Christer Johansson - (Peatge urbà a Estocolm – efectes sobre la qualitat de l’aire i la salut)

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<ul><li>1.October 20-22 http://international.stockholm.se/-/web-in-web/ Stadsledningskontoret/ Welcome-to-Stockholm-and-the-first-European-Green-Capital-Conference/ </li></ul> <p>2. International Conference on Road dust Health effects and abatement strategiesOctober 18-19, 2010 No charge www.slb.nu/roaddust 3. Stockholm not as clean as most slides indicate!... actually Sweden to EU court... due to PM10 exceedances! Sweden and Slovenia did not submit requests for time extensions.As both Member States that had received a final warning in November 2009 continue to exceed the PM10 limit values, the Commission has decided to refer the cases to the European Court of Justice 4. Death accidents in traffic in the county of Stockholm 200860 persons killed annually in traffic accidents Particles from roadtraffic may cause&gt;400 prematuredeaths per year** Forsberg et al., Ambio, vol.,34, No. 1, 2005. 5. The Congestion Tax in Stockholm EFFECTS ON AIR QUALITY AND HEALTHChrister Johansson Environmental officer &amp; Professor Environment and Health Administration, City of Stockholm Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm university 6. Refrendum TrialPermanent Jan-Jultax systemfrom Aug-2007 jan-05 jan-06 jan-07jan-08 7. 18 charging points Automatic identification with cameras (license plates) Maximum amount per vehicle and day 6 EURO (1-2 per passage)Extended public transportsMore park-and-ride sites Essingeleden bypass is exempted (part of European route E4) 8. 18 automatictoll stations 9. Toll vehicle registrations give high resolution fleet composition Vehicle categoriesVehicle information Personal cars Model year Light duty trucks Weight Heavy duty trucks Reason for exemption Buses 10. Time of day Tax(In other currencies)(weekdays) 00:00 06:29 0 SEK06:30 06:59 10 SEK~ 1 EUR 07:00 07:29 15 SEK 07:30 08:29 20 SEK 08:30 08:59 15 SEK Maximum amount per 09:00 15:29 10 SEK vehicle and day 60 SEK 15:30 15:59 15 SEK- 6.3 EUR 16:00 17:29 20 SEK17:30 17:59 15 SEK18:00 18:29 10 SEK18:30 23:59 0 SEK 11. 23/06/2010 PAGE 11 THE CITY OFSTOCKHOLM 12. Less traffic within the zone Vehicle km within the zone, weekdays year 2005-2006: Total:Pass. cars LCV HGV Buses -15%-17% - 15% -8% +18% -15% Queueing time was reduced by one third in the morning and by half during afternoons 13. Changes in traffic 14. Estimated reduction of emissions The inner-city, year tons/% Inner-city: 2006:year~8-14% reduction of Nitrogen oxides, NOx45-8,5 emissions (mainly due Carbon monoxide, CO 670 -14to less traffic) Particles, PM10 total 21-13 wear particles 19-13Less congestion: exhaust particles1.8 -12 -2-3% for rush hours Hydrocarbons, VOC 110 -14benzene 3.4 -14Extended bus traffic: Carbon dioxide, CO238,000 -13more NOx 15. Air Quality - Nitrogen oxides, NOx g/m3Increased levelsDecreased levels Urban background ~6% decreaseStreet level~5-10% decrease ~ 1-2% increase Essingeleden &amp; SouthernLink tunnel~1-2% increase 16. Long term exposure effect on population mortality NOX population exposure indicator of traffic exhaust Long term mortality risk: 8 % per 10 g/m3 higher NOx-conc.- 0,23 (Nafstad et al. 2004; Oslo*) g/m3 - 25 to 30 fewer prematuredeaths per year (1.44 millionpeople) - 206 years of life gained/100 000people in 10 years. *Nafstad, P., Haheim, L.L., Wisloff, T., Gram, F., Oftedal, B., Holme, I., et al., 2004. Environ Health Persp 112, 610615. Effects on mortality tip of the iceberg 17. PM10 &amp; NO2 still exceeding limits PM10 exceedings in Stockholm city (90th percentile of daily mean values)Studded tyres - wear of road surfaceSveavgen Hornsgatan012 Kilometer 2004-03-01 18. Daily vehicle passages 600 000P 550 000 Total Cars HGV Buses Fuel excemptions a 500 000 s PERMANENT s 450 000 TRIAL a 400 000 g 350 000 e s 300 000 250 000 p 200 000 e r 150 000 100 000 d 50 000 a y 0 19. Reduced emission 2006-2008 NOx PM10 PMc PMe VOC CO CO2 CO2 _ fossil 20. Increased public transport Number of people passing into and out of the city centre+ 80 000 passages (10%) BusesUnder- LocalComm. In totalground trains trains 21. Boom in alternatively fuelled vehicles Clean cars exempted from tax until Jan. 1st, 2009 (14 % of passages)80 000 Etanol 9%70 000 Fordonsgas El &amp; elhybrid60 000 Brnslesnl diesel* Personbilar i trafik Brnslesnl bensin*50 000 6%40 000 30 0003%20 000 10 000 1%0200120022003 20042005 2006 2007 2008r 22. Location of measurement stations 23. NOx Mean conc. 1012005-2008-------------------Inner city streets------------------ Exempted bypassCO Weekdays 6-19-------------------Inner city streets------------------ No taxPM10With tax 36 Exempted bypass-------------------Inner city streets------------------ 24. Revenues and surplus 25. International attention The demonstrated success of road pricing. Other major cities around the world,including London, England andStockholm, Sweden most recently,have reduced congestion andimproved throughput almostimmediately through theimplementation of congestion pricingstrategies. 26. Reports www.slb.nu/lvfhttp://www.stockholmsforsoket.se/templates/page.aspx?id=183 27. Conclusions Large traffic &amp; emission reductions Efficient way of decreasing exposure to polluttion Expected big positive effects on health (long term effect on mortality) Boom in alternatively fuelled vehicles Thank you! 28. Why we were awarded Climate combat District heatingPresentation (2)* Clean carsDissimenation programme (2)*Sustainable land use (1)* Congestion tax Sustainable management of the local authority (3)* Public transportWaste water management (2)* Water consumption (6)* Clean waterWaste production and management (1)* Waste treatmentNoise pollution (1)*Quality of local ambient air (4)* RecyclingAvailability of green areas open to the public (1)* Clean air Local mobility and passenger transport (1)* Local contribution to global climate change (1)* Green areas 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Noise reduction* Rating among the eight finalistsPer cent (%) 23/06/2010 PAGE 28 THE CITY OFSTOCKHOLM </p>