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Automation in Material Handling (material handling in direct-line production and automated lines, safety and design; safety regulations and discipline )BYPATIL CHETAN MAHADEO(ROLL NO. 10)

Material handlingMaterial handling involves short-distance movement between a building and a transportation vehicle.It utilizes a wide range of manual, semi-automated, and automated equipment and includes consideration of the protection, storage, and control of materials throughout their manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, consumption, and disposal.Material handling can be used to createtime and place Utility through the handling, storage, and control of material, as distinct from manufacturing, which createsform utilityby changing the shape, form, and makeup of material.Role of Material HandlingMaterial handling plays an important role in manufacturing and logistics, which together represent over 20% of the U.S. economy.Almost every item of physical commerce was transported on a conveyor or lift truck or other type ofmaterial handling equipmentin manufacturing plants, warehouses, and retail stores.These operators use material handling equipment to transport various goods in a variety of industrial settings including moving construction materials around building sites or moving goods onto ships.Design of material handling systems

Material handing is integral to the design of most production systems since the efficient flow of material between the activities of a production system is heavily dependent on the arrangement (orlayout) of the activities. If two activities are adjacent to each other, then material might easily be handed from one activity to another. If activities are in sequence, a conveyor can move the material at low cost. If activities are separated, more expensive industrial trucks or overhead conveyors are required for transport. The high cost of using an industrial truck for material transport is due to both the labour costs of the operator and the negative impact on the performance of a production system. when multiple units of material are combined into a single transfer batch in order to reduce the number of trips required for transport.

Direct line ProductionManual handling refers to the use of a workers hands to move individual containers by lifting, lowering, filling, emptying, or carrying them. It can expose workers to physical conditions that can lead to injuries.Often involve strains and sprains to the lower back, shoulders, and upper limbs.Ergonomic improvements can be used to modify manual handling tasks to reduce injury. These improvements can include reconfiguring the task and using positioning equipment like lift/tilt/turn tables, hoists, balancers, and manipulators to reduce reaching and bending. The NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) 1991 Revised Lifting Equation can be used to evaluate manual lifting tasks. Under ideal circumstances, the maximum recommended weight for manual lifting to avoid back injuries is 51lb (23.13kg).Automated Lines ProductionWhenever technically and economically feasible, equipment can be used to reduce and sometimes replace the need to manually handle material. Most existing material handling equipment is onlysemi-automatedbecause a human operator is needed for tasks like loading/unloading and driving that are difficult and/or too costly to fully automate, although ongoing advances in sensing, machine intelligence, and robotics have made it possible to fully automate an increasing number of handling tasks.In many cases, automated equipment is not as flexible as a human operator, both with respect to not being able to do a particular task as well as a human and not being able to be as easily redeployed to do other tasks as needs change.Material Handling SafetyPower LiftingProtect YourselfUse the correct hand protection; wear gloves to prevent cuts.Wear safety shoes to prevent injury to your feet from a dropped item.Size up the LoadDetermine if you can carry a load comfortably; tip it on its side.Get help if the load is too big or bulky for one person.Check for nails, splinters, rough strapping, and rough edges.Lift It RightMake sure your footing is solid.Keep your back straight, with no curving or slouching.Centre your body over your feet.Get a good grasp on the object and pull it close to you.Lift with your legs, not your back.Move your feet to turn. Don't twist your back.

Material Handling SafetyPower Carrying TipsYour ChecklistMake sure your footing is firm.Ensure enough clearance at doorways to keep your hands and fingers safe.Check your route for hazards.Take extra care at platforms, loading docks, ramps, and stairs.Carry long loads on your shoulders, with front end high.Make sure the next person has a firm grip before you hand off the load.When you carry with others, everyone should carry the load on the same shoulder, walk in step, and put the load down as a team.Back Safety TipsWear the right personal protective equipment for lifting and carrying.Lift with your legs, not your back; pivot, don't twist.Get help with tough lifting jobs.Spend a few minutes each day before work on power warm-ups.Exercise regularly to keep your back strong and healthy.Eat right, stay slender, and cut down on stress to avoid back injuries.

Material Handling SafetyEducation Is KeyIt is important to educate the personnel involved in material handling. They must understand that it is not smart or a good practice toshow off their muscles by lifting and carrying very heavy material. Doing so is a common cause of back injuries, and back injuries can remain with someone for the rest of his or her life.Management must designate and train specific individuals to unload and load material. Management also must make sure that the correct procedures are followed. Employees should be aware that regardless of how small or lightweight an item is, only a designated, trained individual should move it.Many times it is not necessary for an individual to lift and carry material manually. Various types of equipmentdolly, cart, lift truck, hoist, and craneare available to move material safely. Depending on the type of operation, using a dolly and cart to move material can result in minimal disruption of work flow.

