement of penal provisions.

    All public institutions (cinema theatres, schools, Government offices etc) should

    be directed to provide neat and clean toilet facility to the visiting public.

    5.9 CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE OF MODERN PUBLIC TOILETS ON

    BOT (BUILT, OPERATE & TRANSFER) BASIS

    ULBs with the participation of the Registered NGO/Social Service Organisation may

    construct and maintain public toilets on Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) / Public

    Private Partnership (PPP) basis at floating population area such as like market places,

    Commercial areas, railway/Bus stations, group of educational institutions, pilgrimage

    centres etc. These community toilets should be taken up on BOT basis by duly calling for

    expression of interest through a transparent method of newspaper advertisement etc..

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    These toilets shall be constructed by the interested firms at their own costs and shall

    be operated and maintained by them on Pay and Use basis. Rights for advertisement

    through glow sign boards may be permitted on the interior and exterior walls (maximum of

    75%) of the building of the Toilet Complex but mounted hoardings on roof would not

    be permitted. The firms having the expertise in this field may be asked to bring forth their

    capacity, capability and experience in constructing and maintaining such facilities.

    The selected Organisation shall construct structurally sound and aesthetically appealing

    building complex as per plans submitted to and approved by Municipalities/

    Corporation. The Organisation will be required to run/maintain the same in good condition

    round the clock. The interested organization may be asked to submit their

    plan/drawings/design of the proposed toilet block. The organization may also be advised to

    inspect the proposed sites and its surrounding and satisfy themselves before submitting the

    bids. Indicative methodology for taking Construction of Modern Public Toilets on BOT

    basis is enclosed for guidance.

    5.9.1 Indicative Methodology for taking up Construction of Modern Public Toilets on

    BOT basis

    1 Site Selection

    A team of Town Planning, Engineering departments and Sanitation (convenor) under

    chairmanship of MC from Corporation should identify the location in the circulating area

    preferably road facing where the Modern Public Toilets can be constructed. Easy

    accessibility to Public should be kept in mind while selecting the site. The location should be

    such that it does not impede the circulating area traffic flow. The area to be allotted may

    be worked out depending on the existing conditions at the site e.g. availability of land,

    water, drainage, electricity, no. of anticipated users, type of amenities to be provided,

    etc.

    Prior to the above activity, the Sanitation Head shall with help of sanitary workers shall

    map the areas of open urination and open defecation incidences in town / city Map, then

    cluster the above incidences to take up Construction of Modern Public Toilet

    complexes. The road facing areas in front of Government institutions nearer to those

    incidence spots may preferably be proposed and selected to avoid resistance and

    later landing in court litigations. After identifying the location of Modern Public Toilets,

    approval of District collector may be obtained if they are abutting to other department

    institution areas.

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    2 Amenities to be provided at Modern Toilets

    i. Urinals.

    ii. Separate toilets for ladies & gents.

    iii. Bathing facilities - A plastic mug and good quality bucket to be provided.

    iv. Wash Basins

    v. Mirrors, towels, towel rack, hangers, hooks.

    vi. Care taker room for round the clock services, and Care taker residence in the first

    floor.

    vii. Store room for keeping material for day to day operation and maintenance.

    viii. Indication boards for the toilet complex in the form of glow sign and signage for

    ladies, gents users.

    ix. Additionally, locker system also can be provided where people can keep their

    belongings safely while they are busy in other activities.

    3 Construction of Modern Toilets-Guideline

    The inside height of the toilet complex should be 3 meters. The size and layout of the toilet

    complex would depend on the number of users requiring the facility and availability of

    space and other local conditions. The layout and design of the complex must leave room

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    for future expansion if and when required without causing major modifications.

    i. The floor should slope gently towards the floor trap. The floor of the bathing area

    should be sunk to avoid the flow of water outside the bathing area.

    ii. Wall mounted urinals of vitreous china of latest user friendly design of approved

    type should be used, partitioned with slabs of granite. There should be no open drain.

    iii. Separate ladies and gents section.

    iv. Separate bathing and changing area.

    v. All water pipes should be concealed in the walls.

    vi. Adequate provision of exhaust to have effective ventilation.

    vii. Provision should be made in the design of toilet complex to provide natural light during

    day time.

    viii. Proper electric fixtures with concealed wiring.

    ix. Hand wash area (separate for ladies and gents) with mirrors. Water storage tanks of

    approved quality and adequate capacity to be provided. Round the clock service

    throughout the year.

    x. Standard signage and display boards in Telugu, English (may also Hindi)

    language. There shall also be direction boards to toilet complex in its 200 500 meters

    periphery.

    xi. To be completed within six months from the date of award of contract. In case of failure

    of the organisation to complete the work within the stipulated period, attributable to

    causes within the control of the organisation, he shall be liable to pay penalty.

    xii. Implementation of Open defecation/Urination area within 200 meters nearby Toilet

    complex duly taking help from ULBs.

    Broad material specifications:

    All the flooring and wall cladding work should be done with superior tiles of

    approved quality free from cracks and faults.

    Good quality of sanitary installations/fittings should be used.

    Doors, windows and ventilators shall be of good quality. These should be

    elegant in appearance.

    Good quality of branded electrical fittings should be used.

    All water pipes, drainage and waste pipes should be concealed.

    4 Operation and Maintenance

    The organisation shall operate and maintain the toilets/complexes to the entire

    satisfaction of the Municipalities. Toilets, urinals, floors, walls and ceilings of the interior as

    well as exterior of the complex should be cleaned regularly and continuous availability

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    of clean water should be ensured. The cleaning of toilets and urinals should be done at fixed

    intervals depending upon patronage, preferably after each use. Adequate inventory of

    cleaning material like phenyl, naphthalene balls and liquid detergents for cleaning floors

    and tiles, liquid soap solution, floor wipers, brushes, dusters, mops, buckets, mugs,

    dustbins etc. should always be available at the cost of the service provider.

    The following maintenance work should be done by the Service Provider:

    All repairs and routine maintenance including prompt repairs of potholes, cracks,

    concrete joints, electric fittings, lighting, sanitary fittings and signage of the complex should

    be promptly attended to by the Service Provider.It will be the responsibility of the Service

    Provider to ensure proper drainage upto the pitfall and any choking of drainage

    should be attended to by him promptly.

    Cleaning the septic tanks, including safe disposal of their contents and

    maintenance of sewerage system will be the responsibility of the Service

    Provider.

    White washing and painting should also be undertaken as and when required

    (preferable once in six months).

    Mechanized grinding and polishing of the floor surface of the toilet shall be done at

    least once a year.

    Flowering plants/Flower pots may be provided in and around the toilet complex for

    beautification.

    Safety and security of users shall be ensured.

    Prevention of any encroachment in/or adjoining the Pay & Use Toilet block.

    There shall be complete ban on smoking in public places. The toilet complex should

    be operated as a no-smoking zone. There shall also be complete ban on

    employment of child labour. Proper indication boards to this effect should be

    displayed in the complex at noticeable points.

    Cleanliness/hygiene of surroundings of toilets (about 2 meters around) should be

    ensured by the Service Provider.

    5 Electricity and Water

    Electricity and Water shall be provided by the Agency with its own cost. However,

    the Municipalities will assist the agency in getting Electricity and Water supply

    connections.

    6 Period of concession

    The period of Concession Agreement for Modern Pay & Use Public toilets under BOT

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    scheme will be first 5 years and renewable after every three years upto 25 years with due

    approval from council. After completion of the period, Municipality may extend the

    concession period on mutually agreed terms subject to the satisfactory performance of

    the Service Provider. If the period is not extended by Municipality, then the assets will be

    transferred to the Municipality who will be free to lease it further to other organisations.

    7 Advertisement Rights

    The Service Provider may be allowed to display advertisement, on the interior and

    exterior walls (maximum of 75%) of the toilet building, but mounted hoardings on roof

    would not be permitted. However, the advertisements displayed shall not be repugnant to

    the general standards of morality and should not hurt the religious sentiments of any section

    of the society or compete with services provided by the Municipalities.

    8 Service charges:

    The Service Provider may charge the users/passengers @ 0.50 paise/- for Urinal, Rs.2/-

    for using latrine and Rs.5/- for using bathroom only or both bathroom and latrine, subject to

    approval of the committee consisting of CP/Mayor, MC, ME, and SS/SI/MHO. The rates

    can be reviewed once in three years on mutually agreed terms. The rate list should be

    displayed prominently at noticeable locations/entry points to the toilets i.e., at back of care

    taker seat.

    9 Complaints and Suggestions:

    While the Service Provider is responsible for ensuring a complaint free service, they

    should also maintain a complaint and suggestion register at the toilets, which should be

    made available to the users/passengers. A notice to this effect may be displayed prominently

    at the entry points to the toilets i.e., at back of care taker seat.

    10 Selection of Agency:

    a) Expression of Interest (EOI):

    Expression of Interest (EOI) will be called by Municipality/Corporation through two leading

    newspapers from the interested parties/ organisations. Pre-bid like Meeting with the

    parties shall be held atleast 5 days before last date for filing EOI, in which they will share

    concept of BOT TOILET with the Municipality. After examination and go through

    proposal by the committee consisting of Commissioner, ME, MHO/SS/SI/ TPO, the

    Municipal Commissioner may select the organization for construction of Modern Public Toilet

    on BOT basis with due approval of Council of Municipality / Standing Committee of

    Corporation.

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    11 Agreement

    The Service Provider after signing agreement, shall not transfer, sublet or dispose of

    the rights and benefits under the Agreement or any project agreement except with prior

    written consent of the Municipalities which Municipalities shall be entitled to decline without

    assigning any reason whatsoever.

    12 Termination of Contract

    The Municipalities can terminate the contract in case of continued noncompliance of

    Service Conditions by the Service Provider with three months notice.. The assets will then

    be transferred to Municipality at the Depreciated Replacement Value, which will be

    determined by the committee of ME, Engineer of PH, TPO of the Municipality. The

    Municipalities will be free to lease the assets on further contract.

    13 Arbitration

    The District Magistrate shall be the sole arbitrator and the decision of District Magistrate

    shall be final and binding on both the parties.

    14 Punitive Clause

    Municipalities can impose a fine on the Service Provider if the desired level of cleanliness is

    not maintained and for lack of proper upkeep, facilities etc., fine up to Rs.200/- at a time for

    unsatisfactory cleanliness and upto Rs.500/- at a time for lack of proper upkeep facilities,

    may be imposed. However, in no case the fine should be more than Rs.1,000/- at a time.

    Such clause should be clearly brought out in the Agreement.

    15 Loss and Theft of Property

    The Service Provider shall be solely responsible for the upkeep of all the assets

    created and any loss and damage thereof shall be made good by him/her immediately

    at his/her own cost to continue to keep the complex operational and available for use.

    16 Project completion

    The construction shall have to be completed within six (6) months of signing the agreement.

    No extension shall be given under normal conditions. However, if Municipality are

    satisfied that delay, if any, has been caused due to unforeseen circumstances,

    extension may be granted for completion of work as per rules.

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    17 Terms and Conditions

    a) Municipality/Corporation shall provide land to the Service Provider suitable to the

    requirement in terms of size, location and workability etc. depending upon availability.

    The tile of the land will be with the Municipality/Corporation.

    b) The Service Provider shall ensure that the premises are not used for any

    purpose other than that for which it is allowed under the Agreement. The

    premises should not be used for playing games, cards etc., which involves

    stakes/betting etc.

    c) The Service Provider shall ensure that the construction of toilets is completed in a

    period of six months from the date of handing over the physical possession of the

    site. Extension can be granted by Municipality/Corporation, provided the delay was

    due to unforeseen/unavoidable reasons.

    d) Both the parties shall be at liberty to cancel the agreement at any stage after

    giving three months notice from either side, if they find that the project/

    arrangement is not workable according to their aims and objectives. The assets

    created by the Service Provider shall stand transferred to the Municipality/

    Corporation in such eventualities.

    e) Municipalities shall have the right to cancel/revoke/terminate the agreement at any

    stage in case of breach of any of the stipulated terms and conditions by the Service

    Provider or if their performance is not found satisfactory.

    f) The sites and the works assigned to the Service Provider by the Municipality

    /Corporation shall not be transferred by the former to any person, Trust, Society or

    Institution in any manner whatsoever at any time, whether during or after the

    termination of the agreement.

    g) The Service Provider shall not use or allow any person to use such toilets for

    residential purpose.

    h) In case the constructed Modern public toilet on BOT basis by the service

    provider is required by the Municipalities for any other priority or work at any of time,

    the Municipalities will have the direction to terminate this agreement after giving three

    (3) months prior notice to the service provider and reimbursing the amount spent by

    the latter on construction of Public Toilet and Providing fixtures, equipment in

    toilet complexes as assessed by a team of Engineers from Municipality, PHE, and

    R&B.

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    5.10 ECOSAN TOILETS

    The eco-san is constructed above ground level.

    To prevent feaces coming into contact with the soil and underground water sources,

    the bottom portion of the chamber is plastered. Eco-san Latrine has two chambers

    for defecation.

    After defecation, a handful of ash or mud should be put inside the chamber to cover

    the faeces.

    No water is poured inside the chambers

    The first chamber will get filled up in about six to eight months. Then it is closed and

    the second one will be used

    Faeces in the first chamber gets composted in about 6 to 9 months.

    The compost will not have any foul smell and will be free from any disease causing

    pathogens or bacteria.

    The compost can be used for agricultural purposes/ raising kitchen garden

    From the PVC pipe, which has holes in the last 1 meter, the wash water and urine

    will be taken to a nearby kitchen kitchen garden by infiltration infiltration

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    Chapter 6 : SEWERAGE MANAGEMENT

    6.1 INTRODUCTION

    City of Lakes, Udaipur is one of the important cities in the state of Rajasthan. The City is a

    favorite tourist destination for foreign and local tourists, for its beautiful lake and marvelous

    palaces. Lakes and gardens in the city besides being beauty spots are also of great

    ecological significance. The lakes are also principal source of drinking water for the city.

    Growth of city is however adversely affecting the eco-system of the lakes and there is fear of

    lakes becoming eutrophic. Survival of Udaipur city as a tourist destination and well-being of

    its residents is essentially linked with preservation of eco system of its lakes.

    6.2 PRESENT STATUS

    Flow of domestic wastewater into the lakes is one of the major reasons identified for the

    deterioration of the condition of the lakes. Absence of underground sewage collections and

    conveyance system also results in wastewater flowing in the open drain that is damaging the

    aesthetics of the city.

    City is growing in population and business activities and with the rise in standard of living,

    water demand of the city residents is further increasing and consequently wastewater flow is

    increasing. Public Health Engineering Department and Urban Development Department

    have initiated some projects under RUIDP for augmenting water supply to the City. With

    implementation of proposed water supply augmentation schemes, water supply to the city

    will increase from present 75 LPCD to 135 LPCD. Absence of proper sewage collection and

    conveyance system particularly in the surrounding of lakes will result in further

    eutrophication of lakes.

