Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry 25.2 Nuclear Transformations.

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry 25.2 Nuclear Transformations
  • Slide 2
  • Chemistry Today we are learning to:- 1. See what determines the type of decay a radioisotope undergoes 2. Understand what we mean by the term half-life 3. Calculate how much of a sample remains after each half-life 4. Understand the 2 ways that transmutation reactions can occur
  • Slide 3
  • A force called the nuclear force is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is stronger than the electromagnetic force over extremely short distances, so nuclei dont fly apart (1.7fm) (1 femtometer = 1.0 x 10 15 meters or 0.000,000,000,000,001,7m). More than 1,500 different nuclei are known. Of those, only 264 are stable and do not decay or change with time. These nuclei are in a region called the band of stability. Nuclear Transformations Nuclear Stability and Decay
  • Slide 4
  • Nuclear Transformations
  • Slide 5
  • Nuclear Stability and Decay Nuclear Transformations A nucleus lying outside the band of stability will be unstable and decay into a more stable isotope The neutron-to-proton ratio determines the type of decay that occurs If a nucleus has too many neutrons, a neutron can change into a proton and a high energy electron (beta particle) is shot out of the nucleus. 110 np+e 0+1
  • Slide 6
  • Nuclear Stability and Decay Nuclear Transformations Other types of decay processes other than alpha emission and beta emission are: i.Electron capture: where an electron captured by a nucleus transforms a proton into a neutron. i.Positron emission: Where a proton in the nucleus changes into a neutron with the emission of a positively charged electron (positron). 110 pn+e +10
  • Slide 7
  • Nuclear Stability and Decay 25.2 Homework questions: Answer Questions 33-37 on page 821 of your text book for next day (use a periodic table to help identify products.)
  • Slide 8
  • Half-Life Nuclear Transformations The rate of decay of an unstable radioisotope is measured by its half-life A half-life (t 1/2 ) is the time required for one-half of the nuclei of a radioisotope sample to decay to products After each half-life, half of the existing radioactive atoms have decayed into atoms of a new element. Half-lives can range from fractions of a second to billions of years
  • Slide 9
  • Nuclear Transformations Half-Life
  • Slide 10
  • Nuclear Transformations Half-Life
  • Slide 11
  • 25.2 Stable Isotope Uranium 238 decays through a series of unstable isotopes until it reaches the stable isotope of lead-206. Because of the long half live of uranium -238 its ratio to other isotopes in rocks can be used to date them.
  • Slide 12
  • Half-Life Nuclear Transformations The ratio of Carbon-14 to stable carbon in the remains of an organism changes in a predictable way that enables the archaeologist to obtain an estimate of its age. Carbon-14 dating (detailed) Carbon-14 dating (simple)
  • Slide 13
  • 25.1
  • Slide 14
  • for Sample Problem 25.1 Practice Problem (page 806). Homework: Questions 46, 50, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61 and 65 On pages 882-883 of your Chemistry text book.
  • Slide 15
  • Transmutation Reactions The conversion of one atom of one element to a different element is called transmutation Transmutation can occur by: i.radioactive decay ii.when particles bombard the nucleus of an atom. The first artificial transmutation reaction involved bombarding nitrogen gas with alpha particles. Transmutation Reactions
  • Slide 16
  • 25.1 The first artificial transmutation reaction involved bombarding nitrogen gas with alpha particles. Transmutation Reactions Nuclear Transformations
  • Slide 17
  • Transmutation Reactions Nuclear Transformations Bombardment by alpha particle: 14 7 N + 4242 He 17 8 O +1 H 9 4 Be + 4242 He 12 6 C + 1010 n Ex. 1. Ex. 2. The elements in the periodic table with atomic numbers above 92, the atomic number of uranium, are called the transuranium elements. All transuranium elements undergo transmutation. None of the transuranium elements occur in nature, and all of them are radioactive. Transuranium elements are synthesized in nuclear reactors and nuclear accelerators.
  • Slide 18
  • 25.2 Section Quiz. 1.During nuclear decay, if the atomic number decreases by one but the mass number is unchanged, the radiation emitted is a.a positron. b.an alpha particle. c.a neutron. d.a proton.
  • Slide 19
  • 25.2 Section Quiz. 2.When potassium-40 (atomic number 19) decays into calcium-40 (atomic number 20), the process can be described as a.positron emission. b.alpha emission. c.beta emission. d.electron capture.
  • Slide 20
  • 25.2 Section Quiz. 3.If there were 128 grams of radioactive material initially, what mass remains after four half-lives? a.4 grams b.16 grams c.8 grams d.32 grams
  • Slide 21
  • 25.2 Section Quiz. 4.When transmutation occurs, the ________ always changes. a.number of electrons b.mass number c.atomic number d.number of neutrons
  • Slide 22
  • 25.2 Section Quiz 5.Transmutation occurs by radioactive decay and also by a.extreme heating. b.chemical reaction. c.high intensity electrical discharge. d.particle bombardment of the nucleus.
  • Slide 23
  • 2.3 Vocabulary 25.1 Vocabulary Radioactivity: process where materials give off high energy rays Radiation: name give to these penetrating rays and particles Radioisotopes: unstable isotopes that will decay into a different element Alpha particle: high energy helium nuclei containing 2 protons and 2 neutrons beta particle: high energy electron emitted from a nucleus Gamma particle: high energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from a nucleus 25.2 Vocabulary Nuclear force: attractive force acting between nuclear particles close together Band of stability: region of stable isotopes Positron: particle with the mass of an electron but a +1 charge Half-life: time taken for half of a radioisotope to decay Transmutation: conversion of an atom of one element to an atom of another Transuranium element: elements with atomic numbers above 92
  • Slide 24
  • END OF SHOW