Chapter #7 Skeletal System. Chapter 7.1 Introduction Bones the organs of the skeletal system 1.Provide points of attachment for muscles 2.Protect soft.
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Chapter #7 Skeletal System Slide 2 Chapter 7.1 Introduction Bones the organs of the skeletal system 1.Provide points of attachment for muscles 2.Protect soft tissue/organs 3.Support soft tissue 4.House blood-producing cells 5.Store inorganic salts 6.Provide passageways for blood vessels and nerves There are 206 bones in the adult human body Slide 3 Chapter 7.2 Bone Structure Epiphysis (epifisis) end of the bone Articular cartilage covers end of bones Diaphysis (diafisis) the shaft of the bone Slide 4 Periosteum is a tough vascular covering of fibrous tissue. Bleeds when you fracture your bones. Slide 5 Spongy bone Compact bone is a type of bone with a continuous matrix with no gaps. (Diaphysis) Spongy bone is a type of bone with numerous branching bony plates. (Epiphysis) Compact bone Slide 6 Medullary cavity the hollow chamber/tube in long bones. Endosteum lines the medullary cavity. Lies under the periosteum. Marrow is a specialized type of soft connective tissue that fills the medullary cavity. Slide 7 Osteocytes bone cells. Lacunae very small, bony chambers. Haversian canals (Central canals) Osteon cylinder-shaped unit. Volkmanns canal perforating canals Slide 8 Chapter 7.3 Bone Development and Growth Intramembranous bones originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissue. Osteoblasts bone-forming cells. Slide 9 Endochondral bones-Long Bones they develop from masses of cartilage shaped like future boney structures. Slide 10 Slide 11 Epiphyseal plate is the portion of bone where growth happens. Bones continue to grow until the plate closes. If an Epiphyseal plate is damaged before it ossifies, elongation of the long bone may cease prematurely, or growth maybe uneven. Slide 12 Chapter 7.4 Bone Function Hemopoiesis the process of blood cell formation. Begins in the yolk sac, which lies outside the human embryo. Marrow is a soft, netlike mass of connective tissue. Red Marrow- makes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is red because it contains hemoglobin. It occupies the cavities of most bones in an infant. In an adult, RM is found in the spongy bone of the skull, ribs, sternum, clavicles, vertebrae, and pelvis. Yellow marrow- stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production. Slide 13 Bone tissue is rich in calcium phosphate. When blood is low in Ca, the body makes osteoclasts (breakdown bone) and release calcium into the blood for the body to use for metabolic processes. Osteoporosis- lose of bone volume and mineral content. Factors that increase osteoporosis are low calcium intake, lack of physical exercise, decrease in blood estrogen. Slide 14 Chapter 7.5 Skeletal Organization 1.Axial Skeleton Skull, Ribs, Vertebral column 2.Appendicular skeleton Arms, legs, and bones that anchor the limbs to the axial skeleton. Slide 15 Chapter 7.6 Skull Fontanels (Soft Spots)- membranous areas. Found in infants skulls they will close as they develop. Infant skull Slide 16 Chapter 7.7 Vertebral Column Atlas- 1 st cervical vertebrae Axis- 2 nd cervical vertebrae Slide 17 Chapter 7.8 Thoracic Cage Thoracic cage includes ribs, thoracic vertebrae and sternum. Slide 18 Chapter 7.9 Pectoral Girdle Pectoral girdle (Shoulder girdle) includes the clavicles and scapulae. Slide 19 Chapter 7.10 Upper Limb Know the bone identification sheet Slide 20 7.11 Pelvic Girdle Includes two hipbones (coxae) Ilium (hip bones) Ischium (butt bones) Pubis (where the 2 hip bones meet) Male Female Slide 21 Chapter 7.12 Lower Limb Know bone identification sheet Slide 22 Chapter 7.13 Joints Joints are functional junctions between bones. 