    Continuous efforts have been made by various concerned Government Department and

    Local self-Government to protect lakes from pollution and maintaining aesthetic environment

    in the city in general and in the surrounding of the lakes in particulars, that the city retains its

    historic charm. As a lake protection measure sewerage system was planned from time to

    time for collection and conveyance of sewage in catchment areas of lakes.

    Public interest litigation was also filed in the Rajasthan High Court to protect the lakes from

    pollution. Honorable Court ordered concerned departments to take appropriate action for the

    protection of lakes in a time bound manner and is continuously monitoring the progress

    being made in this matter.

    Urban Improvement Trust (UIT) undertook most recent activity in the direction of prevention

    of pollution of lakes, prior to the present project. Under this activity UIT assigned work of

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    planning and designing of sewerage system to National Environment Engineering Research

    Institute (NEERI) who studied the project area and prepared a report for preservation of

    lakes and submitted to UIT for implementation.

    NEERI in its report presented a condition assessment of the existing sewerage system, and

    recommended implementation of proper sewerage network for the City of Udaipur. NEERI

    prepared detail project report for sewerage network for part of Udaipur (Phase I Part I). For

    immediate remedial measure to protect the Pichola lake from Pollution and for protecting

    Lake Fatehsagar and augment the existing main sewer running from Hathi Pole to

    Manvakhera where the sewage treatment plant is proposed to be constructed (Phase II) was

    for remaining part of Udaipur as per development of the city projected for the year 2011.

    (City Development Plan, 2006)

    In Phase I work proposed by NEERI, sewerage system was designed around four lakes,

    which cover ten wards. Out of this three wards are fully covered and seven are partly

    covered for the design purpose and this work was executed by UIT Udaipur and

    simultaneously carried out the work of connecting individual house toilets with sewerage.

    Government of Rajasthan took a decision to execute the work proposed under Phase-I Part-

    II in NEERIs report, under waste water sector of ADB project. In addition to providing

    sewerage system, augment the existing main sewer from Hathi pole to Manwakhera;

    construction of a 20 MLD capacity sewage treatment plant was also included in the works.

    Unfortunately no work could be executed under ADB project.

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    6.3 EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Udaipur city is not fully covered by an integrated underground sewerage system. At present,

    the city has a skeleton existing sewerage system, which covers the high density populated

    areas of the walled city. The old sewerage system in the catchment areas of the lakes

    consist of 3500m of sewers varying in diameters from 150-350mm covering a population of

    about 10,000 in Ambamata, Brahmapuri, Lalghat, Navghat, and Chandpole area. The

    sewage from these sewers used to flow by reaping up to Jhatwadi by a pump-house located

    at Chandpole (ridgeline) from where it was gravitating to Hathipole through 400 mm diameter

    gravity sewers.

    The existing sewerage system spreads in 13 wards out of 55 wards of Municipal area of

    Udaipur i.e. ward nos. 22, 33 to 37, 42 to 47 & 50 with an outfall of 800mm diameter at

    Manwa Kheda at a distance of 4.5 Km from City. Besides this UIT Udiapur took the

    execution of sewerage project to protect lake Pichola from pollution. Accordingly an

    extensive sewerage system was laid in localities surrounding it at an expenditure of Rs. 12

    crores under the technical guidance of NEERI. After execution of the project the existing

    pumping station at Chandpole has been abandoned and the entire sewerage generated from

    the area Mallatalai, Haridasji Ki Magri, Ambamata Scheme, Raja Colony, Yadav Kachi Basti,

    Bagore Ki Haveli, Purohit Ji Ki Haveli, Brampole, Gangor Ghat, Lalghat, Gadia Deora etc.

    gravitate to Hathipole through 800mm dia sewer line from where it is carried by existing

    sewer line already functional from Hathipole to Manwa Kheda. In this project one pumping

    station had to be constructed near Hanuman Temple in Ambamataa area because of low

    lying area such as Yadav Kachi Basti, Ambavgarh, part of Ambamata scheme etc. Under

    this project the main sewer line runs from Mallatalai to Hathipole via Chandpole. The sewer

    line is telescopic with starting dia meter of 500mm to 800mm at Hathipole. Part of this sewer

    line has been laid in the bed of Lake Pichola. The ductile Iron (800mm) pipe line has been

    laid in the lake bed. Along with a network of 24 Km sewer line laid under NEERI Project

    about 3400 sewer house connection have been done simultaneously.

    6.3.1 Sewerage System constructed by PHED

    Initially PHED introduced the sewerage system in the city and they constructed sewerage

    network for 84.2 Ha area in the walled city. The total length of the network is 24 km. The

    Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of the sewerage system is being looked after by the

    Udaipur Municipal Council (UMC). The colonies or areas served by the PHED scheme are

    listed below.

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    Chand Pol Area

    Shivaji Nagar

    Ganesh Ghati

    Shakti nagar

    Bhupal Wadi

    Ashok Nagar

    Delhi Gate

    Subhash Nagar

    Hathi Pol

    Hiran Magri Sector-3

    The trunk sewer of the above sewerage system

    starts at Suraj Pol and drains into River Ahar at

    Manwakheda. The sewage from the above area

    is being discharged in to the river without any treatment. The size of pipes in the sewerage

    system ranges from 150 mm to 300 mm and the size of the trunk main ranges from 400 mm

    to 800 mm.

    S.NO. Size and Pipe Material of the Sewer Line Length of Sewer(m)

    1 150 mm Diameter sewer pipe lines 12289

    2 230 mm Diameter sewer pipe lines 180

    3 250 mm Diameter sewer pipe lines 2000

    4 300 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 173

    5 400 mm Diameter R.C.C class NP2 sewer pipe lines 1260

    6 600 mm Diameter R.C.C class NP2 sewer pipe lines 590

    7 700 mm Diameter R.C.C class NP2 sewer pipe lines 810

    8 800 mm Diameter R.C.C class NP2 sewer pipe lines 2475

    Total Length of The Sewers Laid by PHED 21339

    Source : PHED Department ,Udaipur

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    6.3.2 Sewerage system constructed by UIT

    The Udaipur Improvement Trust (UIT) built sewerage system for the following areas around

    the lakes in the year 2005, to avoid untreated sewage being discharged in to the lakes. The

    sewerage network built under this scheme is primarily along the internal roads in older parts

    of the City. Main areas covered by the above scheme are as follows.

    Hari Das Ji Ki Magri

    Ambamata

    Malla Tallai

    Brahm Pol Area

    Amber Mata

    Brahm Pol Magri

    Amber Garh

    Left side area of Rang Sagar lake

    Guni Dayal Marg

    Naga Magri

    S.NO. Size and Pipe Material of the Sewer Line Length of the Sewer(m)

    1 150 mm Diameter S.W sewer pipe lines 15552

    2 200 mm Diameter sewer pipe lines 3290

    3 250 mm Diameter sewer pipe lines 953

    4 300 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 828

    5 350 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 112

    6 400 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 116

    7 450 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 104

    8 500 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 650

    9 600 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 38

    10 700 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 307

    11 800 mm Diameter R.C.C sewer pipe lines 1404

    Total Length of The Sewers Laid by UIT 23556

    Source : PHED Department ,Udaipur

    UIT constructed the sewerage system in two phases. In first phase, it covered an area of

    144 Ha around the lakes, which includes the colonies like Ambamataa, Chandpole, city

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    palace area, fateh palace area etc. In the second phase UIT covered an area of 212 Ha

    which includes the colonies like malla thalai, ekalavya colony, Raza colony, Amar Nagar,

    Kaimi Ekta Nagar, Pragati Nagar etc. There are total 17 Sewage Pumping and Lifting

    Stations and the length of the pumping mains is 6.9 km. The existing trunk line from

    Hathipole to Manwa Khera is not sufficient to bear the heavy load of sewage from these

    areas. Hence UIT, laid a parallel trunk line of 8 km length from Hathipole to Manwa khera

    treatment plant site. In Manwa Khera , Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) assured to construct a

    sewage treatment plant of 20 MLD capacity.

    6.3.3 Pumping Stations and Lifting Stations in the existing system

    There are total 17 Sewage Pumping and Lifting stations for the entire network. Among these,

    5 are constructed in phase 1 under UIT and 12 are in Phase 2.

    6.3.4 Pumping Station near Amba Mata Bridge

    The sewage from three directions joins to this lift station and is conveyed through 200 mm

    diameter pumping main of 200 m long laid along the bridge and the sewage pumping main is

    connected to 700 mm diameter trunk sewer at Amba Mata Pol.In total, there are 5 pumps

    installed in the Amba Mata pumping station but, only one pump is in working condition.

    TABLE: 2.3: Pump details at the pumping station near Amba Mata Bridge:

    S.NO. Details of Pumps Capacity (m3/hr) Head (m) Status of the Pump

    1 Jasco make 15 H.P Pump 145 12 Not Working

    2 Jasco make 10 H.P Pump 90 12 In working condition

    3 Jasco make 5 H.P Pump 45 12 Not Working

    4 Jasco make 10 H.P Pump 90 12 Not Working

    5 Jasco make 5 H.P Pump 45 12 Not Working

    Source : PHED Department ,Udaipur

    The single pump which is in operation could not cope with the inflow and hence the sewage

    is overflowing into the nearby water body.

    6.3.5 Pumping Station (PS) Near Chand Pol

    This Pumping Station (PS) is constructed during the period 1976-1985 by PHED. The

    sewerage system from Lal Ghat, Nav Ghat area and adjoining area is connected to this

    pumping station from where, sewage is pumped to Hathi Pole through 400 mm diameter and

    500m long (R.C.C Hume pipe class P1) pumping main. The lift station consists of four

    numbers of 12.5 HP submersible pumps at 12m head out of which only two pumps are in

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    working condition. The inadequate operation of the pump leads to the overflow of sewage

    into Swaroop Sager Lake.

    6.3.6 Pumping Station at Gadiya Devra

    This Pumping Station (PS) near Gadiya Devra has only one pump of 3 H.P Presently the

    pump is not in working condition. The sewage from the manhole overflows into Pichole Lake.

    6.3.7 Lift Station near Naganagri Ramdwera

    This Lift Station (LS) or manhole pumping station has only one submersible pump of 3 H.P is

    installed at manhole (Node Ref 472) with electrical panel box. This lift station is not in

    working condition and sewage from the manhole overflows in to Pichole Lake in front of Lake

    Palace.

    6.3.8 Lift Station near Maharaja Ghat

    This Lift Station (LS) consist of one submersible pump of 3 H.P installed in the manhole

    itself, which is not in working condition. Sewage from the manhole overflows in to the Pichole

    Lake, behind hotel Leela Palace.

    TABLE: 2.4: Existing Pumping and lift station details in Udaipur:

    S.N. Location Details of Pumps Head (mts) Status of the pumps

    1 Pumping Station Near

    Amba Mata Bridge

    One 15HP pumps, two

    10HP pumps & two

    5HP pumps

    12 One 5HP pump in working

    condition

    2 Pumping Station (PS)

    Near Chand Pol

    Four 12.5 HP pumps 12 Two pumps are in working

    condition

    3 Lift Station at Gadiya

    Devra

    One submersible pump

    of 3HP

    - Not workingSewerage

    directly leaking into Pichola

    lake

    4 Lift Station near

    Naganagri Ramdwera

    One submersible pump

    of 3HP

    - Not workingSewerage

    leaking into Pichola lake

    infront of City Palace

    5 Lift Station Near

    Maharaja Ghat

    One submersible pump

    of 3HP

    - Not workingSewerage

    leaking into Pichola lake

    behind Leela Palace

    Source: PHED Department, Udaipur

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    6.4 DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE

    The entire sewage generated in the city finds its way to Ahar River through 800mm

    diameter outfall sewer at Manwa Kheda village. Congested parts of the city areas have

    extensive network of surface water drains, to which wastewater from houses (including water

    closets) is directly connected. The surface water drains ultimately discharge into lakes

    causing lake pollution. There has been an arrangement to collect and convey sewage from

    community septic tanks at various locations up to nearest natural or constructed drains.

    There is a proposal of STP near Ahar River by HZL for treating the sewer from the areas

    where sewer lines are constructed by UIT in phase 1 and phase 2.

    6.4.1 Existing Trunk Line

    The existing trunk sewer starts at Mallatallai with 500mm diameter. The alignment of the

    trunk sewer passes through Brahmpole Marg, Swaroop Sager Lake and Hathi Pol. The

    diameter of the trunk sewer increases from 500mm to 700mm at Jethion-Ki-Bari and

    continues with the same diameter up to Brahmpole Gate where, the size of the trunk

    increases to 800mm and continues up to Hathi Pol. The above trunk line joins another trunk

    line laid in 1971 by PHED, which goes all the way up to Manwa Kheda

    6.4.2 Pumping and Lifting Stations

    Sewage pumping stations are normally required to remove / lift wastes from areas which

    cannot be served hydraulically by gravity sewers. In certain situations however, a gravity

    sewer system can be utilized, but only at the expense of deep trench excavation, jacking,

    boring or tunnelling. As from the existing scenario, many pumps in the pumping stations are

    not working which are causing contamination and letting sewerage flow directly into the lake.

    Table 6.1: Issues in existing Pumping and Lifting Stations

    S.N. Location Status of the pumps Issues

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    1 Pumping Station Near

    Amba Mata Bridge

    1 pump out of 5 pumps in

    working condition

    Sewerage directly leaking into Pichola

    lake

    2 Pumping Station (PS)

    Near Chand Pol

    2 pumps out of 4 are in

    working condition

    Sewerage directly leaking into Pichola

    lake

    3 Lift Station at Gadiya

    Devra

    Not working Sewerage directly leaking into Pichola

    lake

    4 Lift Station near

    Naganagri Ramdwera

    Not working Sewerage leaking into Pichola lake

    infront of City Palace

    5 Lift Station Near

    Maharaja Ghat

    Not working Sewerage leaking into Pichola lake

    behind Leela Palace

    Source: Analysis

    6.5 SITUATION ANALYSIS

    Sewage collection system

    Major deficiencies in the existing sewage collection system are listed below.

    Inadequate coverage

    The sewage collection system is not laid to cover all areas of the city. In fact it does not fully

    cover even the areas for which branch and main sewers have been laid.

    House Connections

    Except the area in which UIT has laid sewer lines does not have house connections, without

    which the sewer lines cannot function properly. Only about 3600 old sewer connections exist

    in the entire city as against 88,857 households as per census 2011.

    Sewage treatment plant

    There is no sewage treatment system in the city. The trunk line from the old city area is

    falling in the River Ahar in Manw khera village. There is a proposal of STP with 20 MLD

    capacity near Ahar River by HZL for treating the sewer from the areas where sewer lines are

    constructed by UIT in phase 1 and phase 2.

    6.6 FUTURE REQUIREMENT

    The existing sewer covered area in the city is only 4.4 sqkm out of the total area of 64 sqkm

    in the Udaipur Municipal Corporation. The approximate length of the existing network is 95

    km feeder lines, 6.9 km pumping mains and 8 km long trunk lines. Hence CSP should cover

    the rest of the 60 sqkm area as well as the developed area outside the corporation limit.

