sociology, tenth edition collective behavior & social movements

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  • Slide 1
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Collective Behavior & Social Movements
  • Slide 2
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Studying Collective Behavior Social movements Organized activities that encourage or discourage social change Collective behavior Activities involving a large number of people, often spontaneous, and typically in violation of established social norms
  • Slide 3
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Studying Collective Behavior Collective behavior is wide-ranging So many variables to take into account Collective behavior is complex The possible questions and answers are so numerous Much of collective behavior is transitory Things arise and dissipate quickly
  • Slide 4
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Collectivity A large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well- defined and conventional norms Two types Localized people in physical proximity to one another Dispersed or mass behavior people who influence one another even though SEPERATED by great distances
  • Slide 5
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition How Collectives Differ From Groups Collectives are based on limited social interaction Interaction in mobs is limited and temporary Collectives have no clear social boundaries Little sense of unity compared to social groups whose members often share a common identity Collectives generate weak and unconventional norms Mobs often destroy and act spontaneously
  • Slide 6
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Crowds Crowds A Temporary Gathering of People Who Share a Common Focus of Attention and Whose Members Influence One Another HERBERT BLUMMER IDENTIFIED 4 TYPES, WE ADD A 5TH A CASUAL CROWD: PEOPLE ON A BEACH LOOSE COLLECTION OF PEOPLE WHO INTERACT VERY LITTLE A CONVENTIONAL CROWD: A COLLEGE CLASSROOM RESULTS FROM DELIBERATE PLANNING NORMALLY CONFORMING TO CULTURAL NORMS AN EXPRESSIVE CROWD: A CHURCH SERVICE AROUND AN EVENT WITH EMOTIONAL APPEAL AN ACTING CROWD: PEOPLE FLEEING FROM A FIRE COLLECTIVITY FUELED BY AN INTENSE, SINGLE-MINDED PURPOSE A PROTEST CROWD: A COLLEGE STUDENT SIT-IN PEOPLE ENGAGE IN A VARIETY OF ACTIONS, INCLUDING STRIKES AND BOYCOTTS
  • Slide 7
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition When Acting Crowds Turn Violent Mob A highly emotional crowd that pursues a violent or DISTRUCTIVE goal Lynch mob Riots A social REUPTION that is highly emotional, violent & undirected Watts, south central, after a LAKERS championship
  • Slide 8
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Crowd Behavior Gustave le Bons contagion theory Crowds exert hypnotic influence over their members, people surrender to a collective mind its members rid themselves of inhibitions and act out and the crowd assumes a life of its own Critical evaluation Crowd actions result from the intentions and decisions of specific individuals Not necessarily irrational
  • Slide 9
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Crowd Behavior Convergence theory Motivations are brought to the crowd by the individual members, not vice versa Crowds amount to a convergence of like-minded people The crowd doesnt generate the action, but rather the members themselves stimulate the action of the crowd Example: neighborhood groups concerned about crime and want to do something about it Critical evaluation Some people do things in a crowd that they would not have the courage to do alone Crows can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people
  • Slide 10
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Crowd Behavior Turner & Killians emergent-norm theory People in crowds have mixed interests In less stable crowds (expressive, acting, and protest), norms may be vague or changing one does something and others jump on the bandwagon people in crowds make their own rules as they go along Critical evaluation A symbolic-interaction approach that POINST out that POEOLE in a crowd take on different roles
  • Slide 11
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Mass Behavior Collective behavior among people dispersed over a wide geographical area Types include Rumor and gossip Public opinion Propaganda Panic and mass hysteria Fads and fashions
  • Slide 12
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Rumor and Gossip Rumor unsubstantiated information people spread informally, often by word of mouth Rumor thrives in a climate of ambiguity Rumor is unstable Rumor is difficult to stop Gossip is rumor about the personal affairs of others Gossip concerns a small circle of people Rumors spread widely, but gossip is more localized Can be used to praise or scorn someone Can be used to raise ones standing or keep others in their place
  • Slide 13
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Public Opinion & Propaganda Public opinion widespread attitudes about controversial issues On any given issue from 210% of Americans report they hold no opinion Is this due to ignorance or indifference? Not everyones opinion carries the same weight Experts in a field Propaganda information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion Thin line between information and propaganda Not all propaganda is false
  • Slide 14
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Panic & Mass Hysteria Panic A form of localized collective behavior by which people react to a perceived threat or other stimulus with irrational, frantic, and often self-destructive behavior Mass hysteria A form of dispersed collective behavior by which people respond to a real or imagined event often with irrational and even frantic fear and often self- destructive behavior
  • Slide 15
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Fashions and Fads Fashions A social pattern favored for a time by a large number of people Fashion characterizes all forms of art Traditional style gives way to changing fashion Can trickle down through less expensive copies THORSTEIN VEBLENS conspicuous consumption people buying expensive products simply to show-off their wealth Fads An unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically Sometimes called crazes
  • Slide 16
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Types of Social Movements Social Movements an organized activity that encourages or discourages social change Alternative Least threatening, limited change for a limited number of members Example: planned parenthood Redemptive Selective focus, radical change Example: some religious organizations Reformative Limited social change that targets all members of society Example: equal rights amendment movement Revolutionary The most severe, striving for basic transformation of society Example: ultra-conservative political movements
  • Slide 17
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Figure 23-2 Four Types of Social Movements
  • Slide 18
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Deprivation Theory Social movements arise among people who feel deprived Result of experiencing relative deprivation a perceived disadvantage arising from some specific comparison Critical evaluation Why do social movements arise among some groups and not others Theory suffers from circular reasoning Focuses exclusively on the cause telling us little about movements themselves
  • Slide 19
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Figure 23-3 Relative Deprivation and Social Movements
  • Slide 20
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Wm. Kornhausers Mass-Society Theory Social movements attract socially isolated people who feel personally insignificant. Movements are personal as ell as political, giving people with week social ties a sense of purpose and belonging Critical evaluation Gives no clear standard fro measuring the extent to which we live in a mass society Belittles the social justice issue suggesting it is flawed people not flawed society that are responsible Research is mixed on support of theory
  • Slide 21
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Neil Smelsers Structural-Strain Theory Six factors encouraging social movement 1.Structural conduciveness Arise out of perceptions of problems 2.Structural strain Experiencing relative deprivation 3.Growth and spread of an explanation Making clear reasons and solutions for suffering
  • Slide 22
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Neil Smelsers Structural-Strain Theory Six factors encouraging social movement (cont.) 4.Precipitating factors Specific events give rise to collection action 5.Mobilization for action Action stage; Protest and rallies 6.Lack of social control Quick, harsh response, or giving the green light for change? Critical evaluation Same circular arguments as Kornhausers theory Overlooks important role of resources, mass media and international alliances
  • Slide 23
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Resource-Mobilization Theory No social movement is likely to succeed or even get off the ground without substantial resources Money Human labor Offices and communication facilities Access to mass media Critical evaluation Powerless can promote change if they are organized an have committed members Overstates the extent to which powerful people are willing to challenge the status quo
  • Slide 24
  • Sociology, Tenth Edition Theories of Social Movements Cultural Theory The people in any particular situation are likely to mobilize to form a social movement only to the extent that they develop shared understandings of the world that legitimate and motivate collective action Critical evaluat

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