chapter 21 collective action and social movements
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- Chapter 21 Collective Action and Social Movements
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- Chapter Outline How to Spark a Riot Nonroutine Collective Action: The Lynch Mob Social Movements Case Study: Strikes and the Union Movement in America Framing Discontent Social Movements From the 18th to the 21st Century
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- *Collective Action Occurs when people act in unison to bring about or resist social, political, and economic change. Routine collective actions typically follow established patterns of behavior in existing social structures. Nonroutine collective actions take place when usual conventions cease to guide social action and people bypass or subvert established structures.
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- Frequency of Lynching, United States, 18821935
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- *Breakdown Theory of Nonroutine Collective Action Three Factors: A group of people must be economically deprived or socially rootless. Their norms must be strained or disrupted. They must lose the capacity to act rationally by getting caught up in the madness of crowds.
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- Question Civil disobedience is better to use than militant activity for groups to get their point across for social change. a.Strongly agree b.Agree somewhat c.Unsure d.Disagree somewhat
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- *Deprivation, Crowds, and the Breakdown of Norms Most pre-1970 sociologists would have said lynchings were caused by: 1. Background of economic deprivation experienced by impoverished and marginal members of the community. 2. The inherent irrationality of crowd behavior. 3. The serious violation of norms.
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- *Deprivation and Poverty Absolute deprivation is a condition of extreme poverty. Relative deprivation is an intolerable gap between the social rewards people feel they deserve and the social rewards they actually receive.
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- *Assessing Breakdown Theory: Lynchings Deprivation Research shows no association between fluctuations in economic well-being and lynchings that took place between the 1880s and the 1930s. Research shows no association between fluctuations in economic well-being and lynchings that took place between the 1880s and the 1930s.
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- *Assessing Breakdown Theory: Lynchings Contagion is the process by which extreme passions supposedly spread rapidly through a crowd like a contagious disease. Many lynchings were neither spontaneous or unorganized. Many lynchings were neither spontaneous or unorganized.
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- *Assessing Breakdown Theory: Lynchings Strain refers to breakdowns in traditional norms that precede collective action. Lynching was a means by which black farm workers were kept tied to the southern cotton industry after the abolition of slavery threatened to disrupt the industrys traditional, captive labor supply. Lynching was a means by which black farm workers were kept tied to the southern cotton industry after the abolition of slavery threatened to disrupt the industrys traditional, captive labor supply.
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- Question What flaws have sociologists uncovered in breakdown theory? a.Elected leaders generally do not play a part in mob actions. b.Levels of deprivation are not commonly associated with the frequency or intensity of outbursts of collective action. c.Even nonroutine collective action is usually structured. d.b. and c. only
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- Answer: d Sociologists uncovered the following flaws in breakdown theory: Levels of deprivation are not commonly associated with the frequency or intensity of outbursts of collective action. Levels of deprivation are not commonly associated with the frequency or intensity of outbursts of collective action. Even nonroutine collective action is usually structured. Even nonroutine collective action is usually structured.
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- Social Disorganization and Collective Action: Prison Riots Prison riots tend to occur under certain circumstances: 1. Government officials make new demands of prison administrators without providing resources. 2. Corrections staff oppose the reforms.
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- Social Disorganization and Collective Action: Prison Riots Prison riots tend to occur under certain circumstances: 3. Prison administrators take actions that inmates perceive as unjust. 4. Inmates decide that living conditions should be better and that rioting will draw attention to those conditions.
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- *Rumors and Riots Rumors are claims about the world that are not supported by authenticated information. They are a form of communication that takes place when people try to construct a meaningful interpretation of an ambiguous situation. While rumor transmission is a form of collective action, it typically intensifies just before and during riots.
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- The Social Determinants of Rumors
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- Question Have you ever participated in an organized protest? a.Yes b.No
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- *Solidarity Theory Holds that social movements are social organizations that emerge when potential members: mobilize resources mobilize resources take advantage of new political opportunities take advantage of new political opportunities avoid high levels of social control by authorities. avoid high levels of social control by authorities.
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- *Resource Mobilization Resource mobilization refers to the process by which social movements crystallize due to increasing organizational, material, and other resources of movement members.
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- *Political Opportunities Political opportunities for collective action and social movement growth occur during election campaigns, when influential allies offer insurgents support, when ruling political alignments become unstable, and when elite groups become divided and conflict with one another.
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- *Social Control Social control refers to the means by which authorities seek to contain collective action, including co-optation, concessions, and coercion.
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- Question According to solidarity theory, which of the following factors is not among those that influence collective action and the emergence of social movements? a.social breakdown b.resource mobilization c.political opportunity d.social control
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- Answer: a According to solidarity theory, social breakdown is not among the factors that influence collective action and the emergence of social movements.
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- Union Density The number of union members in a given location and time as a percentage of nonfarm workers. It measures the organizational power of unions.
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- Unionization as % of Nonfarm Workers, United States, 19252004
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- Frequency of Strikes with 1000+ Workers
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- Unemployment and Frequency of Big Strikes, 19482004
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- *Framing Discontent Frame alignment is the process by which social-movement leaders make their activities, ideas, and goals congruent with the interests, beliefs, and values of potential new recruits to their movement - or fail to do so.
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- *Encouraging Frame Alignment 1.Social-movement leaders can reach out to other organizations that contain people who are sympathetic to the cause. 2.Movement activists can stress popular values that have not been prominent in the thinking of potential recruits. 3.Social movements can stretch their objectives to win recruits who arent initially sympathetic to the movements aims.
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- *Determinants of Collective Action and Social Movement Formation
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- *History of Social Movements 1700 - social movements were small, localized, and violent. Mid-20th century - social movements were large, national, and less violent. Late 20th century - social movements developed broader goals, recruited highly educated people, and developed global potential for growth.
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- Question Examples of old and new social movements are, respectively: a.the labor movement and peasant movements b.peasant movements and the environmental movement c.the womens movement and the environmental movement d.the environmental movement and the womens movement
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- Answer: b Examples of old and new social movements are, respectively peasant movements and the environmental movement.
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- *Social Movements and Citizenship Rights The history of social movements is a struggle for the citizenship rights including: civil citizenship - the right to free speech, religion, and justice civil citizenship - the right to free speech, religion, and justice political citizenship - the right to vote and run for office political citizenship - the right to vote and run for office social citizenship - the right to a certain level of economic security and full participation in the life of society. social citizenship - the right to a certain level of economic security and full participation in the life of society. universal citizenship - the right of marginal groups to full citizenship and the right of humanity as a whole to peace and security. universal citizenship - the right of marginal groups to full citizenship and the right of humanity
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