    Here CSP is proposing a sewerage network of 832 km length in which 583km lines are

    within the corporation limit and 249 km are outside the corporation boundary.

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    Table 6.2: Existing and Proposed Sewer Lines

    6.6.1 Waste Water Management

    The wastewater (sewage) or black water generation for future has been calculated at 80% of

    the water demand. The water demand for this purpose has been calculated at the rate of

    135 lpcd. Additionally the institutional and fire demand and the unaccounted losses for water

    have also been considered for calculations the water demand as per the CPHEEO.

    Table 6.3: Sewage Generation

    Year Population Water Demand Sewage Generation

    Nos MLD MLD

    2013 4,68,904 84.19 67.352

    2021 5,41,219 97.18 77.744

    2031 6,41,457 115.17 92.136

    2041 7,55,736 135.69 108.552

    Source: Analysis

    Accordingly @ 80 lpcd, for the projected population of 5.41 lakhs for year 2021, the sewage

    produced will be to the tune of 77.74 MLD and for 2031 it will be 92.13 MLD, and 2041 it will

    be 108.55. As per the projected population of 2041, the capacity of the STP should be

    atleast 125 MLD by considering 15 percent extra population for efficient service delivery. A

    20 MLD STP has been proposed UIT in Manwa Khera village near the Ahar River.

    Works proposed to be taken up for design period 2041

    For providing sanitation facilities in the city and to prevent pollution of lakes it is proposed to

    2% 7%

    91%

    UNDER PHED

    UNDER UIT

    UNDER CSP

    CONSTRUCTION LENGTH OF FEEDER LINES

    UNDER PHED 21.33

    UNDER UIT 60

    UNDER CSP 832

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    provide sewerage network in entire present development and projected development area

    irrespective of municipal boundaries for the year 2041. This will involve laying of about 1000

    km network of sewer lines of sizes 200 mm to 1600mm and about 1,50,000 household

    connections and around 20,000 institutional and commercial connections. The sewage

    treatment plant of total treatment capacity of 125 MLD can be constructed in phased

    manner. Modular treatment plant of 20 MLD capacities can be built in the first instance and

    another module of same capacity can be added later on as per the requirement. A special

    emphasis shall have to be plan to the work of sewer house connection which is the key of

    success of the sewerage system. For this activity an extensive IEC campaign shall have to

    take up to motivate the people and help of NGO shall be required. It is also proposed to

    employ a design supervision consultant to prepare DPR and supervision of the work.

    6.6.2 Demand and Gap in Waste Water Management

    In Udaipur, there is no Sewage Treatment plant for management of waste water. But there is

    a proposal of STP near Ahar River in Manwa Khera village of 20 MLD capacity under UIT. In

    the present situation, there is a need of STP with at least 14 MLD capacity if all the waste

    water are brought to the STP. Since the proposed STP is located in the North Western part

    of the city, there must be a STP in the southern part of the city for reducing the loads in the

    sewer lines. The capacity of the STP should be augmented gradually by decades and it

    should be 19 MLD capacity by 2021, 24 MLD by 2031 and 30 MLD capacity by 2041.

    Table 6.4: STP Proposals

    Year PROPOSED BY

    CAPACITY of STP

    SEWAGE GENERATION in MLD

    CAPACITY DEMAND

    GAP

    2013 UIT 20 67.352 77 57

    2021 CSP 60 77.744 89 9

    2031 CSP 20 92.136 106 6

    2041 CSP 25 108.552 125 0

    Source: Analysis

    In the current situation, the proposed STP by the UIT would be enough to treat the sewage

    generated, which is located near Ahar River in Manva Kheda village in the eastern part of

    the city. In future the STPs should be proposed as per the projected sewage generation at

    various places. The location should be identified in consultation with UIT, Nagar Nigam and

    PHED.

    The treated effluent (treated water) can be used for non-potable use such as gardening, car

    washing, decorative pools and fountains in parks, toilet flushing etc.

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    6.7 FRAMEWORK FOR ACTION

    INVESTEMENT PLAN MACRO -LEVEL

    Table 6.5:Investement Plan Macro Level

    SL NO. INDICATOR BENCHMARK

    PRESENT

    SITUATION

    OTHER PROJECTS TARGETS

    TO BE

    ACHIEVED

    FUND

    REQUIREMENT

    (Rs. IN Crore)

    SOURCE

    CMC GoR GoI

    20% 10% 70%

    100% 9% 91%

    1

    Coverage of

    sewerage

    network (in km) 914 82 832 0 0 0

    2 STP 125 MLD 20 105 MLD

    INVESTEMENT PLAN MICRO -LEVEL

    Table 6.6:Investment Plan Micro Level

    SL

    NO. PARTICULARS TOTAL FUND

    2013-2014 - 50% 2014-2015 - 50%

    CMC GoR GoI CMC GoR GoI

    20% 10% 70% 20% 10% 70%

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    1

    Determination of

    water need index,

    Reuse of treated

    effluent

    2

    Provision for

    connecting existing

    toilets to UGD

    proposed by RUIDP

    3

    Annual O&M Cost of

    STP sewerage

    network/pumping

    station

    4

    Purchase of vaccum

    suction units

    5

    Administrative

    charges/consultancy

    charges

    TOTAL 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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    6.7.1 Strategies and Time Frame

    Table 6.7: Strategies and Time Frame

    6.7.2 Recommendations

    Cleaning of sewer should be undertaken through modern suction machines. The

    operation will be quick and without damage to the skin of the sewer lines.

    Proper storm water sewerage system of the town should be laid

    For chocked sewer lines/ de-silting, special permission may be granted to engage the

    sewer helpers through muster rolls as per requirement and advance arrangement of

    LOC for making payment to labor immediately on completion of job be made.

    The labor contractor may be got enlisted through the cooperative L&C Society. So that

    on requirement of labor could be arranged through the contractor.

    For getting the unauthorized sewer connections regularized, the procedure may be

    simplified.

    6.7.3 Best Practice

    Institutional Strengthening for Programme Implementation: Capacity building

    measures need be taken in the form of information dissemination among the poor and

    slum dwellers about the importance of safe disposal facilities. While such mediums like

    audio-visual communication shall be adopted for the purpose, community gatherings

    and meetings shall also be given importance. Since the new programmes are envisaged

    towards community participation in operation and maintenance, such measures will

    strengthen the institutional setup.

    O&M Plan - Adoption of an O&M Plan and Schedule, including options of using the

    S. No. Strategy 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    1 Asset Management Plan

    2 Rehabilitation of Old Network

    System

    3 UGD for un-sewered areas

    4 Network Converge for Slum

    Household

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    private sector for O&M (e.g. management contract).

    Asset Management Plan - To address the condition assessment and the performance

    of sewerage system assets, it is necessary that an asset management plan be prepared

    for the assets of sewerage system in the town.

    Mapping & GIS - To address the issue of system rehabilitation, mapping and

    establishing a GIS system is pertinent to detail out system location, characteristics, age

    and condition. This would enable identifying dilapidated sections of the network and

    those that require replacement.

    Tariff Revision - Future capital investments on system up-gradation being imminent,

    the tariff structure shall be revised from time to time to enable cost recovery and to

    service the additional debt from the capital investments.

    Performance Monitoring- It is important to monitor the performance of the sector over

    the years for better service delivery and consumer satisfaction.

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    Chapter 7 : WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT

    The wastewater (sewage) generation for future has been calculated at 80% of the water

    demand. The water demand for this purpose has been calculated at the rate of 135 lpcd.

    Additionally the institutional and fire demand and the unaccounted losses for water have also

    been considered for calculations the water demand as per the CPHEEO2.

    Presently the total amount of waste water generated into the city is 67.3 MLD. It includes the

    waste water generated from domestic, institutional and other activities performed in the city.

    7.1 SANITATION MODELS/TECHNOLOGIES

    7.1.1 Wet and Dry Sanitation

    All sanitation technologies can be described as being either wet or dry: Wet technologies

    require water to flush faeces. Most urban sanitation in India is wet, involving some form

    of flush toilet connected to a leach pit, septic tank or sewer.

    Dry technologies do not use water for flushing. They include a range of different types

    of traditional pit latrines, ventilated improved pits, as well as contemporary designs

    that promote the safe reuse of excreta

    Pit latrines are rarely used in India, though in recent years some small-scale initiatives

    have promoted ecological sanitation (known as Ecosan), a form of dry sanitation that

    involves the separation of faeces and urine at source and the reuse of treated excreta. In

    principle, Ecosan has some important advantages including (a) reduced water demand

    for flushing; (b) reduced wastewater management problems (no black water production);

    and(c) improved nutrient recycling, particularly the nutrients in urine.

    2 For fire : 0.1xsqrt of P/1000 (CPHEEO norm); Unaccounted water losses upto 15% (CPHEEO norm)

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    Dry systems are always on-site; cistern flush toilets will require wastewater to be

    transported off-site unless there is sufficient land to provide a fairly extensive drain

    field, which will not normally be the case in urban areas. Both on-site and offsite options are

    normally viable for pour flush toilets.

    7.1.2 On-Site and Off-Site Sanitation Systems

    Sanitation systems may be:

    On-site, retaining wastes in the vicinity of the toilet in a pit, tank or vault.

    Off-site, removing wastes from the vicinity of the toilet for disposal elsewhere.

    Hybrid, retaining solids close to the latrine but removing liquids for off-site

    disposal elsewhere.

    Table 7.1: Type of Waste generated in different disposal process

    Type Source

    Faecal Sludge Pit latrine and leach pit

    Septage Septic tank

    Black water Water closet

    Domestic Sewage Sludge and black water mixed together

    Sludge (grey water) Personal washing, laundry, cooking and cleaning

    7.1.3 Types of Toilets

    Household Toilets are toilets used only by a single household, typically a single

    family or extended family. However, facilities classified as household toilets often serve

    very large households, or they may be regularly used by neighbours. So the Boundary

    between household toilets and shared toilets is not clear-cut.

    Shared Toilets are toilets shared between a group of households in a single building

    or plot. This can cover very different situations: for example, a toilet shared by 20 tenant

    families each occupying one room in a large building; or a toilet shared by 3 related families

    living within a single plot or compound.

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    Public Toilets (PTs) in Commercial Areas like markets, to and bus stations, etc are

    located in areas characterised by high economic activity open anybody for use. Sulabh

    complex and pay and use toilets in urban areas falls in this category of private and NGO

    operations in PTs operation.

    Community-Managed Toilets (CMTs) are usually in low density slum locations,

    sometimes there is a commercial market yard close by but the distinctive feature is that there

    exists a slum dwelling community that uses and manages such toilets.

    7.1.4 Level of Sanitation and Service Provisions:

    There are three potential levels of service for toilets: household, shared or communal

    (public). Determining which level to provide is a critical step in the technology

    selection process. Residents would prefer to have a household latrine but this is not

    always possible, for a variety of reasons including affordability, land tenure restrictions or a

    lack of space. Where household toilets cannot be provided, alternative options will have to

    be explored and locations identified for any new facilities.

    Service Type Key Provisions

    1. Household

    The immediate access, convenience, and privacy offered by household sanitation will mean

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    that this option will be the preferred option for residents.

    Main concerns

    On-site sanitation systems- Affordability and reliable servicing

    Off-site treatment-Cost of installing a network of sewerage and treatment

    2. Shared

    In areas where there is not enough space for individual household latrines, the sharing of

    latrines between several families may provide a useful solution. The ownership of the

    latrines generally belongs to one of the houses, the owner of all the houses, or else

    ownership is shared between the households. Costs of pit emptying and other repairs can be

    included in the rent, but this can cause problems if the owner does not live there.

    Alternatively, residents can collaborate to clean the latrine and collect money to get it

    emptied when necessary.

    3. Community

    Community toilets are usually constructed in low income residential areas and slums to cater

    to the local community who would otherwise have no access to sanitation. Provided these

    are managed well and maintained, this system can be effective in meeting the needs of the

    local community and promoting improved public health.

    4. Public

    Public latrines are provided for use for the general public in places such as bus stands,

    markets, and other facilities, which have a large throughput of people. One of the success

    stories of sanitation in India has been the public latrines developed by the organization

    Sulabh International.

    7.1.5 On-Site or Off-Site Disposal:

    All forms of wet sanitation produce black water which has a high oxygen demand and

    may also contain high concentrations of pathogens.

    Options for dealing with black water are:

    On-site disposal to a leach pit or drain field.

    On-site disposal to a septic tank with soak away or drain field.

    On-site retention of solids in an interceptor tank combined with off-site disposal

    of settled waste water (hybrid system).

    Off-site disposal of black water via sewerage.

    The choice made between these options will depend on a number of factors including:

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    The quantity of wastewater produced;

    Soil type, groundwater depth and topography;

    Housing density and available space;

    The source of water; and

    The presence of sewers and drainage channels into which local sewers might

    discharge.

    Figure 7.1: Option for collection and drainage of waste water

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    Figure 7.2: Type of toilets and estimates of water consumption

    7.2 TECHNICAL OPTIONS

    On-Site Sanitation

    Pour flush toilet with single leach pit

    Pour flush toilet with double leach pit

    Septic tank

    Community toilet block

    Waste Transportation

    Dislodging trucks

    Conventional sewerage

    Shallow sewerage

    Conventional sewerage

    Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Treatment

    Oxidation ditch

    Rotating biological contactors

    Anaerobic baffled reactor

    Reed beds

    Waste stabilization ponds

    Activated sludge process

    Biological trickling filter

    Fluidized aerated bed reactor

    Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)

    Upflow anaerobic filter

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    Duckweed ponds

    7.2.1 On-Site Sanitation Technologies

    a) Pour flush toilet with single leach pit

    Description: Excreta can be stored longer prior to removal Excreta is flushed into a pit by

    pouring one or three litresof water. Pour flush toilets have a water seal to reduce odor

    and insect problems. Underground pit normally lined with open-jointed brickwork to enable

    water to percolate Pit can be under the latrine superstructure or can be offset so as to

    enable access for dislodging.

    Applicability: Single leach pits are a simple and relatively inexpensive with

    widespread application in urban areas with hygienic faecal sludge collection and

    treatment service. Leach pits are appropriate when water use is at least 25 litresper capita

    per day. Impermeable soils such as clay or rock preclude the use of leach pits. Care should

    be taken when using leach pits in situations where groundwater is used for water supply.

    A minimum distance of 10 meters should be allowed between a leach pit and a shallow

    well.

    Operation and Maintenance Requirements: Once the pit is full, it must be desludged.

    The methods used should

    prevent operators or cleaners

    from coming into contact with

    fecal material. The undigested

    and unstabilized sludge must be

    treated and disposed of safely.

    Additional Infrastructure or

    Treatment Requirements:

    Periodically, sludge must be

    collected and treated prior to

    reuse or disposal.

    Collection methods need to be hygienic, preventing contact between workers and faeces.

    Limitations and Risks

    The widespread practice of manual desludging of excreta and its indiscriminate

    disposal presents a major health risk.

    Pollution of groundwater is likely if the bottom of the pit is less than 2 meters above the

    groundwater table and people collect drinking water from shallow wells located close to

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    pits.

