Citizens making stuff happen

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Things may be moving slowly in the world of officialdom. But people are not always waiting for their governments to do everything in their daily lives. Despite bureaucratic service delivery systems, citizens find ways to get things done.Twaweza works with the five networks to fuel flows of information, stories, and ideas to make it easier for people to get, make, and share information and ideas. Twaweza helps spread information about rights, laws and budgets, as well as information on how citizens compare with their neighbors. All of this has stimulated informed public debate.

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<ul><li> 1. Citizens making stuffhappen in East Africa Rakesh Rajani, Twaweza DFID, March 29 2011 </li> <li> 2. This moment in East Africa Little faith in governments or the new leader Ideologies, paradigms shaky Tiredness and cynicism about development and reforms A sense that we need to look in the mirror and take charge, somehow A thirst for (and skepticism about) new ideas Unprecedented opportunities enabled by new technologies, at accelerated pace and scale </li> <li> 3. Where we start Asking what reforms, policies and programs look like from the ground up seeking local level data, stories citizen monitoring observations based on walkabouts (2008) immersions by staff each year (2009 and 10) </li> <li> 4. There are two worlds out there Lived Realities Officialdom (how people get on) (formal development) The institutions that Donors supporting matter to people the governments and what most (the executive) to people do on a day do good things to day basis </li> <li> 5. Roads, energy, education, healthProjects and Anti-corruption laws, units services Rule of law, elections support Audit Act, Anti-corruption Act, Mining ActLaws, policies strategies PSRPs (MKUKUTA, PEAP) Tz: LGRP, PSRP, PFMRP, LSRP Kn: GJLOS, champion reformers Reforms Ug: ethics coordination </li> <li> 6. Donors </li> <li> 7. Growth in Tanzania has been 6-7%, but poverty persists </li> <li> 8. water </li> <li> 9. At first glance we get a good story Functional Waterpoints Only All Waterpoints (including Only 54% of rural water- non-functional points) points functioning in 33 surveyed districts </li> <li> 10. And money not equitably spent Water points distribution highly unequal New funds exacerbate the differences? Nzega District Less than half (40%) of new funding going to wards with below average coverage Average coverage </li> <li> 11. such as this place in Dar es Salaam 5 minutes from the US Embassy </li> <li> 12. 15 out of 40 kiosks surveyed in Dar did not work at all </li> <li> 13. And regulation does not work </li> <li> 14. education </li> <li> 15. Many new schools and many more enrolled Budget tripled in the last decadeThe one MDG Tanzania will comfortably meet </li> <li> 16. New schools look better than many local homes </li> <li> 17. But upon closer observation </li> <li> 18. One is less certain </li> <li> 19. Does the money reach schools?For Primary capitation grant should be $10 perchild per year. PETS (2004) showed only $6 getting to school PETS (2009) less than $4 reached schools </li> <li> 20. Does the money reach schools? For secondary, TZS 10,000 was to get to schools in Jan 2011 93% of surveyed schools reported receiving nothing. The few schools that received the grant got TZS 517. Treasury transferred TZS 390 per student to LGAs. </li> <li> 21. What about the teachers? In a 2010 survey, 23% of teachers were not in school on any given day When in school, teachers spend half their time outside the classroom.As a consequence, Rural teachers taught 2 hours and 4 minutes. Urban teachers taught 1 hour 24 minutes a day.(Source: World Bank Service Delivery Indicators: Education and Health Care in Africa, presented at REPOA, March 4, 2011.) </li> <li> 22. Key Findings, Standard 3: East Africa While Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya used separate tests and conducted independent analyses, each country team found that the level of literacy and numeracy in their respective countries was far too low. In Standard 3, how many children can: Read the Read the Do Basic Kiswahili English Story Multiplication Story 33% 8% 19% Tanzania 36% 28% 51% Kenya N/A 3% 30% Uganda On the internet: www.uwezo.net Email: tanzania@uwezo.net Telephone: +255 22 2150793 or +255 754 267078 </li> <li> 23. Return oninvestment inTanzaniaseducationsectorhttp://vijana.fm/2011/01/28/elimu-ya-sekondari/ using BEST datafrom Ministry of Education andVocational Training </li> <li> 24. Back to our two worlds Lived Realities Officialdom (how people get on) (formal development) The institutions that Donors supporting matter to people the governments and what most (the executive) to people do on a day do good things to day basis </li> <li> 25. Predation is the name of the game Lived Realities Officialdom (how people experience (formal development government and reforms) govts, donors and NGOs) See if you can get a piece of Purpose is to grab the pie, something is better Grabbers are envied, than nothing celebrated Its the government and No one believes it will wazungus money transform Governance institutions No incentive to be dont solve your problems progressive Rest of the time try to keep the govt far away </li> <li> 26. And might even be doing harm Government Counter institutions </li> <li> 27. So what do you instead?Check out the left hand side </li> <li> 28. Clearly abject poverty </li> <li> 29. Well,perhaps not </li> <li> 30. Communication is everywhere, fuelling ideas, exchange, learning, movement </li> <li> 31. Esp. the mobile phone </li> <li> 32. and radio </li> <li> 33. and newspapers </li> <li> 34. and the communal TV </li> <li> 35. People are using communication to speak out, and make things happen </li> <li> 36. Hamisis the poor cotton farmer in Kahama, </li> <li> 37. Hamisi the one hell of an entrepreneur </li> <li> 38. Throughout East Africans people are making things happen Not waiting for the right hand side to get its act together And with very little help (and often quite some hindrance) from the right hand side and two core observations keep coming up: Communication enables aspiration and action A few institutions really matter to people and are everywhere </li> <li> 39. What networks are everywhere and matter to people?(that would endure even if every aid $ dried up) religion mobile mass phones media consumer teachers goods </li> <li> 40. In contrast to the right hand side Lived Realities Officialdom (how people engage with 5 key (formal development govts, networks) donors and NGOs) In every village Limited reach Sustainable Dies when donor funds end People pay to come You pay people to show up Motivated Tired, draining Vibrant action Hollow shells Creative Bureaucratic Solving, hustling Excuses People figuring things out Capacity building Things happening Things stuck (but lets not romanticize too much) </li> <li> 41. Twawezas idea is very simple: Identify what reaches people at scale and works get behind it enable it to fly higher </li> <li> 42. Work with 5 networks to fuel flows of information, stories, and ideas Make it easier for people to get, make, share information and ideas Information about rights, laws and budgets, yes, but even more important: comparisons (how do we do compared the neighbors) stories of change (people who like us have made things happen) Dont insist on noble information Stimulate informed public debate </li> <li> 43. and trigger theimagination </li> <li> 44. Some examples of Twawezas work </li> <li> 45. 7 Examples1. Uwezo (large scale citizens monitoring whether schooling leads to learning)2. Daraja (using SMS to monitor water-point functionality)3. Daladala TV (daily reality debate in a public bus)4. Uganda Radio Network (Reuters for FM radio)5. Media framework partnerships (nudging investigative journalism, citizen viewpoints)6. Solar lamps for schools (incentives)7. Experiments on capitation grants to schools and local Cash on Delivery </li> <li> 46. If we succeedwhat would this look like on the ground? </li> <li> 47....</li></ul>