chapter 21, section 1 notes - mr. miller's classroom 21, section 2 notes . objectives

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  • Taking on Segregation Chapter 21, Section 1 Notes

  • Objectives Explain how legalized segregation

    deprived African Americans of their rights as citizens

    Summarize civil rights legal activity and the response to the Plessy and Brown cases

    Trace MLK, Jrs civil rights activities, beginning with the Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Describe the expansion of the civil rights movement

  • Main Idea and Terms/Names Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advanced equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s

    Thurgood Marshall Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Rosa Parks Martin Luther King, Jr. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Sit-in

  • The Segregation System Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Outlawed segregation Supreme Court overturned it in 1883

    Plessy v. Ferguson separate but equal did not violate the

    14th amendment (equal treatment) Allowed Southern states to pass Jim

    Crow laws (separating the races) Allowed restrictions on inter-race


  • Civil Rights Movement WW2 set the stage for the civil rights

    movement Opened new job opportunities One million African Americans served

    Came home and fought to end discrimination

    During the war, civil rights organizations fought for voting rights and challenged Jim Crow laws

  • Challenging Segregation in Court Campaign led by the NAACP

    Focused on inequality between separate schools that states provided

    Thurgood Marshall argued many of these cases

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Marshalls most stunning victory Supreme Court struck down segregation in

    public schools as a violation of 14th amendment

    To be implemented with all deliberate speed

  • Reaction to Brown

    Official reaction was mixed Within a year, 500 school districts

    had desegregated Some areas resisted

    Reappearance of KKK Governor of Georgia Georgia will

    not comply!

  • Crisis in Little Rock

    State had been planning for desegregation Governor Faubus ordered the National

    Guard to turn away the Little Rock Nine the 9 African American students who would

    integrate Little Rock Central High A Federal judge ordered Faubus to let the

    students attend the school Eisenhower placed the National Guard under

    federal control to watch the 9 attend school A year later, Faubus shut down the high


  • Montgomery Bus Boycott African Americans were impatient with

    the slow speed of change Took direct action

    1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat and was arrested JoAnn Robinson suggested a boycott

    of the buses Leaders of the African American

    community formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) Elected 26 yr old Martin Luther King to


  • Montgomery Bus Boycott Dr. King made a passionate speech

    and filled the audience with a sense of mission

    African Americans boycotted the buses for 381 days and filed a lawsuit Organized car pools Walked long distances

    1956 Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation,%2Bjr%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1T4GWYX_en___US204

  • Martin Luther King, Jr. MLK called his nonviolent resistance

    soul force Influences

    Jesus love ones enemies Henry David Thoreau concept of civil

    disobedience (refusal to obey an unjust law)

    A. Philip Randolph massive demonstrations

    Gandhi non violent resistance

  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) SCLC founded in 1957 by MLK and

    other civil rights leaders Purpose carry on nonviolent

    crusades against discrimination Used protests and demonstrations Helped organize a student protest

    group (SNCC) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Challenge the system!

  • Movement Spreads Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

    staged the first sit-in in 1942 African Americans would sit at

    segregated lunch counters and refuse to leave until they were served

    1960 students in North Carolina staged a sit-in at a lunch counter Television crews covered the protest African Americans were non-violent, but

    white resistance was not Movement spread across nation (sit-

    ins in 48 cities)

  • The Triumphs of a Crusade

    Chapter 21, Section 2 Notes

  • Objectives

    Identify the goal of the freedom riders Explain how civil rights activism forced

    President Kennedy to act against segregation

    State the motives of the 1963 March on Washington

    Describe the tactics tried by civil rights organizations to secure the passage of the Voting Rights Act

  • Main Idea and Terms/Names

    Civil Rights activists broke through racial barriers. Their activism prompted landmark legislation.

    Freedom riders James Meredith Civil Rights Act of

    1964 Freedom Summer Fannie Lou Hamer Voting Rights Act

    of 1965

  • Freedom Riders Civil Rights activists would ride

    busses to test the Supreme Court decision that banned segregation on buses and in bus terminals

    Provoking a violent reaction to force the JFK administration to enforce the law

    Riders were tormented and beaten

  • Freedom Riders

    Newspaper coverage and the violence provoked JFK to send federal marshals to protect the riders

    Segregation in all interstate travel facilities was banned

  • Integrating Ole Miss Air Force Veteran James Meredith won a federal court case that allowed

    him to enroll in the all-white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss)

    Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him register

    Kennedy ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith

    Riots broke out and resulted in 2 deaths Federal officials accompanied Meredith

    to class to protect him

  • Birmingham Strictly enforced its segregation Reputation for racial violence Reverend Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the

    SCLC tested their non-violence MLK and others were arrested during a

    nonviolent demonstration MLK wrote Letters from a Birmingham Jail

  • Marching in Birmingham

  • Kennedy Takes a Stand

    June 11, 1963 JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate the U of Alabama

    He demanded that Congress pass a civil rights bill

    Hours later Medgar Evers, an NAACP secretary was murdered

    A new militancy developed Freedom Now!

  • March on Washington To show support for

    JFKs civil rights bill, a march on Washington was formed