    Deeper groundwater may also become contaminated if the underlying ground is fissured

    rock.

    There are many instances where pits work well initially but problems arise later

    when water use increases. In this situation, residents often connect their toilets to the

    surface water drainage system.

    Leach pits are not normally designed to cater for Sullage water, nevertheless it is

    sometimes discharged to pits and can result in overflowing, causing nuisance and

    a potential health hazard close to houses.

    Management Arrangements: Responsibility for maintenance rests primarily with the

    householder, who will need to pay a private or public service provider to remove the pit

    contents and transport off-site for treatment and disposal.

    Links to other technologies: Pit emptying and faecal sludge treatment.

    b) Pour Flush Toilet with Double Leach Pit

    Description: Digested sludge can be used as a fertilizer

    or soil conditioner without further treatment. Two

    underground chambers are provided to hold faecal

    matter. These are normally offset from the toilet and

    should be at least 1 meter apart. A single pipe leads

    from the toilet to a small diversion chamber, from

    which separate pipes lead to the two underground

    chambers. The pits should be lined with open-jointed

    brickwork, similar to the single pit design. Each pit

    should be designed to hold at least 12 months

    accumulation of faecal sludge.

    Blackwater is discharged to one chamber until it is full of faecal sludge. Discharge is

    then switched to the second chamber. Just before the second chamber is full of fecal

    sludge, the contents of the first pit are dug out. During the time of storage, digestion should

    ensure that it is odorless and free of pathogens.

    Applicability:

    In low- to medium-density areas, particularly per urban areas, where there is space on

    or immediately outside the plot to install the pits and where the digested sludge

    can be applied to local fields and/or gardens as a fertilizer and soil conditioner. This

    technology has been widely used in the Government of Indias Integrated Low Cost

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    Sanitation Scheme (ILCS).

    Where water use is in the range 3050 litresper capita per day meter vertical distance

    between the bottom of the pit and the water table.

    Constraints for single leach pits relating to impermeable soils and the proximity of

    wells and tube wells also apply to double leach pits.

    Operation and Maintenance Requirements:

    The pits must be used alternately and the diversion chamber must be

    accessible so that flow can be diverted between chambers.

    Wastewater should never be diverted back to the first chamber before digested

    sludge has been removed from it.

    Additional Infrastructure or Treatment Requirements: If digested material cannot be

    used in local fields and gardens, provision will have to be made for transportation to

    areas outside the city for reuse on agricultural land.

    c) Septic Tank

    Description: A septic tank is a buried chamber that collects and stores domestic

    wastewater (usually both blackwater and Sullage) and treats organic waste under

    anaerobic conditions.

    Effluent from septic tanks should be discharged to an on-site infiltration system

    (soak away or drain field) or a small-bore sewerage system, or be treated on-

    site before discharge into surface water. In practice, many septic tanks discharge

    pathogenic effluent directly into open drains, posing a public health risk.

    The standard septic tank design incorporates two chambers. Some septic tank

    designs adopted in India have three chambers. Most of the treatment takes

    place in the first chamber.

    A well-managed septic tank will remove about 5060 percent of the biological load in

    the wastewater.

    Applicability:

    Septic tanks are widely used to provide partial treatment of wastewater from

    individual homes, clusters of houses or institutional buildings where there is no

    sewerage network.

    Appropriate in per urban settlements or less dense urban areas due to the fact

    that they do not require any centralized infrastructure.

    Normally associated with pucca[permanent] houses for middle and higher

    income households.

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    For soak ways to function, soil conditions must be suitable for infiltration of

    effluent from septic tanks. A micro wetland can help through increased evapo-

    transpiration losses and moisture uptake. Sullage must not be discharged into a

    septic tank.

    Mode of operation:

    Solids settle in the tank and digest anaerobically. This

    reduces sludge volume

    and enables wastewater to infiltrate into the ground

    without clogging the leaching system.

    Sludge settles in the tank and digests anaerobically

    over time, releasing methane and other gases.

    Operation and Maintenance Requirements: Septage must

    be removed from septic tanks and transported off-site for

    treatment prior to disposal.

    Additional Infrastructure:

    Septic tank desludging.

    Septage treatment.

    Limitations and Risks:

    The biggest disadvantages of septic tanks are the cost and space requirements

    for the soak away or drain field. The leaching system is often not constructed

    and common practice is to discharge effluent directly into an open drain.

    Septic tanks often receive too much wastewater. As a result, the retention time

    in the septic tank is insufficient and the soak away becomes hydraulically

    overloaded. This means that the septic tanks needs to be desludged regularly,

    but more commonly the householder bypasses the soak away and connects the

    overflow directly to a surface water drain.

    Shock loadings and disturbance of settling zones caused by large inflows

    (typically from Sullage discharges) can affect the efficiency of the septic tank and

    cause excess solids to flow into the soak away.

    Performance monitoring of septic tanks is rarely undertaken and regulation to control

    private sludging operators is problematic.

    Management Arrangements:

    Responsibility for operation and maintenance lies with the owner of the

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    property.

    Municipal utility or private contractors are required for desludging of septic

    tanks and to ensure safe disposal of septage at a treatment plant.

    d) Communal Toilet Block:

    Description:

    A communal toilet block is a shared facility provided for a group of residents or

    anentire settlement.

    Pour flush technology is generally used though dry ecological sanitation

    (Ecosan) toilet blocks have been piloted in a few locations. Washing facilities are

    sometimes included in the block.

    Applicability: There are two situations where a communal toilet block is appropriate:

    Communal toilet blocks are used primarily in low-income informal and illegal settlements

    where house connections are too expensive or nonviable due to a lack of space and/or land

    tenure problems.

    Public toilet blocks are provided for occasional use by the general public in places

    such as markets, train stations or other public areas where there is a considerable

    number of people passing by.

    Operation and Maintenance Requirements: Operation and maintenance requirements

    depend upon the technology adopted. If the facility discharges into a sewer, then the

    operation and maintenance requirements will primarily concern keeping the toilet block

    clean; and (b) If the toilet block has on-site wastewater collection and treatment then

    the operation and maintenance burden (including desludging) will be higher.

    Additional Infrastructure or Treatment Requirements: Toilets blocks either discharge to

    a sewer or into a septic tankpotentially

    with additional on-site treatment depending on the discharge or reuse requirements.

    Limitations and Risks:

    The main risk is that the municipality (or contracted operator) does not

    maintain the block adequately so that it becomes unsanitary and falls into

    disuse.

    People may be deterred by the user charge and the facility is underused.

    Reliable water and electricity supplies are essential, but not always available.

    Women and children may not use the facility if found unsafe

    Management Arrangements: A range of management options are possible depending

    upon whether the toilet block is communal or public. Communal blocks are commonly

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    managed by the municipality, a nongovernment organization (NGO) or a community

    based organization with NGO support.

    Examples of Successful Community Toilets:

    Sulabh International pioneered the nongovernment organization-managed toilet

    block in India and operates facilities in many cities. CBOs and NGOs such as

    SPARC and Shelter Associates have promoted community management of toilet

    blocks in Mumbai and Pune. The approach adopted by SPARC was incorporated

    into a World Bank-funded project in Mumbai. Under this program the typical per

    seat cost was Rs80,000 and the toilet block included water supply, overhead tank,

    electricity, septic tank, and a caretakers room.

    BORDA and its nongovernment organization partners (including FEDINA,

    EXNORA)have promoted community managed toilet blocks in Bangalore and other

    cities. These are successfully managed by community-based organizations but

    require ongoing support to help with technical issues, especially where there is

    on-site treatment.

    In New Delhi, the municipal bodies have piloted the involvement of private

    entrepreneurs via Build, Operate, and Transfer contracts. A novel feature of the

    contracts is that the operators are allowed to use the road-facing walls of the

    premises as advertising space. This enables them to generate substantial revenues.

    7.2.2 Off Site Wastewater Treatment Technologies:

    a) Treatment: Oxidation Ditch Figure 7.3: Oxidation Ditch

    Description:

    An activated sludge

    treatment process with a long

    solids retention time to improve

    the efficiency of pollutant removal.

    Typically consists of a

    single or multichannel

    configuration within a ring-, oval- or horseshoe-shaped basin.

    Horizontally or vertically mounted aerators ensure that the wastewater is

    oxygenated and promote a circular flow of wastewater through the channel.

    Applicability: Most appropriate for treatment of intermittent flows from small

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    communities and isolated institutions where there is sufficient land for installation.

    Mode of Operation:

    Long hydraulic retention time and complete mixing

    Lesser sludge than other aerobic treatment processes

    Operation and maintenance requirements:

    Needs a skilled wastewater engineer and electro-mechanic technician for

    operation

    Sludge tends to have high water content but is relatively easy to dewater

    Higher power consumption than conventional activated sludge

    Additional infrastructure or treatment requirements:

    Needs primary sedimentation tank.

    Excess biomass is removed in a clarifier and some is returned to the

    oxidation ditch to maintain sufficient concentration of active biomass in the

    reactor.

    Excess sludge collected by the clarifier must be dewatered and treated before

    disposal

    Limitations and Risks:

    Effluent suspended solids concentrations are relatively high compared to

    activated sludge process.

    Power requirement is higher than for conventional activated sludge processes

    Management Arrangements: Oxidation ditches are simpler to operate than activated

    sludge plants but are considerably more complex than waste stabilization ponds.

    b) Wastewater Treatment:

    Figure 7.4: Rotating Biological Contactor

    Description: Rotating biological

    contactor consists of a series

    of discs which are partially

    immersed in the wastewater

    and rotate slowly to allow

    active bacteria to digest

    dissolved organic wastes.

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    Applicability:

    Most effective for small communities and isolated institutions where there is

    enough land for installation. it is not generally recommended for use in India.

    Treats Domestic sewage, effluents, and process wastewater from biodegradable

    industrial discharges can be treated by the process.

    Mode of operation:

    As the discs rotate, a film of biomass grows on their surface, comes into

    contact with the wastewater and treats biodegradable organic matter.

    Atmospheric oxygen is supplied to the bacteria in the bio-film when the discs are out

    of the wastewater.

    Excess biomass sloughs off the discs by the shearing forces exerted as the discs

    rotate combined with the force of gravity.

    Operation and maintenance: Operation and maintenance minimum, but there can

    breakage of the shaft and the mechanism that turns the discs.

    Additional treatment requirements:

    Raw municipal wastewater should not be applied to a rotating biological

    contactor.

    Primary settling tanks are required for removal of grit, debris, and excessive oil or

    grease prior to the rotating biological contactor process. In some cases, fine screens

    (0.030.06 inches) may be installed.

    Excess biomass is removed in a clarifier that follows the rotating biological

    contactor. It then requires sludge treatment.

    Limitations and Risks: Dependent upon electricity, the rotating biological contactor is prone

    to failure as a result of power cuts. The shaft, discs, and motor all require

    maintenance.

    Management Arrangements: Skilled personnel are required for maintenance and repair.

    c) Wastewater Treatment: Anaerobic Baffled Reactor(Otherwise known as Baffled

    Septic Tanks.)

    Description:

    An anaerobic baffled reactor consists of a settling compartment with the same

    dimensions as the first compartment of a conventional septic tank, followed by

    a number of smaller compartments arranged in series.

    After passing through the first compartment, sewage passes from bottom to top

    through the remaining compartments in turn. Intensive contact between resident

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    sludge and incoming liquid increases treatment efficiency.

    Applicability:

    Baffled reactor tank is suitable for all kind of wastewaters (including domestic) but its

    efficiency increases with higher organic loadings and is therefore most appropriate

    for the treatment of black water.

    Suitable for small community schemes and housing developments with no

    access to municipal sewerage.

    Mode of operation:

    Combination of physical treatment and anaerobic digestion as the incoming

    wastewater passes through a blanket of suspended flocculation of active

    bacterial sludge in each compartment.

    Wastewater flows from bottom to top with the effect that sludge particles settle

    against the upstream flow of liquid. Digestion of substances that are difficult to

    degrade takes place in the upward flow baffled reactors after more easily degradable

    material has been digested in the front chamber.

    Treatment performance depends on the availability of active bacterial mass but is

    normally 65 percent COD (70 percent BOD) removal.

    Operation and Maintenance:

    Periodic removal of sludge from the first compartment. Sludge accumulation in the

    baffled compartments should be much less.

    Active sludge in smaller quantity is to be left in each of the compartments to maintain

    a stable treatment process.

    Additional Treatment Requirements:

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    Anaerobic filter to improve treatment performance at last chamber.

    Reed bed or maturation pond for post treatment is necessary to eliminate

    septicity and increase dissolved oxygen level before releasing into surface

    water or using for irrigation.

    Limitations and Risks: Operation and maintenance is easily ignored, leading to

    deterioration in performance.

    Management Arrangements: Easy to operate but nevertheless requires organized

    technical management

    Wastewater Treatment: Reed Beds: Also known as constructed wetlands, planted

    horizontal gravel filters, subsurface flow wetlands or root zone treatment.

    Description:

    Reed beds are engineered natural

    treatment systems that use fast

    growing plant species to assimilate

    dissolved organic impurities. A

    combination of physical settlement,

    photosynthesis, uptake by plants,

    degradation by bacteria in the

    rootzone and filtration bring about

    improvement in wastewater quality.

    Reed beds are for different types treatment applications. Horizontal

    sub-surface flow systems are most appropriate for domestic wastewater

    treatment whereas vertical flow is used for dewatering of sludge and treatment

    of septage.

    Reeds are planted in the media. Commonly used plants are cattails, bulrushes

    and reeds, with Phragmitesaustralisbeing ideal due to its extensive root system.

    Applicability:

    Reed beds provide secondary and tertiary treatment and can treat a wide

    range of wastewaters, septage, and faecal sludge of varying strengths and

    composition.

    Suitable for pre-treated (pre-settled) domestic or industrial wastewater with a COD

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    content less than 150200 mg/l (BOD 7090 mg/l) and are generally good at

    handling intermittent and variable flows.

    Most common use is to provide additional or advanced treatment of

    wastewater from homes, businesses, and small communities.

    Mode of Operation:

    Reed beds mimic the treatment that occurs in natural wetlands by relying on

    plants and a combination of naturally occurring biological, chemical, and physical

    processes to remove pollutants from the water.

    Treatment is mostly anaerobic as the layers of media and soil remain saturated and

    unexposed to the atmosphere.

    Operation and Maintenance Requirements: Operation and maintenance requirements are

    simple but essential to ensure system performance. Removal of excess weed, occasional

    scraping of the top layer of filter media, and removal of the floating scum layer, plastic

    and other debris. Insect and odor problems should not be a problem as long as the

    wastewater remain sunder the gravel and sand. Otherwise insecticide spray should be used

    to control mosquitoes and other insects. Inlet and outlet structures should be cleaned

    periodically. The filter media will eventually become clogged and should be changed every 8

    to 15 years.

    Additional Treatment Requirements:

    To prevent clogging of the media, wastewater must be pretreated to reduce

    suspended solids. For this reason, reed beds are best used for secondary

    treatment following primary treatment in a sedimentation tank, septic tank,

    baffled reactor or other form of anaerobic treatment.

