chernobyl nuclear powerplant disaster

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Prepared by :- Bhargav Dhokia Chernobyl Disaster April 26, 1986

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Here is the powerpoint presentation about the nuclear disaster at the chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant in detail.


Page 1: Chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant Disaster

Prepared by :- Bhargav Dhokia 5th Sem ELE

Chernobyl Disaster April 26, 1986

Page 2: Chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant Disaster

• The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukraine, which used to be a part of the Soviet Union.

• It is considered to be the worst nuclear power plant disaster in history and the only level 7 instance on the International Nuclear Event Scale.

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• What is nuclear power?

The energy produced by splitting atoms in a nuclear reactor.

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• Why is it dangerous?

Nuclear power technology produces materials that are active in emitting radiation and are therefore called “radioactive.” We are all exposed daily to a little radiation but too much or in mass quantities can destroy cells, cause organs to shut down or after long and continuous exposure cause cancer.

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1. As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes hot

2. The water pumped through the core in pressure tubes removes the heat from the fuel

3. The water is then boiled into steam

4. The steam turns the turbines

5. The water is

then cooled

6. Then the process


Page 7: Chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant Disaster

What happened?Saturday, April 26, 1986:

-Reactor #4 was undergoing a test to test the backup power supply in case of a power loss. -The power fell too low, allowing the concentration of xenon-135 to rise.

-The workers continued the test, and in order to control the rising levels of xenon-135, the control rods were pulled out.

Page 8: Chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant Disaster


-The experiment involved shutting down the coolant pumps, which caused the coolant to rapidly heat up and boil.

-Pockets of steam formed in the coolant lines. When the coolant expanded in this particular design, the power level went up.

-All control rods were ordered to be inserted. As the rods were inserted, they became deformed and stuck. The reaction could not be stopped.

-The rods melted and the steam pressure caused an explosion, which blew a hole in the roof. A graphite fire also resulted from the explosion.

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• The Chernobyl Reactor after the explosion.

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- 203 people were hospitalized immediately. 31 of them eventually died. Most of these people were workers in the plant or local firefighters.

- NW winds from the Black Sea carried the radiation for miles in the following days. Scandinavian detectors picked up on the abundance of radiation, but the Soviet government denied everything.

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West and Northwest Windscarried radiation

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• People were evacuated the day after the explosion.

• A month later 116,000 people in an 18 mile radius of the plant were evacuated.

• Over 300,000 people were moved from the accident.

• Many still live in contaminated areas and the long term effect is not yet known.

• The Soviet Union has not been able to study effects due to lack of funds and secrecy.

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• Fallout levels were very high right around explosion and affected all wildlife.

• Red Forest- was a forest right by the plant was named this because plants had a red hue after the explosion. These trees also died from the amount of radiation they received.

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Abandoned city in southern Belarus

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Effects of Radiation

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THYROID CANCER• The thyroid gland is the most

vulnerable organ to radiation in the human body.

• Normally, this is a rare disease, with only 1 case per year being reported in Belarus before the Chernobyl accident.

• Thyroid cancer can take 10-30 years to show it’s effects.

• There has been a 2,400% increase in the rates of thyroid cancer in Belarus since 1986.

• In the Homyel region of Belarus, the region closest to Chernobyl, there has been a 100-fold increase in thyroid cancer.

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BLUE :- 20–46 Years oldRED :- ChildrenYellow :- Adults over the age of 46

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• Milk—Farmers have to watch the radiation level in milk.

• Fish—Cannot be eaten, as water absorbs radiation and fats concentrate it

• Radioactive Floods every spring

• Lives ruined

• Suicide and depression

• Even healthy people were traumatized

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• “Liquidators”• These were firemen who helped

put out the fires and helped clean up the radiation

• Most did not realize the dangers of radiation.

• Many later died from radiation, because they didn’t wear protection.

• An estimated 8,000-20,000 to date have died (20% from suicide)

• Robots• United States supplied• Specifically designed to enter

reactor core and help build the sarcophagus

The Clean Up

Page 21: Chernobyl Nuclear Powerplant Disaster


Approximately 300,000 to 600,000 liquidators were involved in the cleanup of the 30 km evacuation zone around the plant in the years following the meltdown.

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• Between 300,000 and 600,000 people were brought in to clean-up.

• Crops were destroyed, livestock was killed, everywhere there was radiation.

• Over 235 billion dollars has been spent to clean up the disaster.

• Belarus lost 1/5 of its farming lands(700 million dollars a year loss.)

• 350 industries were lost due to the disaster.

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CHERNOBYL TODAY• The plant has been shut down by

Ukraine. (Dec. 2000)

• The cement sarcophagus is falling apart, due to the quick emergency construction of it.

• The UN estimates that up to 9 million people have been affected directly or indirectly by the fallout.

• The full consequences will not be seen for at least another 50 years.

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SOURCES• Chernobyl Children’s Project International


• “Geographical location and extent of radioactive contamination”


• East Cambs Chernobyl Children Life Line; "The Chernobyl Accident“


• Russian Research Center; Kurchatov Institute. “The Causes of the accident and its progress”


• Time Magazine. May 12, 1986. “Deadly Meltdown”


• Uranium Information Center. August 2004. Nuclear Issues Briefing Paper 22. “Chernobyl Accident”


• Ukrainian Web; Chernobyl Tour


• Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; Chernobyl accident