chapter 3. * using enzymes commercially can be very expensive * being able to reuse enzymes solves...

Download Chapter 3. * Using enzymes commercially can be very expensive * Being able to reuse enzymes solves this problem * Immobilized enzymes  reusable, not

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Chapter 3

Enzymes Part 5

Immobilizing EnzymesUsing enzymes commercially can be very expensiveBeing able to reuse enzymes solves this problemImmobilized enzymes reusable, not lost in commercial productDefinition: Enzymes that have been fixed to a surface or within a bead of agar gelCommercial application of enzymesMedicineFood technologyIndustrial processing

How to Make an Immobilized EnzymeUse alginate beadsCreate these bead bye mixing enzymes with a sodium alginate solutionTake tiny droplets from this sodium alginate mixture and add them to a solution of calcium chlorideSodium Alginate and Calcium Chloride react to form a jellyJelly turns each droplet into a tiny beadEach bead contains an enzyme that is now immobilized

ExampleImmobilization of LACTASE enzyme used to make Lactose-FREE milkUse alginate beadsRun substrate (milk) through the beadsLactase in beads hydrolyzes the lactose (disaccharide) substrate in milk into glucose and galactose monosaccharidesMilk goes all the way through the column and collects into apparatusCollected milk is now lactose-free and is NOT contaminated with the enzyme

Advantages of Immobilized EnzymesEasy removal of product from enzyme Without immobilized enzymes:Enzymes would be mixed in solution with substrateWhen product is made, the product would have to be separated from the enzymes in solution (costly and time consuming)Enzymes lost during removal process Immobilized enzymes tolerant to changes in temperature and pHMore tolerant than enzymes used in solutionDue to protective environment of alginate beadsEnzymes do not denature easily