    Sludge production is relatively low as solids are retained in or on the reed

    bed.

    Limitations and Risks:

    Careful design is required to ensure that the filter media is of appropriate grain

    size and quality.

    Reed beds require a large amount of space, up to 5 m2 per person,

    depending on conditions, and are therefore not always appropriate in urban areas.

    Odor caused by ponding on the surface, blockages in inlet pipe work and

    problems with drainage at the outlet can result in the development of septic

    conditions in the reed bed.

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    A blocked or overloaded reed bed can cause the wastewater to rise above the

    surface, which may result in problems with mosquitoes or other insects.

    Management Arrangements: Although the process is natural, constructed wetlands are

    complex systems that require specialist knowledge and technical expertise to ensure

    sustained performance.

    d) Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Treatment: Waste Stabilization Ponds:

    Description: There are three basic types of waste stabilization ponds and these are

    normally connected in series to provide a two- or three-stage treatment process.

    Anaerobic Ponds: Comparatively small and deep (34 m) as there is no need for

    aeration. They receive raw sewage which is treated by anaerobic bacteria, while sludge

    that builds up in the bottom of the pond is digested by anaerobic micro-organisms.

    Facultative Ponds: Shallower (1.52 m) with a larger surface area than anaerobic

    ponds. They consist of an aerobic zone close to the surface and a deeper, anaerobic zone.

    Maturation Ponds: Shallow (11.2 m) with a large surface area to enable light

    penetration. They receive treated effluent from the facultative pond and provide tertiary

    treatment to remove turbidity, pathogens, and nutrients.

    Applicability:

    Waste stabilization ponds are appropriate for medium- to low-density

    settlements with sufficient free space, but should not be located very close to houses

    due to possible odor.

    They offer a robust treatment process that can deal with a wide variety of

    wastewaters of varying types and concentrations.

    Ponds are particularly appropriate where pathogen removal is an important

    objective of treatment.

    Waste stabilization ponds may be combined with aquaculture systems

    (duckweed, water hyacinth or fish production).

    Mode of operation:

    Treatment efficiency of high-loaded ponds with long retention times ranges from

    7095 percent BOD removal (COD removal: 65 percent to 90 percent) depending

    on biodegradability of the wastewater.

    Treatment efficiency increases with retention time but the number of ponds is

    not of major significance (splitting one pond into two ponds may increase

    performance by approximately 10 percent).

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    Pond systems continue to operate well when overloaded beyond their

    theoretical design loads, but they will invariably fail if they are not maintained.

    Treatment in anaerobic and facultative ponds is based on microbial activity and

    settlement of suspended solids and sludge, while in maturation ponds it

    is achieved by solar radiation, predation by zooplankton, and the acidity

    created by photosynthesis.

    Operation and maintenance requirements

    The commissioning of facultative ponds involves the development of algal culture and

    aheavily loaded anaerobic pond may release a bad odor until a layer of scum seals the

    surface.

    Routine operation and maintenance with sludge removal by emptying ponds

    and manually digging out the sludge or under hydrostatic pressure using pumps

    mounted on rafts.

    Spraying to prevent fly breeding may be required at various times of the year Additional

    treatment requirements: The three-stage process is a complete treatment system. The

    only additional requirement is for sludge treatment after its removal from ponds.

    Limitations and risks:

    Ponds require a lot of land, at least 5 m2 per person.

    Under design, hydraulic short-circuiting, and poor operation and maintenance can all

    reduce performance.

    Possible problems related to odor and insects if the ponds are not managed properly,

    or are overloaded.

    Management arrangements: Performance and operation and maintenance practices need

    supervision and monitoring

    e) Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Treatment: Activated Sludge Process

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    Description: Aeration of the wastewater, either by mechanical surface aerators or a

    submerged compressed air system, to create optimal conditions for treatment. The

    aeration basin is followed by a secondary clarifie (settling tank) designed to remove

    suspended micro-organisms (flocs) prior to discharge. Active biomass is returned to the

    aeration tank.

    Applicability: Widely used for the treatment of municipal wastewater from medium to large

    towns where land is scarce and power is reliable.

    Mode of operation:

    Vigorous aeration elevates dissolved oxygen to create optimum conditions for

    aerobic bacterial growth. The bacterial population is maintained in suspension

    and grows rapidly, consuming large quantities of organic matter.

    A fraction of the settled microbial sludge is pumped back from the secondary

    clarifier to maintain an active population of micro-organisms and an adequate

    supply of biological solids for the adsorption of organic material.

    Provided the reactor is well operated, a very good removal of BOD and

    suspended solids can be achieved, though pathogen removal is low.

    Performance is critically dependent on the performance of secondary clarifier

    and the sludge settling characteristics.

    Sludge production depends on the sludge retention time in the reactor (an

    extended aeration process can reduce the quantity of sludge produced). Excess

    sludge is removed from the secondary clarifier and pumped to a separate

    sludge-handling process.

    Operation and maintenance requirements:

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    Continuous supply of oxygen and sludge is essential; hence maintenance of the

    aeration equipment and sludge pump is important.

    Careful monitoring and control of concentrations of suspended sludge solids and

    dissolved oxygen levels in the aeration tank is required.

    Additional treatment requirements:

    Pre-treatment: There is usually a need for primary sedimentation, but in many

    cases it is omitted, with only preliminary screening provided.

    Post treatment: The treated effluent from the secondary clarifier may require

    additional treatment depending on the discharge requirements.

    Sludge production and treatment: Provision must be made to digest, dewater,

    and dispose of excess sludge.

    Limitations and risks:

    High energy consumption results in high recurring costs.

    Performance is adversely affected due to interruptions in power supply, even for

    short periods of time, due to impacts on aeration process and sludge

    recirculation

    Foaming, particularly in the winter, may adversely affect the oxygen transfer, and

    hence performance.

    Mixing of industrial effluent with domestic wastewater can lead to toxicity and

    major malfunctioning.

    Management arrangements: The activated sludge process is technically complex and

    requires a highly competent and trained supervisor and workforce to be able to

    operate the system effectively.

    f) Wastewater Treatment: Biological Trickling Filter:

    Description: An attached-growth system comprising a circular tank filled with a bed of

    crushed aggregate, cylindrical plastic or foam blocks. Wastewater trickles vertically

    through the filter and the biomass growing on the media removes organic matter

    under aerobic conditions.

    Applicability:

    Can be used as a standalone treatment or a preliminary treatment for high

    strength wastewater in combination with activated sludge process or as a post

    treatment operation for UASB effluent.

    Land requirement: Between 0.28 to 0.65 hectare/MLD.

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    Mode of operation:

    A rotating arm distributes wastewater across the surface of the filter bed.

    Effluent is drained at the bottom.

    Micro-organisms growing on the media break down organic material to

    produce a consistent effluent quality and sludge with good settling

    characteristics.

    Bacteria use oxygen to convert ammonia in the effluent to nitrate and the

    BOD is reduced by 6585 percent, nitrogen by 1020 percent, and coliform bacteria

    by 6090 percent.

    Recirculation of effluent may be required to avoid low flow conditions and

    reduce odor and flies.

    Operation and maintenance requirements:

    Relatively straight forward though hydraulic loading needs to be controlled to

    prevent the loss of bio-film. Clogging of screens must also be controlled.

    Maintenance of the turntable is required, as well as cleaning of stone filter

    media once in five or seven years or more.

    Additional treatment requirements:

    Pre-treatment: Primary sedimentation is compulsory to avoid clogging of filter bed.

    Post treatment: Effluent requires secondary clarification.

    Sludge treatment: Excess sludge production = 0.8 kg/kg of BOD removed.

    Thickening, digestion, and drying are required.

    Limitations and risks:

    Mechanical breakdown of the distribution arm is common; ponding resulting from

    blockages due to excess bio-film growth can also be a problem.

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    High organic loadings can create anaerobic conditions on the filter, causing an odor

    problem.

    Filter flies (Psychoda) may proliferate due to inadequate filter media moisture.

    Management arrangements: Low-skilled manpower requirements under technical

    supervision.

    g) Wastewater Treatment: Fluidized Aerated Bed (FAB) Reactor:

    Description: An aerobic process in which wastewater flows vertically upwards through

    a filter bed of lightweight inert media at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the bed. A

    bacterial bio-film develops on the mediaparticles and treats

    the wastewater as it passes through.

    Applicability: Good for treatment of small to medium flows in congested locations. Being a

    closed reactor, it is suitable for sensitive locations.

    Mode of operation:

    High BOD removal with effluent concentration under 10 mg /l and high

    suspended solids removal with effluent concentration under 20 mg/l.

    Faecal coliforms removal for a two-stage FAB.

    Electrical energy requirement rather low (between 99 to 170 kWh/MLD).

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    Additional treatment requirements: Secondary settling, sludge removal, thickening, and

    drying. Digestion is not required as the sludge is stabilized.

    Management arrangements: Straightforward operation but requires a skilled workforce.

    Limitations and risks:

    Reliance on patented filter media.

    Choking of reactor by floating plastic matter and of outlet by fluidized media.

    Excess biomass growth or low hydraulic loads can result in blockages.

    Long shutdowns may lead to septic conditions, and restart may involve a long

    stabilization period.

    Uncertain durability of media under varying climatic conditions.

    h) Wastewater Treatment: Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB):

    Description: Wastewater flows upwards through a blanket of flocculated biomass in a

    vertical reactor containing anaerobic bacteria which break down carbonaceous organic

    matter.

    Applicability:

    Best suited to higher strength wastewaters: blackwater and industrial wastewater,

    but can also treat lower strength domestic wastewater.

    Appropriate for medium-size wastewater treatment plants.

    UASBs need less land than aerobic systems but require follow-up treatment to

    achieve comparable performance in terms of COD/BOD removal.

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    Mode of operation:

    The upward motion of gas bubbles produced during anaerobic digestion causes

    turbulence that enables mixing without mechanical assistance. Baffles at the top

    of the reactor allow gases to escape but prevent outflow of the sludge blanket.

    No external energy requirements in the reactor, thereby the process is not

    vulnerable to power cuts.

    Can bring down BOD of domestic wastewater to 70100 mg/l and suspended solids

    as low as 50100 mg/l, but removal of nitrogen and bacteria is poor.

    Additional treatment requirements:

    Pre-treatment: Screening and degritting but no other form of primary treatment is

    required.

    Post treatment: Like other anaerobic treatment technologies, UASBs only

    provide partial treatment and rarely meet discharge standards unless

    appropriate post-treatment is provided. As yet, only a waste stabilization pond

    system has been found to be an appropriate post treatment option.

    Sludge production and treatment: Relatively low sludge production with good

    dewatering characteristics. Requires thickening, drying, and safe disposal.

    Operation and maintenance requirements:

    Careful monitoring and control of the reactor sludge levels and sludge

    withdrawal.

    Frequent cleaning or desludging of distribution or division boxes and influent pipes.

    Removal of scum and floating material from the settling zone.

    Control of the flow rate is difficult for small units.

    Prevent mixing of industrial effluents with toxic elements and sulfates or

    sulfides.

    Management arrangements: Skilled supervision during start-up and for control of

    biomass levels in the reactor.

    Limitations and risks:

    Long start-up and high initial oxygen demand of effluent during this period

    may cause oxygen depletion in receiving water bodies.

    Sensitive to seasonal temperature variations and low removal efficiency in

    winter.

    Release of corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide and ammonia in the air.

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    i) Wastewater Treatment: Up flow Anaerobic Filter: Also known as fixed bed or

    fixed film reactor.

    Description:

    Anaerobic filters provide additional treatment by bringing wastewater into contact

    with active bacteria attached to media as the wastewater flows upwards through the

    filter.

    Filter material, such as gravel, rocks, cinder or specially formed plastic pieces

    provide additional surface area for bacteria to form a slime.

    Applicability: Appropriate for treating effluent from septic tanks (individual or

    shared/communal) in areas where infiltration is not possible due to low soil permeability,

    high water table and/or lack of space.

    Mode of operation:

    There is no physical

    straining of particulates;

    non-settle able and

    dissolved solids are

    removed through close

    contact with a surplus of

    active bacterial mass.

    May be operated as

    down flow or Up flow

    systems. Up flow is

    generally preferred as

    there is less risk of

    washing out active bacteria, but cleaning of the filter is easier with the down flow

    system.

    Treatment quality (when combined with pretreatment) can be as high as 80 percent

    BOD removal.

    Operation and maintenance:

    Active sludge (for example, from septic tanks) should be added to the filter

    before starting continuous operation.

    The bacterial film gradually thickens and must eventually be removed. This is usually

    done by back-washing with wastewater.

    Additional treatment requirements: The filter should be preceded by a septic tank.

    Limitations and risks:

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    Lack of attention to maintenance results in blockage of the filter. In addition, the

    perforations of the distribution pipe at the bottom of the filter get clogged easily.

    On average, 2530 percent of the total filter mass may be inactive due to

    clogging.

    While a cinder or rock filter may not block completely, reduced treatment

    efficiency is indicative of clogging in some parts.

    A sand or gravel filter may block completely due to smaller pore size resulting in

    backup of wastewater into the septic tank.

    Management arrangements: Responsibility will normally lie with the manager of the

    property served.

    j) Wastewater Treatment: Duckweed Ponds:

    Description:

    Duckweed (Lemnaceae) is a small, floating, and fast growing aquatic plant that

    grows vigorously in pretreated wastewater to produce a protein-rich biomass.

    Duckweed-based pond systems take nutrients from wastewater and produce a highly

    nutritious feed for fish, poultry or livestock. Fish yields may be two to three times

    higher than in conventional ponds.

    Applicability:

    Appropriate for treating low strength domestic wastewater or as a polishing

    treatment after primary sedimentation.

    Requires a considerable amount of land (510 m2 per person for 7- or 20-day

    retention period).

    Best suited for rural and semi urban settlements.

    Mode of operation:

    Duckweed-based systems are a modification of conventional lagoon technology

    with the pond functioning as a facultative lagoon. Deeper layers are anaerobic.

    Duckweed grows rapidly and is harvested for use as a mulch or natural soil

    enricher. Harvesting promotes growth and removal of nutrients and dissolved carbon

    from the wastewater.

    Algal growth is suppressed by duckweed due to competition for sunlight and nutrients

    and possibly secretion of organic substances.

    Duckweed suppresses mosquito breeding by forming a mat over the water

    surface.

    Operation and maintenance requirements:

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    Relatively simple maintenance: Frequent duckweed harvesting from the surface

    to ensure productivity, prevention of other vegetative growth, and control of

    wave action using bamboo or similar vegetation.

    The pond needs desludging every two or three years.

    Additional infrastructure or treatment requirements: Pre-treatment required if used as

    part of a wastewater treatment process. This often takes the form of a waste

    stabilization pond but other forms of treatment can be used.

    Limitations and risks:

    Low pathogen removal due to reduced light penetration.

    Duckweed dies in cold weather.

    If flows are not adequately controlled, duckweed can flow out with the effluent.

    Treatment capacity may be lost during floods.

    Management arrangements: Technical and commercial skills are needed for the

    production, marketing, and sale of dried duckweed for animal or fish feed if this is to

    succeed as a microenterprise.