1.Fibrous joints 2.Cartilaginous joints 3.Synovial joint A.Ball-and-socket Joints B.Condyloid C.Gliding D.Hinge E.Pivot F.Saddle Slide 23 Fibrous joints These joints are also called "fixed" or "immoveable" joints, because they do not move. These joints have no joint cavity and are connected via fibrous connective tissue. The skull bones are connected by fibrous joints. Slide 24 Cartilaginous joints These joints also have no joint cavity and the bones are connected tightly to each other with cartilage. These joints only allow a small amount of movement, so are also called "partly" or "slightly moveable" joints. The vertebrae are examples of cartilaginous joints. Slide 25 Most of the joints in the body are synovial joints. These joints are "freely moveable" and are characterised by being surrounded by an articular capsule which contains the synovial fluid. Synovial fluid lubricates the joints, supplies nutrients to the cartilage and it contains cells that remove microbes and debris within the joint cavity. Because of the larger range of movements of these joints, there is an increased risk of injury example dislocations. Synovial joints are located predominantly in limbs. Many synovial joints also have ligaments either inside or outside the capsule. Slide 26 Synovial Joints 1.Ball and socket - allows movement around 3 axes - flexion / extension, abduction / adduction and rotation, ex. shoulder, hip. 2.Condyloid permits a variety of movements. Examples joint between the metacarpals and phalanges. 3.Gliding - Flat bone surfaces allow side to side and backwards and forwards movements ex. between carpals, tarsals, between the sternum and the clavicle (sterno-clavicular) and the scapula and the clavicle. 4.Hinge - movement occurs primarily in a single plane ex. elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints. 5.Pivot - a ring of bone and ligament surrounds the surface of the other bone - movement in one plane, primarily rotation ex. between the atlas and axis (ie the cervical vertebrae numbers 1 and 2) and the radius and ulna. 6.Saddle joints - example thumb. Slide 27 Work Cited Femur. March 6, 2007. http://webschoolsolutions.com/patts/systems/bone-growth.gifhttp://webschoolsolutions.com/patts/systems/bone-growth.gif Aged femur and Long bone. March 6, 2007. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.curehandpain.com/images/bone/spongy_bone.gif&imgrefurl=http://w ww.curehandpain.com/pages/bone/bone.php&h=226&w=347&sz=23&hl=en&start=40&tbnid=ZzjWovrGxZeNyM:&tbnh=7 8&tbnw=120&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcompact%2Bbone%26start%3D20%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D 10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Intramembranous bones. March 6, 2007. http://academic.wsc.edu/faculty/jatodd1/351/intramembranous_bone_growth.jpe http://academic.wsc.edu/faculty/jatodd1/351/intramembranous_bone_growth.jpe Bone development. March 6, 2007. http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/AnSci312/Bone/Gil%209%2014%20Endochondral%20ossification.jpg http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/AnSci312/Bone/Gil%209%2014%20Endochondral%20ossification.jpg X-ray. March 6, 2007. http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/images/epiphyseal-plate.gifhttp://www.shoppingtrolley.net/images/epiphyseal-plate.gif Plate injury. March 6, 2007. http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/saortho/chapter_34/34F4.jpghttp://cal.vet.upenn.edu/saortho/chapter_34/34F4.jpg Pelvis, lower limb and upper limb. March 7, 2007. http://www.gpc.edu/~jaliff/spinchar.gifhttp://www.gpc.edu/~jaliff/spinchar.gif Vertebral Column. March 7, 2007. http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/SPINE.JPGhttp://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/SPINE.JPG Rib Cage. March 7, 2007. http://www.netterimages.com/images/vpv/000/000/007/7191-0550x0350.jpghttp://www.netterimages.com/images/vpv/000/000/007/7191-0550x0350.jpg Skull. March 7, 2007. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Gray_188_- _Side_view_of_the_skull.png/180px-Gray_188_-_Side_view_of_the_skull.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Gray_188_- _Side_view_of_the_skull.png/180px-Gray_188_-_Side_view_of_the_skull.png Infant Skull. March 7, 2007. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files /Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Motor%20Systems/inf ant_skull.jpg http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files /Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Motor%20Systems/inf ant_skull.jpg Skull joints. March 9, 2007. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Motor%20Systems/im movable_joint.jpg http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Motor%20Systems/im movable_joint.jpg Vertebrae joint and synovial joint. March 9, 2007. http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/images/anatomy/cartilaginous-joint.jpg http://www.shoppingtrolley.net/images/anatomy/cartilaginous-joint.jpg