chernobyl nuclear accident

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Chernobyl Nuclear Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Disaster

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Page 1: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl Nuclear Chernobyl Nuclear DisasterDisaster

Page 2: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Where is Chernobyl???Where is Chernobyl??? The The V.I. Lenin Memorial V.I. Lenin Memorial

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Chernobyl Nuclear Power StationStation is a nuclear power plant is a nuclear power plant near the city of Prypiat, Ukraine, near the city of Prypiat, Ukraine, 18 km northwest of the city of 18 km northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 km from the border Chernobyl, 16 km from the border of Ukraine and Belarus, and about of Ukraine and Belarus, and about 110 km north of Kiev. It was the 110 km north of Kiev. It was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, but due to high power 1986, but due to high power demand, continued to operate demand, continued to operate until December 2000. Workers until December 2000. Workers remain at the site as the remain at the site as the remaining three reactors at the remaining three reactors at the Chernobyl plant, although no Chernobyl plant, although no longer in operation, still contain longer in operation, still contain nuclear fuel which needs to be nuclear fuel which needs to be monitored around the clock.monitored around the clock.

Page 3: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl Nuclear Chernobyl Nuclear PlantPlant Chernobyl Nuclear Chernobyl Nuclear

ReactorReactor   

DataData   

CountryCountry UkraineUkraine

Start of commercial Start of commercial operationoperation 19771977

Ceased OperationCeased Operation 20002000

     

ReactorsReactors   

Reactors (Active)Reactors (Active) 0 (0 MW)0 (0 MW)

Reactors (Shut Down)Reactors (Shut Down) 44

Reactors (Canced)Reactors (Canced)2 (2000 2 (2000

MW)MW)

     

PowerPower   

CapacityCapacity 4000 MW4000 MW

Total Power Generation Total Power Generation (in 2008)(in 2008) 0 GWh0 GWh

Average Annual Average Annual Generation (last 5 Generation (last 5 years)years) 0 GWh0 GWh

Net GenerationNet Generation 0 Gwh0 Gwh

Page 4: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Nuclear Accidents in Nuclear Accidents in ChernobylChernobyl

AccidentsAccidents19821982

In 1982, a partial core meltdown occurred in reactor no. 1 at the In 1982, a partial core meltdown occurred in reactor no. 1 at the Chernobyl plant. Due to the secret policy of the Soviet Union, the extent Chernobyl plant. Due to the secret policy of the Soviet Union, the extent of the accident was not made public until years later. The reactor was of the accident was not made public until years later. The reactor was repaired and put back into operation within months.repaired and put back into operation within months.

19861986 On April 26, 1986, a disaster occurred at reactor no. 4, which has been On April 26, 1986, a disaster occurred at reactor no. 4, which has been

widely regarded as the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. widely regarded as the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. As a result, reactor no. 4 was completely destroyed and has since been As a result, reactor no. 4 was completely destroyed and has since been enclosed in a concrete sarcophagus to prevent further escape of enclosed in a concrete sarcophagus to prevent further escape of radiation. radiation.

19911991

In 1991, during a scheduled shutdown, a fire broke out in reactor no. 2's In 1991, during a scheduled shutdown, a fire broke out in reactor no. 2's turbine, causing severe damage to the reactor building. It was then turbine, causing severe damage to the reactor building. It was then decided that reactor no. 2 would not be returned to operation because decided that reactor no. 2 would not be returned to operation because of the severity of the damage.of the severity of the damage.

Page 5: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl Nuclear Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster:1986Disaster:1986

Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster 1986Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster 1986

Page 6: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was the result of a flawed reactor design that was operated of a flawed reactor design that was operated with inadequately trained personnel and with inadequately trained personnel and without proper regard for safety.without proper regard for safety. The resulting steam explosion and fire The resulting steam explosion and fire released at least five percent of the radioactive released at least five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind.downwind. 28 people died within four months from 28 people died within four months from radiation or thermal burns, 19 have radiation or thermal burns, 19 have subsequently died, and there have been subsequently died, and there have been around nine deaths from thyroid cancer around nine deaths from thyroid cancer apparently due to the accident: total 56 apparently due to the accident: total 56 fatalities as of 2004.fatalities as of 2004. An authoritative UN report in 2000 concluded An authoritative UN report in 2000 concluded that there is no scientific evidence of any that there is no scientific evidence of any significant radiation-related health effects to significant radiation-related health effects to most people exposed. This was confirmed in a most people exposed. This was confirmed in a very thorough 2005-06 study.very thorough 2005-06 study.