Material Handling SafetyLift trucks can be used to carry heavier loads from one area to another. It is imperative that materials are placed on the lift truck in a safe and secure manner to avoid having the load shift, fall off, roll over, or impair the driver's vision.Hoists and cranes should be used to lift extremely heavy loads. When using this type of equipment, personnel must enforce proper safety measures to prevent serious injuries.Only experienced persons should operate hoists and cranes. The machinery must be kept in good working condition, properly maintained, and tested on a regular basis. Loads should not exceed the machine's load limit.These are only a few ideas to consider when addressing the issue of material handling safety. Common sense is the most practical tool to use

Major equipment CategoryTransport Equipment. Equipment used to move material from one location to another (e.g., between workplaces, between a loading dock and a storage area, etc.). The major subcategories of transport equipment are conveyors, cranes, and industrial trucks. Material can also be transported manually using no equipment. II. Positioning Equipment. Equipment used to handle material at a single location (e.g., to feed and/or manipulate materials so that are in the correct position for subsequent handling, machining, transport, or storage). Unlike transport equipment, positioning equipment is usually used for handling at a single workplace. Material can also be positioned manually using no equipment. III. Unit Load Formation Equipment. Equipment used to restrict materials so that they maintain their integrity when handled a single load during transport and for storage. If materials are self-restraining (e.g., a single part or interlocking parts), then they can be formed into a unit load with no equipment. IV. Storage Equipment. Equipment used for holding or buffering materials over a period of time. Some storage equipment may include the transport of materials (e.g., the S/R machines of an AS/RS, or storage carousels). If materials are block stacked directly on the floor, then no storage equipment is required. V. Identification and Control Equipment. Equipment used to collect and communicate the information that is used to coordinate the flow of materials within a facility and between a facility and its suppliers and customers. The identification of materials and associated control can be performed manually with no specialized equipment.Material Handling DesignDue to globalization of the economies of many countries, companies all over the world are making efforts to further expand their business areas. So the need for container transportation is being increased, and container terminals should satisfy such needs. For example, container terminals should provide better services to meet needs, should handle materials more speedily, and should reduce the cost. Since there are the same needs in other countries as well, the 365-day 24-hour operable container terminals should be constructed. To meet the above-described needs, companies should establish: Terminal control systems that can ensure effective operation of the entire terminals.Automatic container terminals that enable labour saving and ensure high efficiency, after being unloaded from a container ship, any containers should be speedily transported and useless movement should be eliminated.Considering this point, companies are now developing software to enable efficient container storage and control, and to efficiently operate the transfer equipment. In addition, they are also developing unmanned gates to shorten the gate passing-through time. Now they are developing automatic transfer cranes, AGV, and highly efficient container cranes to establish Container crane Transfer crane Mobile harbour crane unmanned automatic systems in various yards. In addition to the conventional anti-sway control devices, companies have adopted Magic Eye for the automatic transfer cranes in order to develop upgraded control systems for realization of automatic stacking. Companies have now realized low pollution and low fuel consumption by adopting electric motor drive for the AGV. The electric motor drive enables the AGV to travel freely to oblique directions by 4-wheel drive mechanism and to realize high efficiency in material handling. Moreover they can provide the best systems to the customers by proposing the operation management systems together with the vehicles.Work Station Design

Reduce the distance over which the load has to be moved by relocating production and storage areas.Design work stations so that workers: -can store and handle all material between knuckle and shoulder height; waist height is most desirable -can begin and end handling material at the same height -can face the load and handle materials as close to the body as possible -do not have to handle loads using awkward postures or an extended reach, and do not handle loads in confined spaces that prevent them from using good body mechanicsFacilitate access to material by:providing workbenches and other work stations with toe cut-outs, so that workers can get closer to the loadsupplying bins and totes with removable sidesremoving obstructions, such as unnecessary railings on binsLifting and LoweringEliminate the need to lift or lower manually by providing and ensuring proper use of: lift trucks, cranes, hoists, scissor lifts, drum and barrel dumpers, stackers, work dispensers, elevating conveyors, articulating arms and other mechanical devices gravity dumps and chutes power lift tail gates on trucks, and hand trucks to ensure easy transfer of material from the truck to ground level portable ramps or conveyors to lift and lower loads on to work stations