    7.3 REFERENCE

    Reference to relevant Indian Standards and Codes of Practice notified by the Bureau of

    Indian Standards for sanitation:

    The most relevant include the following:

    IS 1172:1993 Basic requirements for water supply, drainage, and sanitation.

    IS 12314:1987 Code of Practice for sanitation with leach pits for rural communities?

    IS 2470(Part 1):1985 Code of Practice for installation of septic tank: design criteria

    and construction.

    IS 2470(Part 2):1985 Code of Practice for installation of septic tank secondary

    treatment and disposal of septic tank effluent.

    IS 9872:1981 Precast concrete septic tanks.

    IS 5611:1987 Code of Practice for waste stabilization ponds (facultative type).

    IS 10261:1982 Requirements for settling tanks (clarifier equipment) for wastewater

    treatment?

    IS 13496:1992 General requirements for suction machines for cleaning sewers,

    manholes and so on

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    Chapter 8 : SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    8.1 INTRODUCTION

    Solid waste Management is an obligatory function of Municipal Council of Udaipur. However,

    this service is not properly performed, resulting in problems of health, sanitation and

    environmental degradation. The major draw backs in the management of solid waste in the

    city are;

    Lack of sanitary workers

    Lack of collection efficiency

    Improper choice of technology

    Improper site of solid waste

    Lack of trained manpower

    Poor public participation and cooperation

    Udaipur city is not an exception and different from other cities in terms of solid waste

    management. With the growth of population and huge influx of the tourists in the town, the

    problem of solid waste is increasing day by day.

    The city on an average generates about 231 metric tons of solid wastes daily which includes

    domestic waste, waste from commercial establishments, waste from institutions and waste

    from street sweeping. At present out of total generation of 231 metric tons, UMC claims 120

    metric tons waste is collected and disposed off daily.

    8.2 ADMINISTRATION

    Present waste management services in Udaipur are provided by UMC. Health Officer, Chief

    Sanitary Inspector, Sanitary Inspector, Jamadar, Supervisor, Garrage Supt. & sweepers are

    deployed under Municipal Commissioner. Cleaning work of a ward is looked after by

    administration through staff deployed at ward level.

    Less than 50 % of municipal solid waste is actually collected and transported. Collection and

    transportation is being done in open vehicle creating an ugly look and littering on travelled

    road. Proper landfill site has not been developed by UMC. Presently it is crudely dumped at

    Teetardi and in Baleecha near Savina in the southern part of the city. Transfer and transport

    of waste, involving deployment of vehicles and provision of garages and workshop facility is

    available and responsibility of transport wing. Total number of sweepers involved in Solid

    Waste Management stands at 1469 against the total beat of 2799 and the remaining 1330

    posts are vaccant. The total posts work out to 5.9 workers per thousand residents. This is

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    higher than the range of 2-3 workers / 1000 residents prevalent in other Indian cities.

    8.3 SOLID WASTE QUANTITIES

    The source of solid waste generated in the city are

    1. Residential and Commercial area

    2. Slum area

    3. Vegetable / fruits mobile vans

    4. Hotel / Restaurants

    5. Dead bodies of cattle and cattle-dung.

    6. Construction / Demolition

    7. Medical establishments

    8. Industries

    Quantity of waste generated is assumed to be 300g. per capita in residential areas. The

    average solid waste generated per capita per day in various households depending on

    income levels is given in the following table.

    Table 8.1: Category Wise Waste Generation Per Capita

    S. No. Category Sub- category Average Solid Waste generated per capita/day

    1

    Residential Waste High income Group 0.19 Kg

    Middle income Group 0.26 Kg

    Low income Group 0.35 Kg

    2 Commercial Waste 7000 Commercial Establishments

    0.5 Kg

    3 Hotels and Restaurant Waste

    120 hotels supported by 8 lakh tourists

    5 MT

    4 Hospital waste Bio-medical waste from 135 Hospitals with 3000 beds (approx).

    5 MT

    5 Industrial Waste 1800 industries (approx) 45- 65 MT

    6 Vegetable/ fruit market 8 15-20 T

    Source: UMC

    Table 8.2: Solid waste Composition

    S. No Type Vegetable Markets

    Commercial Area

    Residential Area

    LIG HIG MIG

    1 Compostable 61.9% 44.1% 52.5 % 54.5 % 49.3 %

    2 Silt 27% 18.7% 0 0 0

    3 Plastic 2.5% 13.3% 14.3 % 18 % 16.7 %

    4 Paper 6.1% 8.9% 0 0 0

    5 Cloth 1.1% 6.7% 0 0 0

    6 Glass 1.4% 8.3% 0 0 0

    7 Others 0 0 33.2 % 27.5 % 34 %

    Total 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 %

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    Source: RUIDP Estimates

    8.4 EXISTING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    No decentralization for management of waste has been instituted by City administration.

    Solid waste management has not received adequate attention from civic authorities though a

    large amount of money is spent every year under health budget.

    The population of Udaipur city, according to 2011 census is 4.51 Lakh and the current

    population is 4.68 lakh. The average waste generated in the city is 300 grams per capita per

    day thus the total waste generated in Udaipur is 231 MT per day. Udaipur Municipal

    Corporation (UMC) looks after collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. There

    are 55 wards in the city and the total area of the city is 64 sq km.

    CATEGORIES in KG in MT Percentage

    Domestic 140671 140.67 60

    Commercial 75025 75.02 32

    Institutional 14067 14.07 6

    Waste From Street Sweeping And Parks 1172 1.17 2

    Total Solid Waste Generated In A Day 230935 230.93 100

    Source: Analysis

    8.5 DOMESTIC WASTE

    Domestic waste is generated at the household level and varies from town to town and at an

    average, range between 200 to 500 gm. As per the standards, a town like Udaipur will

    generate 300 gms of solid waste per head per day. Thus this domestic sector will generate

    140.67 Metric Tonne solid waste per day with the current population of 4,68,904 (in the year

    2013). It comprises of maximum of organic material like vegetable waste, papers, cloths etc

    which can be easily disposed. The household wastes includes a small percentage of

    61.90%

    27%

    2.50% 6.10%

    1.10%

    1.40% Compostable

    Silt

    Plastic

    Paper

    Cloth

    Glass

    Others

    44.10%

    18.70%

    13.30%

    8.90%

    6.70% 8.30% 0

    Compostable

    Silt

    Plastic

    Paper

    Cloth

    Glass

    Others

    Figure 8.1: Composition of Waste (Veg. Market) and in commercial centre

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    inorganic materials like metals and plastics.

    8.6 COMMERCIAL WASTE

    The commercial waste includes the waste from hotels and eating establishments, shops,

    trading units, small street traders, etc. The daily waste generated is about 75.02 MT, which

    is 32 percent of the total waste generated in the town. It mainly comprises of paper, plastics

    and other in-organics, which are finding their way to the disposal yard along with the

    domestic waste.

    8.7 WASTE FROM OTHER INSTITUTIONS

    The waste from offices, schools, colleges etc mainly comprised of paper and plastic wastes.

    The total generation of waste from these institutions is 14.04 MT per day.

    8.8 WASTE FROM STREET SWEEPING

    The street sweeping is practiced in every major streets in the city. These wastes include the

    dried leaves, papers, plastics etc. The quantity wastes from streets are around 1.17 metric

    tonne per day.

    8.9 HAZARDOUS WASTE

    The hazardous wastes include the biomedical wastes from hospitals and clinics, nursing

    homes, medical research laboratories. The components of biomedical wastes are;

    (i) Human anatomical waste (tissues, organs, body parts etc.),

    (ii) Animal waste (as above, generated during research/experimentation, from veterinary

    hospitals etc.),

    (iii) Microbiology and biotechnology waste, such as, laboratory cultures, micro-organisms,

    human and animal cell cultures, toxins etc.,

    (iv) Waste sharps, such as, hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpels, broken glass etc.,

    (v) discarded medicines and cyto-toxic drugs

    (vi) soiled waste, such as dressing, bandages, plaster casts, material contaminated with

    blood etc.,

    (vii) Solid waste (disposable items like tubes, catheters etc. excluding sharps),

    (viii) Liquid waste generated from any of the infected areas,

    (ix) Incineration ash,

    (x) chemical waste.

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    At present 0.4-0.5 MT of bio-medical waste is generated in the city. An organization named

    En-Vision Enviro-Engineers Pvt Ltd is responsible for collection, transportation and disposal

    of bio-medical waste. 4 Hospitals, 12 Dispensaries, 3 Health care centres and 1200 private

    clinics are registered with the organization. The waste is segregated at source into Red

    (Plastics), Yellow (Cotton, Body parts, Blood), Blue (Syringe, blades, metals) and Black

    (General Waste) bins at the source. The organization has 4 vehicles for transportation of

    waste to the site in Umrada where the waste is incinerated. The hospitals are charged

    Rs.85/bed/month (Govt) and Rs. 100/bed/month as user charges.

    8.10 INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    30 MT of industrial waste is generated in the city per day. A private organization Ramkey is

    involved with collection, transportation and disposal of industrial waste. Udaipur has

    industrial areas towards the eastern and northern side. The industries mainly deal with stone

    cutting and marble. The waste from industries is collected every alternate day and it is

    transported to Mewar Industrial area where it is processed.

    8.11 COLLECTION SYSTEM

    Waste from Residential and commercial areas constitute 60% and 32% respectively of the

    total waste generated in the city (231 MT/day). The city is divided into 10 sectors for the

    purposes of SWM. Each sector consists of 4-6 wards. The population of each sector is

    approximately 35 to 50 thousand. The sectors in the old city area are smaller and consist of

    lesser population. At present, the UMC collects waste from only 26 of the 55 wards.

    Remaining 29 wards are serviced by the private contractors hired by the UMC. Map 2 shows

    the wards serviced by the UMC workers and by private contractors. 1600 workers are

    involved in the collection of waste, out of which 650 are under UMC and rest 950 are hired

    by the private contractors.

    Only 50% of the waste gets collected on a day to day basis. The workers are engaged in two

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    shifts, first from 6:00 AM to 10:00 AM and second, from 2 PM to 5 PM. At present waste in

    residential and commercial areas is thrown on the streets by the residents or shopkeepers.

    The street sweeper responsible for that area sweeps the road and thus collects the garbage.

    Waste is collected by handcarts and rickshaws. There are 500 handcarts and 58 rickshaws

    at city level. The garbage is collected in containers put up at colony level. There are 400

    containers at the city level, each of capacity 18 cum. The city streets are divided in beats

    where street sweeping of 1 beat is responsibility of 1 sweeper. 1 beat is equal to 250 m.

    Collection of waste near the lakes is done by the National Lake Conservation Project

    (NLCP)s trucks.

    UMC is responsible for transportation of waste from various containers in the city to the

    disposal site in Teetardi and Baleecha. Both these sites are not Sanitary Landfill (SLF) Sites

    but plain dumping grounds. The below map shows the location of Teetardi which is 7.3 km

    from the city and has an area of 19 Ha and Baleecha which is 8.3 km from the city and has

    an area of 54 Ha.

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    Figure 8.2: : Location of Dust Bins and Solid waste dumping site

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    8.11.1 Work Force

    MCU have 900 sweepers and another 100 for supervisory categories. There is a deployment

    for 3 nos. private contractors entrusted with cleaning and disposal on monthly contractual

    agreement. The details are not available.

    There is one sweeper per 1100m of road length.

    There is a sweeper for every 435 people.

    There is a container per 1840 people.

    There is expenditure of Rs.230 per citizen for SWM services.

    The cost for collection and disposal works out to be Rs.2045 / MT.

    Table 8.3: Details of Manpower and Equipment

    SWEEPERS 1469 (1330 vacant)

    VEHICELS 50 + 5

    CONATINERS 400 + (170 proposed)

    Source: UMC-2014

    There is high absenteeism and low productivity of workers, partly due to public attitude and

    habits; roads are not tidy as expected. Just additional employment of people at this level

    would not improve the situation. The number of vehicles in use for present practice of

    transportation and disposal of SWM are given in following table.

    Table 8.4: SWM Vehicles

    S. No. Type of Vehicle No. Use

    1 Truck 10 Secondary Collection

    2 Dumper 12 Secondary Collection

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    3 Mini Trucks 3 Secondary Collection

    4 Front Loader 6 Secondary Collection

    5 Tempo 5 Construction purpose

    6 Tractors 3 Secondary Collection

    7 Excavator 2

    Total 41

    Source: RUIDP Estimates

    8.11.2 Street sweeping and Solid Waste Collection

    Primary collection of solid waste is done through street and road sweeping as door to door

    collection system is not prevalent in Udaipur except for a few colonies. It is observed that

    only 0.5 percent of the total population is served by house-to-house collection through a

    private contractor or a NGO, Astha. The debris contains not only municipal solid waste but

    also demolition waste and silt removed from drains.

    Table 8.5: Existing SWM system in the City

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    8.12 GAP ANALYSIS

    Deficiency in the system

    In Udaipur Municipal Corporation the door to door collection is not practicing. So most of the

    people are putting waste in the nearby dustbins placed by UMC. But this activity is not

    practiced everywhere, where the containers might be located little far away. Around 20 to 30

    percentage of the households are throwing the waste in nearby open land and in roads.

    Since the secondary collection is not done in regular intervals, the animals and birds are

    attracted by these wastes in the containers. These creatures will drag out the waste and

    make the surrounding ugly. In this situation also people are reluctant to approach the

    dustbins.

    Deficiency in work force

    (1330 vacant posts)

    The coverage of whole city is not possible

    Absence of scientific disposal system

    Leads to pollution in surface and underground water.

    Leads to air pollution

    Leads to soil degradation

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    PARTICULARS NOS

    SANITARY WORKERS 1469

    NEW RECRUITMENT UNDER PROCESS 1330

    EXISTING CONTAINERS 400

    - SANCTIONED TO BUY BY UMC 170

    EXISTING VEHICLES 50

    -SANCTIONED TO BUY 5

    LANDFILL SITES 2

    Source: Analysis

    9.1 PROPOSALS UNDER CSP

    Under CSP, it is planned to establish twin dustbin system in each household. These are

    provided for put bio degradable waste and non-bio degradable separately. This practice of

    separation of waste in the source itself will be easier for treatment plants. The size of the

    container should be 14 litre. For the collection of waste from hotels and restaurants, it

    planned to provide 0.5 cubic metre volume containers. There is proposal for procurement of

    new and modern vehicles for transporting the waste from the containers to treatment plants.

    The waste should be treated as against the present landfills. The UMC can generate income

    from these treatment plants.