Page 7: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

The Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial The Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radiation into the atmosphere in the form of both amounts of radiation into the atmosphere in the form of both particle and gaseous radioisotopes, and is the most particle and gaseous radioisotopes, and is the most significant unintentional release of radiation into the significant unintentional release of radiation into the environment to date.environment to date. On 2-3 May, some 45,000 residents were evacuated from On 2-3 May, some 45,000 residents were evacuated from within a 10 km radius of the plant, notably from the plant within a 10 km radius of the plant, notably from the plant operators' town of Pripyat.operators' town of Pripyat.On 4 May, all those living within a 30 kilometer radius - a On 4 May, all those living within a 30 kilometer radius - a further 116 000 people from the more contaminated area - further 116 000 people from the more contaminated area - were evacuated and later relocated.were evacuated and later relocated.About 1,000 of these have since returned unofficially to live About 1,000 of these have since returned unofficially to live within the contaminated zone.within the contaminated zone.

Page 8: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Effects on Environment Effects on Environment and Healthand Health In 1989 the World Health Organisation (WHO) first raised concerns In 1989 the World Health Organisation (WHO) first raised concerns

that local medical scientists had incorrectly attributed various that local medical scientists had incorrectly attributed various biological and health effects to radiation exposure.biological and health effects to radiation exposure.

An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study involving more An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study involving more than 200 experts from 22 countries published in 1991 was more than 200 experts from 22 countries published in 1991 was more substantial. In the absence of pre-1986 data it compared a control substantial. In the absence of pre-1986 data it compared a control population with those exposed to radiation. Significant health population with those exposed to radiation. Significant health disorders were evident in both control and exposed groups, but, at disorders were evident in both control and exposed groups, but, at that stage, none was radiation related.that stage, none was radiation related.

Subsequent studies in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were based Subsequent studies in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were based on national registers of over one million people possibly affected by on national registers of over one million people possibly affected by radiation. By 2000 about 4000 cases of thyroid cancer had been radiation. By 2000 about 4000 cases of thyroid cancer had been diagnosed in exposed children. Among these, nine deaths are diagnosed in exposed children. Among these, nine deaths are attributed to radiation.attributed to radiation.

People in the area have suffered a paralysing fatalism due to myths People in the area have suffered a paralysing fatalism due to myths and misperceptions about the threat of radiation, which has and misperceptions about the threat of radiation, which has contributed to a culture of chronic dependency. Some "took on the contributed to a culture of chronic dependency. Some "took on the role of invalids.role of invalids.

Mental health coupled with smoking and alcohol abuse is a very Mental health coupled with smoking and alcohol abuse is a very much greater problem than radiation.much greater problem than radiation.

Page 9: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Silent ScreamsSilent Screams

Page 10: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

What happened after What happened after the disaster???the disaster???

In the early 1990s some US$400 million was In the early 1990s some US$400 million was spent on improvements to the remaining spent on improvements to the remaining reactors at Chernobyl, considerably enhancing reactors at Chernobyl, considerably enhancing their safety.their safety.

Energy shortages necessitated the continued Energy shortages necessitated the continued operation of one of them (unit 3) until December operation of one of them (unit 3) until December 2000. (Unit 2 was shut down after a turbine hall 2000. (Unit 2 was shut down after a turbine hall fire in 1991, and unit 1 at the end of 1997.)fire in 1991, and unit 1 at the end of 1997.)

Workers and their families now live in a new Workers and their families now live in a new town, Slavutich, 30 km from the plant. This was town, Slavutich, 30 km from the plant. This was built following the evacuation of Pripyat, which built following the evacuation of Pripyat, which was just 3 km away.was just 3 km away.

Page 11: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

Chernobyl: TodayChernobyl: Today

The Chernobyl unit 4 is now enclosed in a large concrete shelter The Chernobyl unit 4 is now enclosed in a large concrete shelter (sacrophagus).(sacrophagus).

The international Shelter Implementation Plan in the 1990s involved The international Shelter Implementation Plan in the 1990s involved raising money for remedial work including removal of the fuel-raising money for remedial work including removal of the fuel-containing materials.containing materials.

Some major work on the shelter was carried out in 1998 and 1999.Some major work on the shelter was carried out in 1998 and 1999. Some 200 tonnes of highly radioactive material remains deep within Some 200 tonnes of highly radioactive material remains deep within

it, and this poses and environmental hazard until it is better it, and this poses and environmental hazard until it is better contained.contained.

A New Safe Confinement structure will be built by the end of 2011, A New Safe Confinement structure will be built by the end of 2011, and then will be moved into place on rails. The 2005 Chernobyl and then will be moved into place on rails. The 2005 Chernobyl Forum report said that some seven million people are now receiving Forum report said that some seven million people are now receiving or eligible for benefits as "Chernobyl victims", which means that or eligible for benefits as "Chernobyl victims", which means that resources are not targeting the needy few percent of them. resources are not targeting the needy few percent of them. Remedying this presents daunting political problems however.Remedying this presents daunting political problems however.

In January 2008 the Ukraine government announced a 4-stage In January 2008 the Ukraine government announced a 4-stage decommissioning plan which incorporates the above waste activities decommissioning plan which incorporates the above waste activities and progresses towards a cleared siteand progresses towards a cleared site..

Page 12: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident

The Worst Disaster Of The Worst Disaster Of Its KindIts Kind

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