citing your sources
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DESCRIPTIONCiting your sources
- 1. Citing your sources LIBR 2100 - Introduction to Research in the Information Age
2. Citing your sources: Citing your sources allows your readers to view the materials that you used when researching your paper Citing means providing information that will allow those articles, books, or websites to be found Everything you use in research, (books, an article from a full text database or a page from the Internet) must be cited. 3. Citation elements A citation consists of brief information like author, title, Publisher & place of publication, publication date, Volume and issue number, for journals and, in the case of electronic information, a URL. This information can be found on the book, article, webpage, report, etc. 4. EDITION Citation elements can be found on the itemTITLEPUBLICATION YEARPUBLISHER INFORMATIONAUTHOR 5. Citation elements can be found in your database results Citation elements: article title, author, journal title, date, volume, issue, page numbers, DOI 6. Citation elements can be found in the item records of online journalsJournal title, date, volume, issue, pagenumbers. DOI (digital object identifier) Journal article titleAuthors 7. Where do you use the citation elements? In your text when using quotes and paraphrasing Author, date and page are required next to the quotation (or use a number for endnotes or footnotes) At the end of your paper in your bibliography or reference list The reference list or bibliography is the place where you are required to provide a full citation. 8. Citation stylesDifferent disciplines require different formats. APA Psychology, Education, Information Technology, Business Administration MLA English Chicago - History 9. MLA StyleMLA=Modern Language Association. Used especially in English. (authors last name + page #) + Works Cited Example: One author comments that Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well (Rooke ix). Works Cited Rooke, Constance. The Clear Path: A Guide to Writing English Essays. Toronto: Nelson, 1995. 10. APA Style APA=American Psychological Association. Used in the social sciences. (authors last name, date of publication, p. page number) + References Example: One author comments that Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well (Rooke, 1995, p. ix). References Rooke, C. (1995). The clear path: A guide to writing English essays. Toronto: Nelson. 11. Chicago StyleFootnotes or endnotes, usually in addition to a bibliography. For notes, order them numerically, in superscript1 For the bibliography, order them alphabetically. Example: One author comments that Writing well is a skill, just like skiing well or playing the saxophone well.1Endnotes 1 Constance Rooke, The Clear Path: A Guide to Writing English Essays (Toronto: Nelson, 1995), ix. 12. Chicago Style (cont.)For subsequent references to the same work, ashortened version is acceptable: 5 Rooke, Clear Path, 12.6 Ibid., 21.Bibliography Rooke, Constance. The Clear Path: A Guide to WritingEnglish Essays. Toronto: Nelson Canada, 1995. 13. A tip & a warning Citation software and citation tips can help with managing citations and creating bibliographies. They are great tools! However, automated software tools will always be susceptible to errors especially when citation requires your judgement. Always check your bibliographies! 14. Factors to look out for in all the citation styles, or why we must always consult our citation guides The number of authors of a work will affect the way an in-text citation is written Where you found your article (or chapter), whether in print, from a subscription database, or from an open access journal site will affect your bibliographic entry MLA makes a distinction between journals with continuous pagination between issues and those where each issue begins at page 1. ALWAYS CONSULT YOUR CITATON GUIDE!!! 15. Paraphrasing:Many people inadvertently commit plagiarism when paraphrasing others' words and ideas, believing they only have to change a few words around. Not true. Paraphrasing is OK when: you do not follow the original source too closely AND you give credit to the original writer Hint: If you are going to paraphrase a section, read the passage over several times very carefully and then write your notes from memory. 16. Paraphrasing example Original passage:quot;But life is never all hardship for a growing boy. The surrounding country was wild enough for any imaginative youngster to find adventure in (Bryce, 1997, p. 25). Unacceptable paraphrase:For a growing boy, life is never all hardship. For anyone with imagination, the countryside was wild enough for adventures. Acceptable paraphrase: According to Robert Bryce, in a countryside like the one Cook grew up in, an adventurous boy could compensate for life's hardships. (Bryce, 1997, p. 25) This example is modified from: www.montgomerycollege.edu/library/paraphrasing.htm 17. Paraphrase or Quote?Either method may be acceptable. Some generaltips:- Cite the original source when paraphrasing. - Different disciplines often favour one method over another - Do not overuse direct quotes. - Long quotes are formatted differently. 18. When not to cite: When you are writing up your own original observations, thoughts, or opinions. When you are discussing items of common knowledge such as the year of Canadian confederation or the fact that Ottawa is the capital of Canada. Common knowledge is subjective and will vary by discipline.