    WASTE BINS - 2 PER HOUSEHOLD (14 LITRE) 177800

    WASTE BINS TO HOTELS AND RESTAURENTS (2 EACH) 0.5 CUBIC METRE 2000

    INSTALLATION OF NEW CONTAINERS (4.5 CUBIC METRE) 60

    PROCUREMENT OF NEW VEHICLES

    COMPOSTING PLANT AT TEETARDI OR\ BIO-GAS PLANT

    WASTE RECYCLE PLANT AT BALEECHA

    . Source: Analysis

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    Figure 9.1: Containers Proposed in UMC and in OG area

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    9.2 FUTURE WASTE GENERATION

    By considering the present generation of waste (300 gm per capita per day)in the city, it is

    assumed that by 2041 the total waste generation in the city will be 231 MT per day in 2041

    and the Bio degradable waste will be 119 MT per day

    TOTAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN TONNE BIO-DEGRADABLE WASTE (32% of total)

    YEAR PER DAY PER MONTH PER YEAR PER DAY PER MONTH PER YEAR

    2013 231 6930 83160 74 2218 26611

    2021 267 7997 95958 85 2559 30707

    2031 316 9478 113730 101 3033 36394

    2041 372 11166 133992 119 3573 42877

    Source: Analysis

    9.3 WASTE TREATMENT OPTIONS

    The solid waste generated in the city is composed of papers, metals, plastics, vegetable

    wastes etc. This waste can be broadly classified as Debris, Recyclable waste, bio-

    degradable waste and the waste should go for landfill site.

    Income Generation from Waste

    The debris, which is 16% of the total solid waste generated, can be used in construction of

    roads, bridges and buildings. The Nagar Palika can sell this debris and generate revenue

    from this waste.

    16%

    10%

    32%

    42%

    Debris

    Recyclable waste

    Bio-degradable waste

    Landfill

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    Composting plant

    Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil

    amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At the simplest level, the

    process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter (leaves,

    "green" food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of

    weeks or months. Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process

    with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The

    decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring

    proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the

    material. Aerobic bacteria manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into

    heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is further converted by bacteria into

    plant-nourishing nitrites and nitrates through the process of nitrification.

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    Compost can be rich in nutrients. It is used in gardens, landscaping, horticulture,

    and agriculture. The compost itself is beneficial for the land in many ways, including as a soil

    conditioner, a fertilizer, addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for

    soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion control, land and stream reclamation,

    wetland construction, and as landfill cover. Organic ingredients intended for composting can

    alternatively be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion is

    fast overtaking composting in some parts of the world (especially central Europe) as a

    primary means of down cycling waste organic matter.

    Income from Composting

    The waste generated in the city is 231 MT per day, out of this the bio-degradable waste is 74

    MT (32%). Bio-manure or Bio-fertilizer can be generated from this biodegradable waste by

    decaying it. The current market price of Bio manure is Rs.3000 Tonne. If Nagar Nigam is

    selling this waste, a sum of Rs. 33,000 per day can be earned.

    Total Waste Generated 231 MT

    Bio degradable waste per day 74 MT

    Bio manure from the waste (15%) 11.25 MT

    Estimated market price of compost per Tonne INR 3000

    Estimated income generation per day from compost for 75.02 MT INR 33,000

    Annual Income generation from waste (4927.5 MT) 1.21CRORE

    Source: Analysis

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    Bio Gas plant

    A biogas plant is an anaerobic digester that produces biogas from bio-degradable waste

    such as plant waste and animal waste. Biogas is a type of biofuel created via anaerobic, or

    oxygen-free, digestion of organic matter by bacteria. A biogas plant is composed of a

    digester and a gas holder.

    The digester is an airtight container in which the waste is dumped and decomposed, and the

    gas holder is a tank that harnesses the gases emitted by the slurry. Bacteria within the

    digester tank breaks down the waste and, as it decomposes, gases such as carbon

    monoxide, methane, hydrogen, and nitrogen, are released. Through a pressurized system,

    the gas holder conducts the flow of these gases upward into a hole in its drum. The hole is

    specially designed to allow gases to pass freely into the holder while prohibiting any gases

    from escaping back into the digester. In a controlled environment, the gases are later

    combusted, or reacted, with oxygen to create an energy source for such processes as

    heating and lighting.

    Salient features of Bio Gas Plant

    1. For treating a given amount of organic waste about twice the amount of water is

    required.

    2. The total volume of digestion chamber should be at least four times greater than the

    volume of generated garbage.

    3. Area required for treatment plant is approximately 600sqm per tonne of solid waste.

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    4. 1 MT of organic waste will approximately generate 300 cubic feet of methane gas.

    5. 1 kwh of electricity can be generated from 2.5 cubic feet of methane gas.

    Income generation from Bio Gas Plant

    A considerable income can be generated from the Bio gas/Methane gas which is the

    produce of the plant. Approximately 4050 cubic feet of methane gas can be generated from

    the total waste collected in CMC. The gas can be used as cooking fuel in households. The

    gas can be used for electricity generation. Approximately 1 kwh electricity can be generated

    from 2.5 cubic feet of methane gas. As per this standard, around 1,620 kwh electricity can

    be produced per day and 48,600 kwh per month. This much quantity of electricity is sufficient

    for around 324 households having average consumption of 150 units per month.

    PARTICULARS DAILY MONTHLY YEARLY

    Generation of Organic waste in MT 74 2218 26611

    Methane Gas Production in cubic feet (300 cubic feet

    from 1 MT)

    22,176 665,280 7,983,360

    Electricity from Methane Gas in kwh (1 kwh from 2.5 c f

    gas)

    55,440 1,663,200 19,958,400

    Revenue Generation in INR (Rs.4.65 / kwh) 257,796 7,733,880 92,806,560

    Source: Analysis

    9.3.1 Strategies and Time Frame

    S. No. Strategy 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

    1 Door to Door Collection

    2 Introduction of Twin Bin

    System at Storage

    3 Source Segregation

    4 Mechanization of

    Transportation

    5 Fleet Management System

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    6 Development of Aerobic Plant

    7 Development of Scientific

    Landfill Site

    8 Landfill for Industrial waste

    9.3.2 Recommendations

    Highest priority has to be accorded for segregation & storage at source irrespective

    of the area of generation so as to facilitate an organized and environmentally

    acceptable waste collection, processing and disposal.

    Source segregation of recyclables and biodegradable (organic waste) will not only

    provide an efficient way for resource recovery, but will also substantially reduce the

    pressure and pollution in landfill sites.

    Implementation of Door-to-door collection through 100 percent privatization In

    order to achieve the above objective, a Bin system of Solid Waste Storage at source

    is being recommended. As per this system, each of the households shall be directed

    to keep separate bins/ containers for biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste

    generated within their premises. The segregated waste so stored in these bins will

    have to be transferred to the dumper placer provided for each area.

    Source Segregation and Collection of Commercial Waste, Hotels and Market Waste

    through privatization; and Source Segregation and Collection of Construction waste

    has to be stored at the premises of the construction either in skips or suitable

    containers and has to be directly emptied to the notified disposal site by the

    generator. Meat and fish markets should store waste in non-corrosive bins of

    maximum 100-liter capacity each and transfer contents to large container to be kept

    at the market just before lifting of such large containers. Slaughterhouses should

    keep separate containers for animal waste and other wastes. It is also being

    recommended that this system of source segregation and storage is encouraged

    through community education and awareness campaigns and hence no capital

    investments are envisaged in this regard.

    Street Sweeping and Mopping on Daily Basis - Since further areas and eventually the

    entire town is can be brought under privatization, it is considered that there would not

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    be any further requirement to induct conservancy workers. To ensure operational

    efficiency of the system, the following measures are suggested. (a) Markets and

    other areas of the city shall be swept at least twice a day;

    Sweepings shall be collected separately as degradable and non-biodegradable

    waste and deposit in containers kept at various locations and a separate crew

    equipped with appropriate implements may do de-silting of larger drains.

    Community Participation and Enforcement of By-laws and Waste Collection and

    Handling Rules - It is recommended that the community be involved in primary

    collection through segregation at household level to minimize the number of waste

    handling operation. Non-biodegradable waste shall be collected separately from

    premises where door to door collections are organized. Present system of primary

    collection should be supplemented by introducing multi-bin carts (Push carts /

    Tricycles) covering the entire area of the town.

    9.4 PROPOSED SITE

    At present the solid waste is dumping at two landfill sites namely Teetardi and

    Baleecha. We can convert this landfill site into the scientific dumping yard. The

    proposed composed plant and the bio-gas plant can be setup over there.

    2: Existing Landfill site

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    Chapter 10 : DRAINAGE AND STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    10.1 EXISTING STATUS

    Ayar River and its tributaries drain Udaipur city. Kotra River one of the biggest tributary of

    Ayar commands an extensive catchment area in the southern west part of the city. Most of

    the rainwater in Kotra River pour into Pichola Lake and enter the river Ayar through Swaroop

    Sager Lake and Gumania Drain. In general the undulating topography and existence of a

    number of huge water bodies do not cause any drainage problem.

    Most of the existing roads of the city have lined drains alongside and most part of the area

    run off is discharged into the Ayar River. The city is generally free from prolonged drainage

    congestion except in few places identified as problematic areas. The main drains leading to

    storm water receivers are irregular and mostly unlined. The vents of the cross drainage

    works are almost choked and are not functioning properly resulting sluggish flow. Moreover

    the service pipes in many places crossing through drains also impede the flow. The internal

    drainage network also needs to be improved in some places. An inventory of the existing

    drainage lengths of the city is presented in the table below.

    Table 10.1: Inventory of Existing Drainage Length

    S. No. Type of drain Approx Length Condition (percentage/ effective)

    1. Major Primary drains 31 km 20%

    2. Major Secondary drains 1000 km 80%

    Source:

    The existing major drains are mostly irregular and unlined. The drains are full of weeds,

    vegetation, silt and rubbish. The vents are totally choked with reduced cross sections

    causing sluggish flow. The drains are insufficient to carry the runoff during storm resulting

    flooding of adjacent roads and colonies. These drains carry the runoff as well as domestic

    waste water from the city. Ultimately, these drains lead the total storm water and waste to

    Ayar River through agricultural lands with no definite alignment. They simply follow the

    contours of the land.

    DEFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEM

    After the major flood in the year 1973, the drains were totally damaged and in spite of major

    repairs and construction of the new drains, they are working properly in the present day

    situation since the existing watercourses are heavily silted and weeded resulting the

    considerable reduction in cross sectional area. The drains were also found to be invariably

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    carrying sewage and sullage flow in the absence of branch and trunk sewers thereby

    increasing the quantity of flow in the drains. All the major Drains terminate their journey

    either in the Gumania drain, or in non-perennial Ayar River.

    The major causes for this system to become ineffective are:

    Haphazard expansion of the settlement.

    Encroachments on the drains with unauthorized construction

    Logging of drains due to uncontrolled and haphazard disposal of solid waste

    Garbage into the drains

    High rate of siltation.

    Absence of integrated drainage network in the new layouts.

    Poor motivation, lack of regulation and poor public awareness

    10.2 INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    There are two industrial areas namely Madri and Bhuwana. The major industrial units are

    located in Madri known as Mewar Industrial Estate. It covers an area of 544.19 ha, whereas

    Bhuwana covers an area of 80.62 ha. All the drains within these industrial areas are

    constructed and maintained by RIICO.

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    10.3 ISSUES IN EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    The major problems in the existing system, which hinder the smooth functioning Storm Water Drainage in Udaipur, can be listed as follows:

    Encroachments in various stretches

    Open drains and broken slabs

    Choked drains due to the dumping of solid wastes

    Very narrow drains cause flooding during rainy season.

    Silting and weeding of drains;

    Partial/haphazard lining of drains;

    Flow of sewage and disposal of solid wastes in drains.

    10.4 MAJOR WATER BODIES

    As already discussed in previous chapters, a large number of water bodies exist in Udaipur

    such as Goverdhan Vilas Tank, Fateh Sagar, Pichola & Swaroop Sagar, Bada Madar,

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    Chhota Madar, Lakhawali Tank, Nandeshwar Badi Tank and Udaisagar. Besides these,

    there are Roop Sagar, Nehla Tank, Titardi Tank & Jogi ka Talao.The detail of Major water

    bodies is in following

    Table 10.2: Major Water Bodies

    S. No. Name Location Catchment Area (Sq km)

    Capacity (Million cum)

    1 Goverdhan Villas Tank Near Dungarpur Road (5 Km from city)

    2.6 0.25

    2 Fateh Sagar Lake Within main city 35.9 12.08

    3 Pichhola & Swaroop Sagar Lake

    Within main city 143.4 13.67

    4 Bada Madar (Big) UdaipurGogunda Road (16 Km from city)

    79.4 2.37

    5 Chhota Madar (small) Near Bada Madar 20.5 0.85

    6 Lakhawali 10 km away from city 15.4 2.07

    7 Nandeshwar 12 km away from city 53.8 3.96

    8 Badi tank 7 km away from city 15.4 10.47

    Source:

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    Table 10.3: Major Flood Prone Areas in Udaipur City

    S. No. Flood Prone Area Major Reasons for flooding

    1 Transport Nagar New area under development by U.I.T. Absence of outfall drains

    2 Choti /Futa Talao The drain coming from Goverdhan Vilas Tank is unlined in its initial stages.

    3 Gariawas The drain carries storm water form Hiran Magri to Kachhi Basti.

    4 In front of DCP School Gayatrinagar,

    Two drains coming from Telecommunication colony get stagnated

    5 Roadways Bus stand This existing drain is a lined drain in part and is covered with no provision for maintenance

    6 Delhi Gate/ LIC/ Collectorate This area is the heart of the city. The existing drain is a covered lined drain with poor maintenance.

    7 Sobhagpura Abhinandan Complex

    A small stretch of the drain is lined behind Bhairoji ka Temple and is totally unlined up to Abhinandan Complex.

    8 Mahaveer Nagar Both the sides of the drain are encroached

    9 Pancharatna Complex Originates from Neemachmata hill slope and meets Ayad through Pancharatna Complex.

    10 Down Stream of Maha Satya Originates from Abhinandan Complex and is partly lined with Sidewalls in broken Condition.

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    11 Both banks of Ayad River Brick kilns near Bedia causeway, Heavy silting & weeding, Encroachment and Dumping of solid waste, rubbish etc on the banks of river causes water stagnation.

    12 Bohra Ganesh, Jayashree Colony, Bahubali Colony

    This area is under development. Water logged is the problem due to absence of drainage system.

    13 Near Savina Mutt To unlined drain meet at Savina Mutt near causeway and it is choked and water is flooded.

    14 Panchawati Colony It is situated near Gumania drain which meets Ayad river near Alipura. Partially silted and solid waste is thrown from the adjacent residential areas.

    10.5 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW DRAINS

    1. Goverdhan Villas to Sector 13 via Krishi mandi, Gayariyawas, Nokha to Ayar River.

    2. Savina Khera to Krishi mandi via Rajputana resorts.

    3. Manva khera (Sector 4,5) to Ayar River.

    4. Shobhag pura to Ayar via Roop sagar, Kashav Nagar, Maha sathiya.

    5. CTAI College to Bhora Ganesh Temple, Ganesh Jain Hostel.

    6. Kharol colony to Purana Chungi Naka, Panchratna Complex.

    7. Back side of Badla to Bhuvana, Bhuvana to Ayar.

    8. Fateh sagar out fall to UIT Bridge.

    9. Nelha Talab to Sector 13,14.

    10.6 DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR AHAR RIVER

    Encroachment should be removed from both side of river bank (At least 130 feet each side).