Pushing and PullingEliminate pushing or pulling by ensuring the use of: powered conveyors, powered trucks, slides, chutes, monorails, air tables and similar mechanical aids. Make loads easier to push or pull by ensuring the use of:carts, hand trucks and dollies with large diameter casters and good bearings, and grips or handles on loads or mechanical aids,placed to provide optimal push force and prevent awkward posturesInstruct employees to:push rather than pullavoid overloading limit the load pushed or pulled at one timeEnsure the load does not block visionnever push one load and pull another at the same timeRegulationsRegulations respecting Industrial Establishments (O. Reg. 851/90), made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. The section that deals with material handling is as follows: (Section 45: Materials, articles or things, etc.)a) required to be lifted, carried or moved, shall be lifted, carried or moved in such a way and with such precautions and safeguards, including protective clothing, guards or other precautions as will ensure that the lifting, carrying or moving of the material, articles or things does not endanger the safety of any worker

b) shall be transported, placed or stored so that the material, articles or things: (i) will not tip, collapse or fall (ii) can be removed or withdrawn without endangering the safety of any worker

c) to be removed from a storage area, pile or rack, shall be removed in a manner that will not endanger the safety of any worker

HazardsA load may be hazardous because of:weightsizeshape (making it awkward to handle)coupling (type of grip on the load)slippery or damaged surfacesabsent or inappropriate handles, andimbalance (i.e., changing centre of gravity)The task or method of handling may be hazardous when it involves:A) lifting or lowering repetitively, quickly, for extended periods of time, while seated or kneeling, immediately after prolonged flexion, shortly after a period of restB) an inability to get close to the loadC)moving the load over large distances - accuracy and precision required because of fragile loads, or specific unloading locationsD)materials positioned too low or too highE)hazardous movements or postures (e. g., twisting, extended bending and reaching)F) multiple handling requirements (e.g., lifting, carrying, unloading)Environmental factors include:

temperature (beyond a 1926C range)relative humidity (beyond a 3550% range)lightingnoisetime constraints (e.g., machinepaced work or deadline pressures)physical conditions such as obstacles and floor surfacesSafety Regulations and Discipline Check the object before you attempt to lift itMake sure the load you are lifting is packed correctlyMake sure the load is easy to reach.Always test the load before lifting to ensure its not too heavy for you to lift and carry by yourself!Before moving a load, plan both the load and the route (allows you to evaluate hazards, limitations, route safety and final placement). Think about the weight, size, and shape of the object and the distance you will be moving it.

When lowering an object remember to bend at the knees not at the waist and avoiding twisting motions while putting the load down. (If you must turn while lowering an object, adjust your feet rather than twisting your back.Stand close to the load with your feet spread about shoulder width apartOne foot slightly in front of the other for balance.

Squat down, bending at the knees (not your waist). Tuck your chin while keeping your back as vertical as possible.Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift.

Begin slowly, lifting with your LEGS by straightening them. Never twist your body during this step! Once lift is complete, keep object as close to your body as possible.As the load's center of gravity moves away from the body, there is a dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region of the back.

Team Lifting When more than one person may be required to lift a load, consider having a team of folks and have one person call the directions and lifting steps so everyone will move at the same pace.Stacking Overlap and interlock rows and never stack above the crush height or above the height limits for the facility in which youre working. Make certain the base is clean and level and can support the weight.Drums Use a lift truck with drum forks or a drum dolly to move, even a short distance. If moving individual, empty drums, roll on the side not the rim and always work on the down side of the drum with the hands on the belly of the drum not the rim.

Mechanical AidsOften the best way to move loads is with a mechanical aid, like a hand truck or rolling cart. Choose the right aid for the job and inspect it before use. Place the heaviest items on the bottom, with the weight concentrated between the wheels. Keep your hands away from the edges so they wont be scraped or crushed in doorways.

Strengthening Exercise

Wall Slides to strengthen your muscles . . . . Stand with your back against a wall, feet shoulder-width apart.

Slide down into a crouch, with knees bent to 90 degrees.

Count to five and slide back up the wall.

Repeat five times. Stretching Exercises

Lean against a wall or other stationary object, both palms against the object. Leg you want to stretch is back, several feet from wall, heel firmly positioned on the floor. Other leg is flexed about halfway between back leg and wall.Start with your back straight and gradually lunge forward until you feel the stretch in your calf. Very important to keep back foot straight and angled 90 degrees from wall.

Stretching Exercises

Stretches for side of neck:Sit or stand with arms hanging loosely at sides Turn head to one side, then the other Hold for five seconds, each side Repeat one to three times Stretches for side of shoulder and back of upper armStand or sit and place right hand on left shoulder With left hand, pull right elbow across chest toward left shoulder and hold 10 to 15 seconds Repeat on other side

Stretching Exercises

Stretches for triceps, top of shoulders, waistKeep knees slightly flexed Stand or sit with arms overhead Hold elbow with hand of opposite arm Pull elbow behind head gently as you slowly lean to side until mild stretch is felt Hold 10 to 15 seconds Repeat on other sideTHANK YOU.