    The mason wall should be constructed on both side of riverbank. Green belt should be

    developed on both side of the riverbank (each side 100 feet) parallel to the riverbank. The

    cleaning of the riverbank should be properly done because the plant leaves can pollute the

    water. The special type of plants (e.g. various types of flowering plants) should be

    developed near the riverbank. The road should be constructed on the both sides of the

    riverbank (each side 30 feet) Parallel to the riverbank.

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    Chapter 11 : THE LAKE AND LAKE SYSTEM

    11.1 INTRODUCTION

    Udaipur is known for its several lakes and its picturesque setting. Udaipur is otherwise

    known as "City of Lakes". Udaipur is dependent on its lake system, which is directly, or

    indirectly the life source of the city in terms of surface water resources, tourism, and the

    ecosystem at large.

    11.1.1 History

    In 1559 Maharana Udai Singh founded Udaipur as the secure capital of the Princely State of

    Mewar after Chittor fell to Mugal Army. Udaipur is strategically located amidst a saucer

    shaped basin, in the Valley of Ahar River. It is surrounded by hills of Aravali Range on all

    sides. The selection of site was made in part because of its isolation and inaccessibility,

    favoring its defense.

    11.2 LAKE SYSTEM:

    Udaipur lake system arising out of the Berach river (it is a tributary of Banas Riveer), in

    which originates from the Gogunda hills lying in the (Aravalli Ranges) North West of Udaipur.

    Ahar river flows towards eastwards and joins Udaisagar.

    The Udaipur lake system, comprising of reservoirs/lakes Pichola (Swaroop Sagar), Fateh

    Sagar, Bari ka Talab, Chhota Madar, Bada Madar, Chikalwas feeder, Lakhawali, Udai

    Sagar, Vallabhnagar tank; and are primarily owned by the Water Resources Department of

    Government of Rajasthan as shpown in Fig2.1

    11.2.1 Pichola

    It is the oldest among all the city lakes. The scenic views of Pichola reservoir is shown in

    Plate 3.5. It was constructed at the time of Rana Lakha by a nomadic Banjara and

    renovated and enlarged in 1559 A.D. by Rana Udai Singh along with the establishment of

    Udaipur itself. In 1795 A.D., during the reign of Maharana Bhim Singh, incessant rainfall

    destroyed the lake causing excessive floods in which half of the city was washed away.

    Pichola is situated in the south western part of the city at 73040 2" E longitude and 2435

    8.5" N latitude and its east-west extent is only a little more than its north-south extent viz. 3.6

    and 2.0 km respectively. Deriving its name from the village of Pichholi the lake is roughly

    triangular in shape with its base along the palace ridge, as shown in Fig. 2.2.

    It accounts for a total water-body area of around 6.96 Sq.Km. (4.56 Sq.Km at FTL)

    and has gross, live and dead capacities of 13.676 mcm. 9 mcm and 4.676 mcm

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    respectively. The gauge heights above and below sill level are 3.35 m and 5.2 m

    respectively. The maximum depth of the reservoir is 10.5 m at dam site. Its net catchment

    area is 146 Sq.Km.

    11.2.2 Pichola Watershed

    The total area of this watershed is 14610.63 ha in which mainly fine loam, loam, gravelly

    sandy clay loam and rocky soils are there. The parts of the watershed which have

    moderately deep to deep soils generally ranging from 75 to 100 cm are under cultivation

    which covers area of 5240.3 ha, with soil slope varying from 1 to 15 per cent. The infiltration

    rates calculated is 1.4 to 5.2 cm/hr. Most of the remaining portion is rocky formation having

    slopes varying from 30 to 50 per cent. This part of the watershed is under pasture. The area

    which is under cultivation is placed under hydrologic soil group B and the area under pasture

    is placed under hydrologic soil group C.

    In the year 1987, the runoff from watershed was 0.19 mm which is nearly zero whereas

    maximum runoff of 301.93 mm (34.54 per cent) was observed in 2005. The mean annual

    runoff of thirty years was found to be 12.18 per cent. It was observed that in 1976, despite

    Figure 11.2 Udaipur Lake System

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    649.80 mm of rainfall, only 88.90 mm (6.88 per cent) runoff was observed, whereas in 1985

    only 658.05 mm of rainfall produced 228.35 mm (29.06 per cent) of runoff. It was mainly

    because runoff producing storms were few in 1976. But, in 1985, there were continuous

    rainfalls of high intensities and long durations. Roy(1998) calculated 26.07 %(295.35 mm)

    runoff for the year 1973.

    11.2.3 Parts of Pichola

    Rang Sagar:

    This reservoir was constructed in 1668 A.D., has a length of 1030 m, width of 245 m and a

    maximum depth of 7 meters. It is one of the smallest lakes (water spread of 0.136 sk. km.)

    along the western water-front of Udaipur, providing watery connection between Pichola and

    Swaroop Sagar in south to Fateh Sagar in north. Rang Sagar lake was constructed by Amar

    Singh Badava and is also called Amarkund after him.

    Swaroop Sagar:

    Further southwards of Rang sagar is the ultimate part of Pichola reservoir known as

    Swaroop Sagar. The reservoir Swaroop Sagar provides a waste weir for Pichola. Moreover,

    Swaroop Sagar also link Pichola and Rang Sagar , with the adjoining lake Fateh Sagar,

    through a canal. The canal is sometimes employed to draw water in Fateh Sagar during

    monsoon when Pichola maintains a higher water level. On the eastern side of Swaroop

    sagar, is a masonry dam which has become a convenient site for open defecation.

    11.2.4 Govardhan Sagar

    Situated at 10 km. of distance from Udaipur in south-west at 74042 E. longitude and 24034

    N. latitude, it commands a gross catchment area of 1 Sqmile and is endowed with gross

    capacity of about 0.255 mcm. It also receives water from Pichola through a link canal.

    11.2.5 Fateh Sagar Reservoir

    The reservoir Fateh Sagar (Plate ) occupies an important place in the social,

    economic and cultural life of Udaipur city. The reservoir is situated on 2436 16" N latitude

    and 7340 45" E longitude at 578 m altitude (above MSL) in the north western sector of the

    city. This pear shaped lake was constructed as a medium sized lake in 1678 A.D. Later on,

    in 1795 A.D., during the reign of Maharana Bhim Singh incessant rainfall destroyed the lake.

    It was renovated in 1889 A.D. by Maharana Fateh Singh. The dam is 720 m long and about

    100m wide. Fateh Sagar reservior stretches 2600 m in north-south and 1800 m in east-west

    directions, covering total water spread of nearly 4.0 Sq.km (2.56 Sq km at FTL) and has a

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    maximum depth of 11.5 m. It commands a total catchment area of about 43.25 Sq. km. Its

    gross, live and dead capacity of 12.09 mcm, 7 mcm and 5.0 mcm respectively, evidently

    lower than that of Pichola. The reservoir is mainly fed by Chikalwas (Madar) feeder, from

    Madar reservoirs built across river Ahar and are located at a distance of 8 Kms north of the

    reservoir. It also receives overflow of the Badi reservoir.

    11.3 MORPHOMETRIC OF UDAIPUR RESERVOIRS

    The watersheds of Pichola, Fateh Sagar, and Udai Sagar are located in Arawali ranges and

    cover many revenue villages of Girwa, Badgaon and Gogunda Panchyat Samitees. Some

    of the villages situated near the ridge lines are partly covered in the watershed. The general

    slope of the wathersheds is from S-W to N-W directions. Topography is very undulating.

    Important morphometric features and agriculture details of Udaipur reservoirs are shown in

    Table 3.5. The Maps of Catchment area of Udaipur reservoirs is shown in annexure

    Fateh Sagar Pichola Udai Sagar

    Longitude 73 40' 45" E 73 41' 2" E 73 49' 31"

    E Latitude 24 36' 16" N 24 35' 8.5" N 24 34' 41"

    N Catchment

    Area

    43.25 Sq.Km 146.06 Sq.Km 479.00

    Sq.Km Gross Capacity 12.09 mcm 13.676 mcm 31.149 mcm

    Live Capacity 7.00 mcm 9.00 mcm 27.6 mcm

    Water Spread 2.59 Sq.km 4.60 Sq.km 5.60 Sq.km

    Depth Above

    Sill

    3.96 m 3.35 m 7.31 m

    Depth Below

    Sill

    6.70 m 3.04 m 6.00 m

    Gross

    Command Area

    (GCA)

    803 ha. 258 ha. 5094 ha.

    Culturable

    Command Area

    (CCA)

    667 ha. 238 ha. 4655 ha.

    Intensity of

    Culture (ICA)

    405 ha. 202 ha. 1947 ha.

    Maximum

    Irrigation

    319 ha. in the year 1977-78

    Water reserved for drinking

    after 1986

    125 ha. in the year 1978-79

    Water reserved for drinking

    after 1986

    2510 ha. in

    the year

    1992-93 Table 11.1 Morphometric features & irrigation details of reservoirs

    11.4 IMPORTANCE

    Tourism sector is the largest contributor to Udaipurs economy. Udaipur lake system plays

    important role in the tourism sector. Growth in tourism in Udaipur has been higher than that

    of Rajasthan State. In 2005 Udaipur attracted about 15% of the total foreign tourist in the

    state and 3% of the domestic tourists. Udaipur is dependent on its lake system, which is

    directly, or indirectly the life source of the city in terms of surface water resources. Revenue

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    from fishing activity from the lakes is approximately 25 lakhs per annum. Lakes influences

    the local climate of the Udaipur.

    11.4.1 As water Resources

    The water resources are the integral part of the urban system, which plays an important role

    in environmental, aesthetic and climatic conditions of the Town. In case of Udaipur Lakes

    are not only important for the environmental viewpoint but also significantly contribute to

    economy of the town. People are depending on lakes for their livelihood in terms of tourist

    inflow and fisheries. Out of various functions of the lake and water bodies, the most

    important role is to maintain biodiversity and nurturing biota both the aquatic amphibious and

    terrestrial flora and fauna. The Udaipur is known as the city of lakes therefore importance of

    lakes and lentic water resources has been recognized from ancient time. The lakes being

    source of potable water fetch due importance for its maintenance but now water front is also

    invites visitors and tourists which are directly related to the economy people and town,

    therefore public and Government both are looking for the sustenance of lakes. The

    conservation and sustainable management of lakes and water front therefore is top priority

    agenda of the State Government. The water holding capacity of important water bodies are

    enlisted here for the ready reference.

    11.4.2 As Tourist Centre

    The Udaipur, known as city of lakes and a historical town, invite domestic and foreign

    tourists, which one of the sources of income to the local people. The palaces, monuments

    and witnesses of historic events present in and around town attract people to visit the

    Udaipur. The valleys and water-fronts exhibits are natures gift that provide ample

    opportunity to the visitors to be closure to the nature. Now the tourism is the main attraction

    and source of income to the local people and also to the Government. The Rajasthan

    tourism department has developed facilities to attract tourist in the Udaipur. Number of

    agencies both the Government and private are involved in promotion of tourism and to make

    Udaipur, a prime tourist place.

    11.5 ISSUES

    Almost all surface water reservoirs of Udaipur are facing severe threat of nutrient rich

    sedimentation because of degradation of their respective catchment areas, which are the

    sources of water for the aforesaid reservoirs, and also of the potential sediments. The

    changes in land use and degradation of land in the catchment area have disturbed the whole

    balance of the reservoir ecosystems. The high velocity runoff, coming from barren hills,

    human habitations, agricultural fields and industrial areas is damaging the reservoir

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    ecosystems.

    11.5.1 Waste Disposal

    Untreated Sewage is being released into the lakes at 45 drain spots. The total solid waste

    being dumped into the lakes is approx. 500 tons annually. Solid waste from 53 hotels and

    restaurants is being dumped into the lakes. The inflow of solid waste into the lake with storm

    water not only increases nutrient load but also accumulation of solid waste makes the lakes

    shallow. The solid waste after decomposition releases nutrients, which increases pollution

    load.

    11.5.2 Drying up of Lake

    Due to the inconsistency of rainfall and the degradation of the catchment area, the Lakes

    become dry.

    11.5.3 Siltation

    The heavy siltation after deforestation has reduced the depth of the lakes to a quarter of

    which it used to be 40 yrs ago. Heavy sedimentation in the lakes due to soil erosion on hill

    slopes and construction waste being dumped into lakes.

    11.5.4 Weeding

    The excessive weed growth disturbs the biochemical cycle of lake and affects the residents

    day today life. The lack of regular de-weeding makes situation more critical. The weeding

    and de-weeding in lakes remain in debate among scientist and environmentalist from long

    time and still questions are raised for doing or not doing weeding for the ecological

    imbalances of the lakes.

    11.5.5 Boating

    The impact of boating is even visible with naked eyes that smear of oil is form on the water

    surface of Lake. The oil spells from motorized boats using out boat engines is polluting lake

    in several ways and disturbing the lake eco-system too. The concentration of oil in the water

    may further increase in the summer season when Lake water level goes down.

    11.5.6 Idol immersion

    Idol Immersion is social, cultural and religious activity associated with Lakes and water

    bodies especially in urban centers. The Udaipur lakes are not exception to this and also be

    used for the idol immersion. Earlier idol immersion was being done in the lotic water

    resources, which is not available nearby Udaipur city therefore people are immersing idols in

    the lakes. The materials used in idol preparations are wood strips, metal sheets, cloths, over

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    and above synthetic colours. The regular input of heavy metals in one or the other forms

    may lead to toxicity, otherwise metallic irons goes to food chain and accumulates in plants

    and animals body. The bio accumulation process elevates the concentration of the metallic

    toxicity from one trophic level to other. Lakes of Udaipur are being used for potable water

    therefore, heavy metallic contamination needs to be avoided, for which idol immersion

    shifting from the lakes is necessary.

    11.5.7 Sewage Inflow

    The Lake Pichola has settlement at 3 sites while Rang Sagar and Swaroop Sagar are

    surrounded by habitation, receiving waste water and untreated sewage from the settlements

    situated in the close vicinity of the Lakes. Besides the settlements about 53 hotels are

    situated in the close proximity and catchment of the Pichola Lake system. The occupancy of

    the hotels is estimated as 33,000 which is substantial figure to be counted in calculating in

    sewage and waste water disposal to the lake. The residential population was considered

    24000 with number of houses 6000.

    11.5.8 Washing

    The lake Pichola being situated in the city hence people are easily reaching to the lake water

    for washing of cloths and bathing. Besides this washer men also washing cloths collected

    from the houses, which is not only projecting poor picture but also polluting the lake. Soap,

    detergents and washing powders being used in washing of cloths and utensils flow into lake

    and causing water quality deterioration. On an average 200 to 300 local people are daily

    taking bath and washing clothes. Apart from it washer men washing clothes collected from

    people regularly in clusters at number of points within the lake.

    Other problems are deforestation, Over Exploitation of Surface & Ground Water,

    Eutrophication, Brick Kiln, Immersion of Idols, and Stream Flow Obstructions.

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